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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2005

Marc E. Pierce

The purpose of this paper is to define the roles of the key health industry constituents – patients, employers, health insurers, hospitals, physicians, Government…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to define the roles of the key health industry constituents – patients, employers, health insurers, hospitals, physicians, Government, pharmaceutical companies and other industry suppliers, plagued with the decline of the health status and affordability in the USA.

Design/methodology/approach

Reviews literature to back up the author's views.

Findings

As health‐care demands increase and the constituent roles blur, the industry will experience a gradual convergence. Convergence will redefine and create overlap in the boundaries between the traditional health industry suppliers and in the end this convergence will reshape the future of the health industry.

Originality/value

Predicts that the drivers of change – deteriorating public health, poor quality and safety, and unaffordable health care – will continue to accelerate. Convergence will be gradual and the impact may not be immediately obvious, but the long‐term outcome will dramatically reshape the industry. For the major suppliers in the industry, recognizing convergence is only the first step. Navigating convergence so the decisions made by an organization are both productive and profitable, rather than debilitating, is a far more complicated endeavor. The decisions made will not only affect the future of each supplier but also significantly impact the constituent at the center of this industry – the patient.

Details

Leadership in Health Services, vol. 18 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1366-0756

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Article
Publication date: 14 October 2019

Alfredo M. Pereira, Rui M. Pereira and Pedro G. Rodrigues

The purpose of this paper, on Portugal, is to determine the economic effects of public and private capital spending on health.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper, on Portugal, is to determine the economic effects of public and private capital spending on health.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use a vector autoregressive model to estimate the elasticities and marginal products of health care investments in Portugal on investment, employment and output.

Findings

Every €1m invested in health care yields significant positive spillover effects, boosting investment and GDP by €24.74 and €20.45m, respectively, creating 188 net jobs. Adversely, net exports deteriorate, as new capital goods are imported. While only 28.2 percent of the total accumulated increase in GDP occurs within a year, investment is front loaded with a corresponding 73.8 percent. Over this period, 68 workers are displaced for every €1m invested. At a disaggregated level, real estate, construction, and transportation and storage are industries where output shares increase the most. Employment shares increase the most in professional services, construction and basic metals.

Research limitations/implications

This paper adds to the empirical literature, corroborating, for example, Rivera and Currais (1999a) and McDonald and Roberts (2002) in that health care spending can have a very significant effect on macroeconomic aggregates. In addition to the analysis of the tradable/non-tradable divide, it adds two further novelties by discussing industry-specific effects on economic performance and the distinction between effects on impact and those over the longer term.

Practical implications

As policy implications, health investments have very significant long-term economic performance effects, but are unhelpful counter cyclically. Also, they will change the industry mix: construction and professional services are the non-traded industries that will benefit the most, while the traded industries of non-metallic minerals, basic metals, and machinery and equipment benefit much less.

Social implications

Given that capital spending on health boosts economic performance, especially in the long run, it ought to be a part of Portugal’s medium-to-long-term growth strategy. Also, if these projects depress economic activity in the short run, and are thus unhelpful counter cyclically, the timing of when they are launched matters. Furthermore, following a health investment, policies that boost net exports will be required to ensure trade balance.

Originality/value

The originality of this paper is to estimate, in a dynamic framework, the aggregate and industry-specific elasticities and marginal products on investment, employment and output, allowing the identification of effects both on impact and over the long term. Although health care investments are expected to have important macroeconomic effects, they need not be evenly distributed across industries.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 46 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

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Article
Publication date: 12 October 2015

Jeffery Scott Bredthauer, Brian C. Payne, Jiri Tresl and Gordon V. Karels

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the absolute and risk-adjusted stock return performance of the US health care industry conditional upon the presidential…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the absolute and risk-adjusted stock return performance of the US health care industry conditional upon the presidential administration’s political party and the Federal Reserve’s monetary policy stance. It evaluates this return behavior across the 60-year time period from 1954 to 2013, and sub-divides this entire period into the pre-Medicare period (1954-1964), Medicare period (1965-1984), and Medicare-plus-high-health-care-inflation period (1985-2013).

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses monthly returns to the health care industry and overall market, characterizing each sample month as either having a Republican or Democratic president and either a contractionary or expansionary monetary policy regime determined by whether the Federal Reserve is increasing or decreasing interest rates, respectively. It incorporates univariate and multivariate analysis to quantify the return behavior of both the health care industry and the overall market during the entire period and all three sub-periods. Additionally, it utilizes a common four-factor multivariate regression model and associated hypothesis testing to characterize risk-adjusted excess returns (i.e. α) to the health care industry during the entire period and all three sub-periods.

Findings

The health care industry has earned robust, positive risk-adjusted returns with the magnitude of the returns sensitive to the political party of the administration and the monetary policy regime. The authors find that prior to 1965 (1954-1964), when the president was a Republican, during times of monetary contraction, health care earned an excess risk-adjusted return. There was no association between Democratic administrations and excess health care returns prior to 1965. In contrast, the authors find that after 1965 this relationship changes. The authors find that returns to health care were positive for Republicans during times of monetary expansion and positive for Democrats during monetary contraction. The authors also find this relationship has become more pronounced after 1984.

Originality/value

The study extends prior literature, which has shown that the health care industry is a priced factor in the US stock market and that it provides significant risk-adjusted returns in the recent past. Uniquely, this study shows that the excess returns to health care vary considerably over the past 60 years, and that these excess returns are quite sensitive to political policy, proxied by the presidential administration party, and monetary policy, as measured using Fed discount rate changes. These findings have implications for management and shareholders of highly regulated and subsidized industries and firms.

Details

Managerial Finance, vol. 41 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4358

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 1998

P. Gary Jarrett

The purpose of this study was to undertake a diagnostic investigation of the international health care logistical environment to determine if regulatory policies or…

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to undertake a diagnostic investigation of the international health care logistical environment to determine if regulatory policies or industry procedures have hindered the implementation of just‐in‐time systems. The analysis was conducted in a systematic manner and compared the anticipated benefits with those validated in other industries from the implementation of just‐in‐time. The study also compared the health care industry environments of the USA, UK, and Germany with the manufacturing industry. The author focussed on answering: first, why has the health care industry not implemented just‐in‐time; second, is it feasible for a healthcare provider to implement a just‐in‐time logistical system; and third, what benefits will a health care provider achieve by implementing just‐in‐time. Concludes that controlling health care pricing requires reducing product cost or continues to place limits on product prices, quantities of services, or both. An alternative approach to controlling prices is to restructure the market for health services to encourage greater price competition among providers.

Details

International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, vol. 28 no. 9/10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0960-0035

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2019

Alison Berry and Jeanette Martin

The purpose of this paper is to explore how large, public companies in the health industry communicatively engage in employer branding on career homepages.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore how large, public companies in the health industry communicatively engage in employer branding on career homepages.

Design/methodology/approach

An exploratory content analysis of the career homepages (N = 42; 8,500) was conducted to analyze the communication of successful organizations in four realms of the public health-care industry to include Biotech (n =10), Managed Health Care (n = 8), Medical and Equipment Supplies (n = 12) and Pharmaceuticals (n = 12).

Findings

The analysis revealed the following ten major themes of content: Worldview, Stakeholders, Environment, Excellence, Dedication, Aid, Unity, Advancement, Distinctiveness and Industry/Organization. Additionally, the results revealed that health-care employer branding often communicated about Stakeholders, Industry/Organization and Advancement.

Research limitations/implications

The results of this study aid researchers in understanding the foundational content of employee branding efforts in the health industry.

Practical implications

The results assist practitioners in understanding how different health-care industries and organizations engage in employer branding on career homepages.

Originality/value

The results of this study function to both confirm previous findings related to employer branding and extend research on employer branding into the career homepages of organizations in the health-care industry.

Details

International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Healthcare Marketing, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6123

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Article
Publication date: 12 October 2010

Fred Rawlinson and Peter Farrell

The purpose of this paper is to examine and evaluate current directions in construction site health and safety management by examination of large UK industry contractors'…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine and evaluate current directions in construction site health and safety management by examination of large UK industry contractors' web sites, revealing the motivators that are potentially informing and driving these directions.

Design/methodology/approach

A desk study approach examined 20 large UK contractor web sites. Subsequent hermeneutic content analysis established current industry direction, enabled comparison to comparable government and academic directions, and also revealed potential motivators and influences behind recent innovations.

Findings

Large UK contractors have readily adopted corporate social responsibility and placed health and safety under this remit. Industry direction correlates with current government approaches, however academia appears to influence industry through government, rather than direct conduits. Bespoke safety management programmes have been a key innovation, but the influence of marketing was clear and may have led to focus on easily promotable goals, rather than the processes and methods needed to achieve them.

Practical implications

Marketing may overtake practicality in the direction of health and safety management on construction sites; industry innovation focused on the promotable rather than the practical, could stagnate. The lack of direct influence of academia on industry direction indicates a requirement for relationships to be better established in order to inspire continuous improvement.

Originality/value

A holistic review of large industry contractor approaches to site health and safety management has not previously been undertaken. Neither has the use of promotional web‐based data been examined; thereby providing a unique insight into the direction of current efforts within industry.

Details

Construction Innovation, vol. 10 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1471-4175

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Article
Publication date: 3 June 2019

Esmée Sinéad Hanna and Steven Markham

The construction industry has high rates of work-related ill health. Whilst there have been more recent calls for a “health like safety” narrative within the industry

Abstract

Purpose

The construction industry has high rates of work-related ill health. Whilst there have been more recent calls for a “health like safety” narrative within the industry, health has still predominantly been viewed via health risks rather than a more holistic conceptualisation of health and well-being. The workplace is viewed as a fruitful site for health promotion work, yet we know little about the possibilities and promise of health promotion within the construction industry. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper explores the views of stakeholders with health-related roles and responsibilities within the UK construction industry. From the 21 semi-structured qualitative interviews, thematic analysis was conducted and two key themes emerged: the construction industry as anti-health promoting and understanding industry-specific health issues.

Findings

The construction industry faces significant constraint in attempting to promote better health and well-being due to its makeup, yet the health and well-being issues of the industry notably stress, and early retirement are major issues for both the industry and individuals.

Practical implications

The authors argue that only through understanding the structural constraints of the industry in this way can the possibilities and potentials for undertaking health promotion work be fully embedded within the industry in order to help create meaningful change for both employees and the industry as a whole.

Originality/value

This paper offers insight into the challenges that exist within construction for promoting positive employee health and well-being and takes an in-depth approach to exploring why health promotion may not be occurring within the industry.

Details

International Journal of Workplace Health Management, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8351

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Article
Publication date: 12 June 2019

Wonsuk Cha

The purpose of this paper is to provide a theoretical model for the relationship between quality management (QM) practices and the health and fitness industry through two…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide a theoretical model for the relationship between quality management (QM) practices and the health and fitness industry through two competencies, including relational competence (RC) and technical competence (TC).

Design/methodology/approach

Drawing from the resource-based view and the relational competence theory, this paper seeks a further understanding of the conceptual link between QM practices and the health and fitness industry.

Findings

This paper proposes that RC and TC will positively mediate the relationship between QM practices and customers’ behavioral intentions to use the health and fitness service.

Research limitations/implications

This paper provides an integrated perspective to the health and fitness industry. More specifically, this paper suggests that QM practices can be applicable to customers’ behavioral intentions to use the health and fitness service. This paper also provides a solid conceptual foundation through which managers in the health and fitness industry put more effort in developing the relationship with customers. An empirical investigation might be needed for future study.

Practical implications

This paper suggests that managers and employees in the health and fitness industry need to provide a sustained and consistent effort into maintaining the interaction with customers. This paper also suggests that the use of QM practices can be related to customer perception (e.g. boosting behavioral intentions toward service providers) and can provide sustainable competitive advantage in the health and fitness industry.

Originality/value

This paper extends current understanding of QM practices and the health and fitness industry by providing a conceptual framework regarding how QM practices are related to the health and fitness industry through RC and TC.

Details

International Journal of Quality and Service Sciences, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-669X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 13 July 2020

Mauro Cavallone and Rocco Palumbo

Industry 4.0, artificial intelligence and digitalization have got a momentum in health care. However, scholars and practitioners do not agree on their implications on…

Abstract

Purpose

Industry 4.0, artificial intelligence and digitalization have got a momentum in health care. However, scholars and practitioners do not agree on their implications on health services' quality and effectiveness. The article aims at shedding light on the applications, aftermaths and drawbacks of industry 4.0 in health care, summarizing the state of the art.

Design/methodology/approach

A systematic literature review was undertaken. We arranged an ad hoc research design, which was tailored to the study purposes. Three citation databases were queried. We collected 1,194 scientific papers which were carefully considered for inclusion in this systematic literature review. After three rounds of analysis, 40 papers were taken into consideration.

Findings

Industry 4.0, artificial intelligence and digitalization are revolutionizing the design and the delivery of care. They are expected to enhance health services' quality and effectiveness, paving the way for more direct patient–provider relationships. In addition, they have been argued to allow a more appropriate use of available resources. There is a dark side of health care 4.0 involving both management and ethical issues.

Research limitations/implications

Industry 4.0 in health care should not be conceived as a self-nourishing innovation; rather, it needs to be carefully steered at both the policy and management levels. On the one hand, comprehensive governance models are required to realize the full potential of health 4.0. On the other hand, the drawbacks of industry 4.0 should be timely recognized and thoroughly addressed.

Originality/value

The article contextualizes the state of the art of industry 4.0 in the health care context, providing some insights for further conceptual and empirical developments.

Details

The TQM Journal, vol. 32 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2731

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1995

Bernard Frank Kinman and Gerald Vinten

Tobacco has exercised the interest of the nation since Elizabethan times, and the inhalation of its smoke for pleasure has become very widespread. It was not until the…

Abstract

Tobacco has exercised the interest of the nation since Elizabethan times, and the inhalation of its smoke for pleasure has become very widespread. It was not until the mid‐twentieth century, however, that its effects upon health were suspected. It is now widely accepted that tobacco smoke is implicated in a range of dangerous diseases, although the tobacco industry sometimes argues that the link is not proven. The arguments about the conflicting needs of a large, world‐wide industry and the health and prosperity of individuals and society are complex, and often influenced by conflicting vested interests. Government's involvement in the issues is further complicated by its reliance upon large tobacco revenues. The link between advertising and increased smoking, either by existing or new smokers, is not proved by research, although there are strong indications that it exists. The behaviour of most parties involved, including the tobacco companies, indicates that they share the belief of a link. Voluntary controls upon tobacco advertising have had some effect, in that, for example, advertising in the U.K. is no longer overtly directed at children, but various anti‐smoking lobbies believe voluntary control to be ineffective. The present British government has toyed wth the possibility of statutory control, but faces stiff opposition from back‐benchers and within the cabinet; it is also probably philosophically opposed to such measures. More research is needed into the link between advertising and smoking behaviour.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 15 no. 4/5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

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