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Article
Publication date: 30 July 2008

Katherine M. Fodchuk and Heather D. Sherman

Increasing diversity of the global workforce calls for research that guides the implementation of culturally sensitive employment procedures. Performance evaluations are…

Abstract

Purpose

Increasing diversity of the global workforce calls for research that guides the implementation of culturally sensitive employment procedures. Performance evaluations are often used to support potentially contentious workplace decisions and little research examines the impact of employee participation on fairness perceptions across cultures. The purpose of this paper is to examine the variation between American and French performance evaluations.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper examines American and French employees’ fairness perceptions for their performance evaluations. The focus was on cross‐cultural variation in instrumental and non‐instrumental voice processes by testing Shapiro's model of procedural justice.

Findings

Support was found for the hypothesis that voice would operate predominantly via non‐instrumental processes (e.g. interpersonally responsive behaviors from the evaluator) for the French and partial support that voice influences procedural justice through a combination of non‐instrumental and instrumental processes (perceptions of decision influence) for Americans.

Research limitations/implications

Findings which indicated that French voice appeared to be tied more directly to status‐affirming non‐instrumental processes were supported by Lind and Tyler's relational model of authority and research surrounding the influence of status differentials in participative decision‐making.

Practical implications

Research implications for the design of culturally‐sensitive performance evaluations that take into account fairness perceptions are presented.

Originality/value

The paper indicates that voice expectations and processes are not culturally universal and should be considered in the design of employment practices.

Details

Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, vol. 15 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7606

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 1927

Provisional Rules and Orders dated April 8th, 1927, made by the Minister of Health for amending the Public Health (Preservatives, etc., in Food) Regulations, are as follows :—

Abstract

Provisional Rules and Orders dated April 8th, 1927, made by the Minister of Health for amending the Public Health (Preservatives, etc., in Food) Regulations, are as follows :—

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 29 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 4 September 2017

Heather D. Kindall, Tracey Crowe and Angela Elsass

Professional dispositions must be cultivated through focused self-reflection and targeted, authentic, internship experiences prior to entering the teaching profession…

Abstract

Purpose

Professional dispositions must be cultivated through focused self-reflection and targeted, authentic, internship experiences prior to entering the teaching profession. Continued development through mentoring during the clinical internship can enhance the effectiveness of pre-service teacher candidates as instructional leaders. The purpose of this paper is to explore the unique experiences found to be successful in mentoring pre-service teachers from student to professional during an authentic, yearlong internship experience.

Design/methodology/approach

Intern participants in this pilot study completed an inventory that measured professional dispositions five times during an internship experience. Data were analyzed using a mixed methods study design.

Findings

Results of the study determined that intern participants held unrealistic views of teaching and did not recognize the importance of dispositional development prior to focused mentoring throughout the year of clinical internship. One central finding in this study is that change and growth about perceptions of professional dispositions can be developed through focused mentoring.

Originality/value

Mentoring within the teacher preparation program can help in the transition of understanding professional growth and development, attitudes, and the view of complex behaviors. The dispositions necessary for effective teaching can be honed through cultural and clinical experiences, continual self-reflection, constructive feedback on evaluations of teaching, and targeted mentoring before beginning the clinical student internship and throughout the experience.

Details

International Journal of Mentoring and Coaching in Education, vol. 6 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-6854

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 22 August 2016

Alexandra Hendley

Gender, race, and class-based meanings inform longstanding divisions and status hierarchies within the culinary profession, such as those between public and private and…

Abstract

Purpose

Gender, race, and class-based meanings inform longstanding divisions and status hierarchies within the culinary profession, such as those between public and private and amateur and professional cooking. Private and personal chefs’ work in homes disrupts these divisions and hierarchies. Given their precarious position, how do these chefs negotiate their standing within the profession?

Methodology/approach

This chapter draws on interviews with 41 private/personal chefs. Eight were primarily private household employees, while all others were primarily self-employed.

Findings

The chefs negotiated their status by making distinctions between themselves and commercial chefs, along with other private/personal chefs. The chefs both challenge and reinforce the dichotomies and criteria shaping status evaluations within the culinary profession. Similarly, they both contest and reinforce gender, race, and class hierarchies.

Social implications

The chefs’ conceptual distinctions can potentially (re)produce or challenge material inequalities. Moreover, while the fields of private/personal cheffing create opportunities for more adults to cook for a living, the traditional status hierarchies remain largely the same. It is likely that as long as those hierarchies persist, the chefs’ conceptual distinctions will continue to challenge and reinforce them.

Originality/value

Research on private/personal chefs has been minimal, so this chapter fills this gap. It also adds to scholarship connecting workers’ status struggles and gender, race, and class inequalities. The case of private and personal chefs sheds new light on how gender, race, and class intersect to inform status evaluations within the culinary profession.

Details

Gender and Food: From Production to Consumption and After
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-054-1

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 30 June 2016

Robin Bell and Heather Bell

This research investigates the effectiveness of an experiential learning approach, available to students in all disciplines that combined a hands-on entrepreneurial and…

Abstract

Purpose

This research investigates the effectiveness of an experiential learning approach, available to students in all disciplines that combined a hands-on entrepreneurial and enterprise experience with professional consultant mentoring by using a competition to win business start-up funding.

Design/methodology/approach

Students at a UK university had the chance to enter a competition in which they developed an entrepreneurial idea and then designed and presented a business plan to win business start-up capital. Students who were entrepreneurially motivated, but who lacked capital to start up their business, were targeted, as these students have been argued to benefit the most from a combination of business plan training and entrepreneurial development. Feedback and data was obtained from the students at each stage of the process and was thematically analysed to assess the development of students’ entrepreneurial skills and knowledge through the experience.

Findings

The research found that the benefits gained from this approach included both enterprising and entrepreneurial skills, with the greatest impact being on student confidence and belief in their ability to start a business. The practical skills had a ‘demystifying’ effect on students that made them feel like entrepreneurship and enterprise start-up were attainable.

Research limitations/implications

The research focused on students at one UK University and centered on entrepreneurship in a retail business. The competition thus appealed mainly to students who were interested in retail start-up, thus leaving out some enterprising students whose feedback may have been different. In addition, while entrepreneurial skills are assessed in the data, the students who would be interested in the competition would be assumed to be proactive, and this skill was not able to be analyzed. This research is a single case, and thus could be enhanced by more cases and looking at other enterprise start-up means beyond retail.

Originality/value

This research makes a case that, in light of literature critical of the use of business plan training in entrepreneurship education, certain students are appropriate candidates for this approach. Specific skills and knowledge can be developed in university students using a live enterprise experience, supported by entrepreneurial mentoring. By making the event extracurricular, the study sought to capture the feedback of students who self-selected into the program, who can benefit most from combined entrepreneurial and business-plan development experience.

Details

Education + Training , vol. 58 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0040-0912

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Book part
Publication date: 18 December 2016

Abstract

Details

The Crisis of Race in Higher Education: A Day of Discovery and Dialogue
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-710-6

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Article
Publication date: 2 October 2020

Robin Bell and Heather Bell

Experiential approaches have become increasingly common in entrepreneurship education in response to calls for different approaches to the traditional didactic…

Abstract

Purpose

Experiential approaches have become increasingly common in entrepreneurship education in response to calls for different approaches to the traditional didactic process-driven approach. Experiential approaches offer the potential to develop the skills and mindset that are required in entrepreneurship. Research has highlighted the critical importance of educator pedagogical competence in the delivery and quality of teaching and learning in further and higher education. Nevertheless, educator narratives and practices are often based on foundations that suggest a lack in the depth of knowledge and understanding of the underlying pedagogic learning theories and practice. This paper brings educational theory and pedagogic practice together in a three-stage framework of the experiential entrepreneurship learning process to support entrepreneurship educators within further and higher education.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper reviews and brings together the seminal educational theories and philosophies of constructivism, objectivism, Kolb's (1984) theory of experiential learning, Schön's (1983) reflection-in-action and Mezirow's (1997) theory of transformative learning, to develop a framework which underpins the experiential entrepreneurship learning process.

Findings

This paper develops a three-stage framework which informs the roles of an educator and a learner in experiential entrepreneurship education within further and higher education, based on educational theories and philosophies that inform the learning process.

Practical implications

The developed framework supports the pedagogic competence of educators in the delivery of experiential entrepreneurship education through a deeper understanding of the supporting theory that informs the pedagogic practice. This will provide consolidation to enable educators to maximise the effectiveness of their educational practice (Kaynardağ, 2019) and can increase the legitimacy of entrepreneurship education (Foliard et al., 2018).

Originality/value

This paper meets calls in the literature to provide a closer engagement between educational theory and pedagogic practice to afford guidance as to how educators can navigate some of the different educational theories and philosophies to consolidate the effective delivery of quality experiential entrepreneurship education. Applying seminal educational theories and philosophies to ensure the quality of experiential education can support the legitimacy of experiential entrepreneurship education.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 27 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 20 August 2018

Cynthia Lum, Christopher S. Koper, James Willis, Stephen Happeny, Heather Vovak and Jordan Nichols

The purpose of this paper is to document the diffusion of license plate readers (LPRs) in the USA, examining the variety, evolution and tracking of their uses through a…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to document the diffusion of license plate readers (LPRs) in the USA, examining the variety, evolution and tracking of their uses through a national survey.

Design/methodology/approach

This study employs a national, stratified, representative survey of US law enforcement agencies with 100 or more officers.

Findings

LPR technology is currently used by at least two-thirds of larger police agencies, which represents a more than threefold increase in LPR acquisition in the last 10 years. The number of LPRs per agency, while small (about eight on average), has also more than doubled. Federal and state funding, advocacy by law enforcement leaders, and the intuitive appeal of LPRs have likely contributed to this rapid adoption. While LPRs are still primarily used to detect and recover stolen automobiles in patrol, their use has expanded into other types of investigative and security functions. Despite the increased use and numbers of LPRs in policing, their use is highly discretionary and infrequently tracked.

Practical implications

LPRs continue to be widely used in law enforcement, despite a lack of strong research evidence for their crime prevention benefits. Further studies are needed on the most effective ways for agencies to utilize small numbers of LPRs and the potential return on investment for acquiring larger numbers of the devices.

Originality/value

This study tracks the history of LPR diffusion and use and goes beyond prior law enforcement surveys by examining specific uses of LPRs and the extent to which agencies track their uses and outcomes.

Details

Policing: An International Journal, vol. 42 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 25 March 2008

Simon Taggar, Lorne Sulsky and Heather MacDonald

This chapter presents a contextual model of human resources management (HRM). The hallmarks of this model are that (1) the most advantageous HRM practices vary…

Abstract

This chapter presents a contextual model of human resources management (HRM). The hallmarks of this model are that (1) the most advantageous HRM practices vary conditionally upon strategic considerations; (2) each organization has multiple substrategies within it, and each substrategy is aligned with a unique bundle of HRM practices; (3) within each organization, three substrategies are associated with three subsystems; and (4) in terms of contributing to sustainable competitive advantage, the innovation subsystem is the most valuable regardless of the organization in question.

Details

Multi-Level Issues in Creativity and Innovation
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-553-6

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1979

MALCOLM P. ATKINSON

A survey of current work on database systems is presented. The area is divided into three main sectors: data models, data languages and support for database operations…

Abstract

A survey of current work on database systems is presented. The area is divided into three main sectors: data models, data languages and support for database operations. Data models are presented as the link between the database and the real world. Languages range from formal algebraic languages to attempts to use a dialogue in English to formulate queries. The support includes hardware for content addressing, database machines and software techniques for optimizing and evaluating group expressions. Mathematical models are used to organize this support. Throughout there is a tutorial component and evaluation, which in both cases is related to the application of database ideas to documentation.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 35 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

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