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Misinterpretation of a negative test results in health screening may initiate less preventive effort and more future lifestyle-related disease. We predict that…
Misinterpretation of a negative test results in health screening may initiate less preventive effort and more future lifestyle-related disease. We predict that misinterpretation occurs more frequently among individuals with a low level of education compared with individuals with a high level of education.
The empirical analyses are based on unique data from a randomized controlled screening experiment in Norway, NORCCAP (NORwegian Colorectal Cancer Prevention). The dataset consists of approximately 50,000 individuals, of whom 21,000 were invited to participate in a once only screening with sigmoidoscopy. For all individuals, we also have information on outpatient consultations and inpatient stays and education. The result of health behaviour is mainly measured by lifestyle-related diseases, such as COPD, hypertension and diabetes type 2, identified by ICD-10 codes.
The results according to intention-to-treat indicate that screening does not increase the occurrence of lifestyle related diseases among individuals with a high level of education, while there is an increase for individuals with low levels of education. These results are supported by the further analyses among individuals with a negative screening test.
For most people, especially those with fixed incomes, household budgets have to be balanced and sometimes the balance is precarious. With price rises of foods, there is a switch to a cheaper substitute within the group, or if it is a food for which there is no real substitute, reduced purchases follow. The annual and quarterly reviews of the National Food Survey over the years have shown this to be so; with carcase meat, where one meat is highly priced, housewives switch to a cheaper joint, and this is mainly the reason for the great increase in consumption of poultry; when recently the price of butter rose sharply, there was a switch to margarine. NFS statistics did not show any lessening of consumer preference for butter, but in most households, with budgets on a tight string, margarine had to be used for many purposes for which butter had previously been used. With those foods which have no substitute, and bread (also milk) is a classic example, to keep the sum spent on the food each week about the same, the amount purchased is correspondingly reduced. Again, NFS statistics show this to be the case, a practice which has been responsible for the small annual reductions in the amount of bread consumed per person per week over the last fifteen years or so; very small, a matter of an ounce or two, but adequate to maintain the balance of price/quantity since price rises have been relatively small, if fairly frequent. This artifice to absorb small price rises will not work, however, when price rises follow on one another rapidly and together are large. Bread is a case in point.
Under this title an interesting article by Thurman B. Rice, M.D., was published in the July issue of the Monthly Bulletin of the Indiana State Board of Health. Dr. Rice tells us that it is customary in the U.S.A. for the Boards of Health to require certificates of health from all food handlers, and that a conscientious examiner would even refuse to issue a certificate if the applicant had eczematous hands or open sores on the hands or face. This seems a most excellent precaution and one which might well be studied with due consideration in this country. Unfortunately, certain unscrupulous physicians apparently overcome the inconvenience of giving a thorough examination, and cases are known where 140 blanks, certifying that as many persons were free from all transmissible disease, were signed in two hours—and also where pads of blanks have been signed and the names filled in later by the restaurant manager as employees began to work. After referring to the care and cleanliness required in the preparation of the food itself, Dr. Rice points out that, should a case of food poisoning occur, the health authorities should be informed immediately and all suspected foods should be interned and kept in a condition which will guarantee as little change as possible—usually refrigeration at a very low temperature. The layman, on hearing of a case of food poisoning, is very prone to suspect those articles of food consumed at the last previous meal—while the significant article may have been eaten a day, or more, before—or, in the case of typhoid fever, two weeks before. Dr. Rice continues by telling us that we should always remain in the most jovial of moods at the dining table, and that causes for anger, fear, disgust, or any other unpleasant major emotion should be avoided. Also complaining, nagging criticism and sarcastic remarks at the table are most injurious to the flow of the gastric juice. We refrain from comment upon the effect of the restaurant orchestra, which has at times, we feel sure, been the cause of much “ criticism and sarcastic remarks ”; also the most careful and jovial diner (even after reading Dr. Rice's article) surely cannot fail to stimulate a little “anger” at the waiter who served the latecomers at the adjoining table before his good self? As a means of preventing epidemics from food sources, Dr. Rice recommends cleanliness, character, intelligence and good health in the workers; adequate equipment, alertness and supervision from the management; and the practice of the principles of the modern science and art of epidemiology in the board of health.
– The purpose of this case study is to detail the development of a bespoke programme of learning for Support Workers employed in the mental health sector.
The purpose of this case study is to detail the development of a bespoke programme of learning for Support Workers employed in the mental health sector.
The programme was designed to serve three purposes: to offer a route into mental health nursing; to upskill those who wanted to remain as a Support Worker; to improve the quality of care provided.
The paper shares the perspectives of the local Partnership Trust, a Support Worker on the programme and the Programme Director.
Employers within the mental health sector are encouraged to develop their own staff and universities are urged to think differently about curriculum design.
The Report of the Royal College of Physicians (London) and the British Cardiac Society issued in April last was the product of a joint working party, whose aim was to formulate the best possible advice which can at present be given to medical practitioners towards the prevention of coronary heart disease. It caused quite a stir, particularly its dietary recommendations, and the mass media made the most of it, more from inferences drawn from the measures recommended than from the report itself. Now that the sensation of it has gone and the dust has begun to settle, we can see the Report contains nothing that is new; it tells us what we have long known. Like the Horsemen of the Apocalypse, except that there are three of them, at least for the moment, the causative factors of the rising incidence of coronary heart disease, built into our affluent society, have been working their way at the heart of man for a good many years now.
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the number of children diagnosed with autism has increased dramatically, especially over the past…
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the number of children diagnosed with autism has increased dramatically, especially over the past decade. Most recently, the CDC estimates that an average of one in 88 children have an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In terms of numbers, this translates into approximately 730,000 people between the ages of 0 and 21 who have ASD. While the primary cause(s) of increases in the identification of autistic students continue to generate debate school officials across the nation need to be prepared for the changing legal landscape associated with children diagnosed with ASD. The primary purpose of this chapter is to provide a detailed legal/policy update of the leading legal considerations and concerns involving K-12 students with autism. The chapter will discuss four specific legal topics involving the identification and eligibility of K-12 students with autism. These four legal topics include: Changes in the New DSM-5 Diagnostic Manuel and its Impact on Legal Definitions of Autism; Insurance Reform and Autism Coverage: A Comparison of the States; Developing Legally Compliant Individualized Education Plans (IEPs) for High-Functioning Students with Autism, and; Recent Legal Developments in Case Law Involving K-12 students who are autistic. The chapter will conclude with a detailed discussion of how today’s school officials can become more legally literate and better serve the legal needs of students with autism in their schools.
The earliest law of the adulteration of food imposed divisions among the local authorities of the day in functions and enforcements; most of the urban and rural sanitary authorities possessed no power under the law. Provisions dealing with unfit food — diseased, unsound, unwholesome or unfit for human food — were not in the first sale of food and drugs measure and there duties were wholly discharged by all local authorities. Rural sanitary authorities were excluded from food and drugs law and boroughs and urban authorities severly restricted. Enforcement in the rural areas was by the county council, although local officers were empowered to take samples of food and submit them for analysis to the public analyst. Power to appoint the public analyst for the area was the main criterion of a “food and drugs authority”. The Minister had power to direct an authority with a population of less than 40,000 but more than 20,000 to enforce the law of adulteration.
The purpose of this paper is to review some of the key mental health education and training developments of the last decade of immense change to the service system in…
The purpose of this paper is to review some of the key mental health education and training developments of the last decade of immense change to the service system in England. This change was part and parcel of the Labour Government's mental health modernisation agenda.
The British National Health Service (NHS) has experienced a number of changes in management over the last 20 years resulting in management development becoming a greater…
The British National Health Service (NHS) has experienced a number of changes in management over the last 20 years resulting in management development becoming a greater priority. Consequently, hospitals and other NHS organisations have rapidly introduced competence‐based management development programmes for their staff. This paper reports in depth on a case study of a partnership between a hospital trust and a university to introduce competence‐based management development to NHS managers. It evaluates the management development programme at a hospital trust over a four‐year period and concludes with a discussion of the benefits and problems of the partnership approach and highlights lessons that providers of management education could draw from them.