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Article
Publication date: 28 June 2013

Laura S. Hamilton, Heather L. Schwartz, Brian M. Stecher and Jennifer L. Steele

The purpose of this paper is to examine how test‐based accountability has influenced school and district practices and explore how states and districts might consider…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine how test‐based accountability has influenced school and district practices and explore how states and districts might consider creating expanded systems of measures to address the shortcomings of traditional accountability. It provides research‐based guidance for entities that are developing or adopting new measures of school performance.

Design/methodology/approach

The study relies on literature review, consultation with expert advisers, review of state and district documentation, and semi‐structured interviews with staff at state and local education agencies and research institutions.

Findings

The research shows mixed effects of test‐based accountability on student achievement and demonstrates that teachers and administrators change their practices in ways that respond to the incentives provided by the system. The review of state and district measurement systems shows widespread use of additional measures of constructs, such as school climate and college readiness.

Research limitations/implications

There is a clear need for additional research on the short‐ and long‐term effects of expanded systems of measures. In particular, currently little is known about how the inclusion of input and process measures influences educators’ practices or student outcomes.

Practical implications

The research suggests several practical steps that can be taken to promote effective systems of measurement, including providing supports for high‐quality teaching to accompany new measures, offering flexibility to respond to local needs, and conducting validity studies that address the various purposes of the measures.

Originality/value

The paper provides new information about how states and districts are expanding their systems of measures for various purposes, and informs accountability policy by highlighting the benefits and limitations of current outcomes‐based approaches to accountability and by clarifying the trade‐offs and decisions that should be considered.

Details

Journal of Educational Administration, vol. 51 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-8234

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Book part
Publication date: 26 August 2014

Heather Parola and Kimberly M. Ellis

Despite the number of articles over the past two decades mentioning the importance of the negotiation stage in the M&A process, there has been very limited theoretical…

Abstract

Despite the number of articles over the past two decades mentioning the importance of the negotiation stage in the M&A process, there has been very limited theoretical development and empirical analysis emphasizing multiple factors critical to M&A negotiations. The purpose of our paper is twofold. First, we provide a review of the extant academic literature on negotiations in the M&A process. Then, drawing on the M&A process perspective and classical negotiation theory, we develop a framework to highlight major components of the M&A negotiation stage examined in existing studies and offer key insights of how this underdeveloped area of study is ripe with opportunities for future theoretical development and empirical research.

Details

Advances in Mergers and Acquisitions
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-836-5

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Book part
Publication date: 4 July 2019

Steve McDonald, Amanda K. Damarin, Jenelle Lawhorne and Annika Wilcox

The Internet and social media have fundamentally transformed the ways in which individuals find jobs. Relatively little is known about how demand-side market actors use…

Abstract

The Internet and social media have fundamentally transformed the ways in which individuals find jobs. Relatively little is known about how demand-side market actors use online information and the implications for social stratification and mobility. This study provides an in-depth exploration of the online recruitment strategies pursued by human resource (HR) professionals. Qualitative interviews with 61 HR recruiters in two southern US metro areas reveal two distinct patterns in how they use Internet resources to fill jobs. For low and general skill work, they post advertisements to online job boards (e.g., Monster and CareerBuilder) with massive audiences of job seekers. By contrast, for high-skill or supervisory positions, they use LinkedIn to target passive candidates – employed individuals who are not looking for work but might be willing to change jobs. Although there are some intermediate practices, the overall picture is one of an increasingly bifurcated “winner-take-all” labor market in which recruiters focus their efforts on poaching specialized superstar talent (“purple squirrels”) from the ranks of the currently employed, while active job seekers are relegated to the hyper-competitive and impersonal “black hole” of the online job boards.

Details

Work and Labor in the Digital Age
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-585-7

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Article
Publication date: 10 April 2007

Heather Höpfl and Sumohon Matilal

This paper is concerned with some speculations and observations on the position of women in relationship to leadership roles in organizations.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper is concerned with some speculations and observations on the position of women in relationship to leadership roles in organizations.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is a theoretical piece. It attempts to analyse some of the reasons why women find it difficult to attain leadership roles and reflects on the costs to them when they do.

Findings

It considers why women are considered a threat to organizations and why organizations seek to subject women to the therapeutic imperative of rationality as the price of membership and of “success”. Put simply, it considers how women have to demonstrate male characteristics in order to “succeed” as leaders and must set aside feminine qualities: to live hyper‐abstractly “in order thus to earn divine grace and homologation with the symbolic order”. This results in an irresolvable lack in terms of what the organization desires for its completion.

Originality/value

Leadership is defined by the phallus and women's leadership by its absence. The woman vanishes.

Details

Journal of Organizational Change Management, vol. 20 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0953-4814

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Article
Publication date: 29 May 2019

Lisa B. Hurwitz, Heather Montague, Alexis R. Lauricella, Aubry L. Alvarez, Francesca Pietrantonio, Meredith L. Ford and Ellen Wartella

Social cognitive theory suggests that children may have more favorable attitudes toward food products promoted by media characters who are similar to them, in terms of…

Abstract

Purpose

Social cognitive theory suggests that children may have more favorable attitudes toward food products promoted by media characters who are similar to them, in terms of factors such as age, gender and race-ethnicity. This paper aims to profile the characters in food and beverage websites and apps for children and examine whether the healthfulness of promoted products varies as a function of character background.

Design/methodology/approach

This study includes two parallel content analyses focused on websites and apps that were produced by America’s top selling food and beverage companies.

Findings

There were very few child-targeted websites and apps, but those that existed were replete with media characters. These websites/apps tended to feature media characters with diverse gender, age and racial–ethnic backgrounds. However, marketing featuring adult and male characters promoted particularly unhealthy foods.

Social implications

American food companies, many of whom signed voluntary self-regulatory pledges through the Children’s Food and Beverage Advertising Initiative, should make a more concerted effort to refrain from featuring appealing media characters in child-directed new media marketing. Whether conscious or not, it seems as if food marketers may be leveraging characters to appeal to a wide audience of children of varied demographic backgrounds.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this manuscript is the only research to focus specifically on the demographic profiles (i.e. gender, age and race-ethnicity) of characters in food websites and the nutritional quality of the products they promote. It is also the first to systematically examine media characters in food apps in any capacity.

Details

Young Consumers, vol. 20 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-3616

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Book part
Publication date: 6 July 2011

Margaret M. Hopkins, Deborah A. O'Neil, Kathleen FitzSimons, Philip L. Bailin and James K. Stoller

Leaders in health care today are faced with a wide array of complex issues. This chapter describes an innovative physician leadership development program at the Cleveland…

Abstract

Leaders in health care today are faced with a wide array of complex issues. This chapter describes an innovative physician leadership development program at the Cleveland Clinic intended to enhance the leadership capacities of individuals and the organization. Propositions regarding the program's impact on organizational innovation, organizational commitment, social capital, and the human element of physician practice are offered for future examination.

Details

Organization Development in Healthcare: Conversations on Research and Strategies
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-709-4

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Article
Publication date: 14 September 2015

Logan M. Steele, Tristan McIntosh, Tyler J. Mulhearn, Logan L. Watts, Heather J. Anderson, Desiree Hill, Li Lin, Samuel H. Matthews, Alisha M. Ness and M. Ronald Buckley

This paper aims to provide a review of the reinstitution of the Journal of Management History (JMH) following its five-year merger with Management Decision. In this…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to provide a review of the reinstitution of the Journal of Management History (JMH) following its five-year merger with Management Decision. In this review, the final issue of the merger in 2005 is examined through the four volumes of JMH that were published after the separation. Across this time period, trends in topics and approaches, as well as identify particularly impactful work, were investigated.

Design/methodology/approach

With a taxonomy developed in a previous review of JMH (Hardy et al., 2015), articles were sorted by independent raters for the following dimensions: focus (i.e. person, topic or event), historical approach (i.e. an account or analysis) and readership (i.e. public policy or management). After full consensus was reached, these categories were examined to identify themes and shifts in trends over the target time period. Finally, the impact of articles published between 2005 and 2009 was evaluated by using citations provided by Google Scholar.

Findings

In the years following the separation of JMH from Management Decision, a few notable shifts were observed in the journal’s focus, approach and readership. This time period was first characterized by a heavy emphasis on topic-based articles. The emphasis subsequently shifted to strike a balance between focusing on people and topics. There was also fairly balanced use of historical analysis and historical account approaches. The final shift led to a majority of articles having a person-based focus. Interestingly, the largest impacts were made all by articles with a focus on particular management topic.

Originality/value

This quantitative review provides insight into the development of JMH following its reestablishment as independent publication outlet.

Details

Journal of Management History, vol. 21 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1751-1348

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Article
Publication date: 29 June 2021

Yasaman Sarabi, Matthew Smith, Heather McGregor and Dimitris Christopoulos

Corporate success depends partially on the quality of knowledge accessible to the executive board. One route of access to such knowledge is the appointment of directors…

Abstract

Purpose

Corporate success depends partially on the quality of knowledge accessible to the executive board. One route of access to such knowledge is the appointment of directors who already hold directorships with prominent other corporate actors. Such director appointments provide interlocks to a corporate knowledge ecosystem (Haunschild and Beckman, 1998). The purpose of this paper is to examine how linkages between companies belonging to different sectors impact firm performance and to examine how linkages created by female directors, as opposed to male directors, shape performance.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper investigates the interlocks created between UK FTSE 350 companies from 2010 to 2018. It draws on network analysis to map the roles that male and female directors play in linking firms with varying sector classifications. The paper provides an examination of the impact of these roles on firm performance, through a panel data regression analysis.

Findings

This paper finds that there is an increase of inter-industry brokers over the period, and that men are still dominant in both the network and creating inter-industry ties amongst companies. However, the role of women in establishing these ties appears to be changing, and women are more important when it comes to create inter-industry ties among key economic sectors.

Originality/value

This paper provides a novel approach to examine the interplay between gendered inter (and intra) sectoral linkages and firm performance. It provides an original application of the two-mode brokerage analysis framework proposed in Jasny and Lubell (2015).

Details

International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0401

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 21 August 2015

Fran Amery, Stephen Bates, Laura Jenkins and Heather Savigny

We evaluate the use of metaphors in academic literature on women in academia. Utilizing the work of Husu (2001) and the concept of intersectionality, we explore the ways…

Abstract

Purpose

We evaluate the use of metaphors in academic literature on women in academia. Utilizing the work of Husu (2001) and the concept of intersectionality, we explore the ways in which notions of structure and/or agency are reflected in metaphors and the consequences of this.

Methodology/approach

The research comprised an analysis of 113 articles on women in academia and a subanalysis of 17 articles on women in Political Science published in academic journals between 2004 and 2013.

Findings

In the case of metaphors about academic institutions, the most popular metaphors are the glass ceiling, the leaky pipeline, and the old boys’ network, and, in the case of metaphors about women academics, strangers/outsiders and mothers/housekeepers.

Usage of metaphors in the literature analyzed suggests that the literature often now works with a more nuanced conception of the structure/agency problematic than at the time Husu was writing: instead of focusing on either structures or agents in isolation, the literature has begun to look more critically at the interplay between them, although this may not be replicated at a disciplinary level.

Originality/value

We highlight the potential benefits of interdependent metaphors which are able to reflect more fully the structurally situated nature of (female) agency. These metaphors, while recognizing the (multiple and intersecting) structural constraints that women may face both within and outwith the academy, are able to capture more fully the different forms female power and agency can take. Consequently, they contribute both to the politicization of problems that female academics may face and to the stimulation of collective responses for a fairer and better academy.

Details

At the Center: Feminism, Social Science and Knowledge
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-078-4

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Article
Publication date: 5 May 2015

Maria D'Incognito, Nicola Costantino and Giovanni C. Migliaccio

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the existing barriers to the slow adoption of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and Life Cycle Costing (LCC) in construction, and the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the existing barriers to the slow adoption of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and Life Cycle Costing (LCC) in construction, and the main responsible actors.

Design/methodology/approach

The research design is based on a two-phase approach. First, the existing literature was studied through a multiple-step content analysis (CA) approach, which combined unsupervised concept mapping with computer aided CA. Using a relational CA approach, statistical-based analysis tools were initially used to identify the relationships between actors and barriers. Later, a Delphi study was administered to a panel of experts, to triangulate, validate, and refine the initial results.

Findings

The study revealed that organizational culture is the most relevant barrier, and that clients and professionals are the actors that predominantly influence the adoption of LCC and LCA in projects. Technical and financial barriers, such as the lack and quality of input data and the high costs of implementation are also deemed relevant.

Research limitations/implications

The CA was performed by a single rater on a sample that included 50 papers in English language. Future research may focus on enlarging the sample, extending it to other languages, and linking the source (or the expert) to their professional context to evaluate geographical differences in barriers.

Originality/value

The adopted approach gives new insights on the relationships behind the rejection of LCA and LCC suggesting that solutions at the organizational level may be more effective than technical ones.

Details

Built Environment Project and Asset Management, vol. 5 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-124X

Keywords

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