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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2008

Robin Murray‐Neill, Pauline Heslop, Koula Serle, Hazel March and Karen

Direct payments in mental health services have come a long way in the last few years, but are personal budgets and the increasing prominence of social care in policy terms…

Abstract

Direct payments in mental health services have come a long way in the last few years, but are personal budgets and the increasing prominence of social care in policy terms having detrimental effects on their success? While most people agree that direct payments are a good idea, in reality less than five per cent of those eligible to use community care services actually use them. Realising the government's intention of ‘prevention, early intervention, enablement, and high quality personally tailored services’ still has a way to go.

Details

A Life in the Day, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1366-6282

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 November 2002

Joseph W. Glauber, Keith J. Collins and Peter J. Barry

Since 1980, the principal form of crop loss assistance in the United States has been provided through the Federal Crop Insurance Program. The Federal Crop Insurance Act of…

Abstract

Since 1980, the principal form of crop loss assistance in the United States has been provided through the Federal Crop Insurance Program. The Federal Crop Insurance Act of 1980 was intended to replace disaster programs with a subsidized insurance program that farmers could depend on in the event of crop losses. Crop insurance was seen as preferable to disaster assistance because it was less costly and hence could be provided to more producers, was less likely to encourage moral hazard, and less likely to encourage producers to plant crops on marginal lands. Despite substantial growth in the program, the crop insurance program has failed to replace other disaster programs as the sole form of assistance. Over the past 20 years, producers received an estimated $15 billion in supplemental disaster payments in addition to $22 billion in crop insurance indemnities.

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Agricultural Finance Review, vol. 62 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-1466

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 May 1929

1. In accordance with instructions we visited Holland on 18th August, 1927, and after calling at the British Legation and making some preliminary inquiries at the…

Abstract

1. In accordance with instructions we visited Holland on 18th August, 1927, and after calling at the British Legation and making some preliminary inquiries at the Department van Binnenlandsche Zaken en Landbouw and the Department van Arbeid, Handel, en Nijverheid we spent the ensuing week visiting condenseries, creameries and farms in various parts of the country and making inquiries of managers and experts employed at the creameries and condenseries and of farmers and farm hands at the farms which we visited. We were able' to see the various activities involved in the production of condensed milk, butter and cheese, the actual milking and care of the cows, the transport of the milk and its handling at the creameries and condenseries, and the various processes through which it passed in its conversion into condensed milk, butter and cheese. The regulations and organisation for the hygienic control of these processes were explained to us by officials at the two Government departments mentioned above, and in certain of the districts visited we took the opportunity of calling upon the respective directors of the Keuringsdienst van Waren for each of these districts and ascertained the scope of their activities and their procedure for enforcing the regulations.

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British Food Journal, vol. 31 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Article
Publication date: 24 October 2008

Diane Frost

This paper's aim is to examine whether there is a causal link between “race” hate, particularly Islamophobia (defined as anti‐Muslim feeling and violence based on “race”…

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper's aim is to examine whether there is a causal link between “race” hate, particularly Islamophobia (defined as anti‐Muslim feeling and violence based on “race” and/or religion), and government treatment of Muslim communities in Britain in recent years.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper looks at recent legislation and other state controls to deal with terror activities.

Findings

The paper argues that government policy towards Muslim communities, including policies developed to deal with suspected terrorists has some responsibility for cultivating a hostile climate towards such communities. Moreover, this generalised hostile environment allows “race” hate and violence to thrive among sections of Britain's male white working class communities, especially where disaffection, socio‐economic exclusion and challenges to traditional forms of masculinities is evident.

Practical implications

The paper demonstrates that “race” hate and routine attacks on Muslim communities appears to be increasing and needs to be addressed by developing strategies that are inclusive of all disadvantaged communities.

Originality/value

The paper adds to the literature on “race” hate by examining these theories in the light of recent and ongoing terror attacks and their impact on Muslim communities in Britain.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 28 no. 11/12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 May 1957

Under this heading are published regularly abstracts of all Reports and Memoranda of the Aeronautical Research Council, Reports and Technical Memoranda of the United…

Abstract

Under this heading are published regularly abstracts of all Reports and Memoranda of the Aeronautical Research Council, Reports and Technical Memoranda of the United States National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics and publications of other similar Research Bodies as issued.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 29 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

Article
Publication date: 1 January 1951

Under this heading are published regularly abstracts of all Reports and Memoranda of the Aeronautical Research Council, Reports and Techical Memoranda of the United States…

Abstract

Under this heading are published regularly abstracts of all Reports and Memoranda of the Aeronautical Research Council, Reports and Techical Memoranda of the United States National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics and publications of other similar Research Bodies as issued

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 23 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

Article
Publication date: 1 March 2006

Aameek Singh, Bugra Gedik and Ling Liu

To provide mutual anonymity over traditionally un‐anonymous Distributed Hash Tables (DHT) based Peer‐to‐Peer overlay networks, while maintaining the desired scalability…

Abstract

Purpose

To provide mutual anonymity over traditionally un‐anonymous Distributed Hash Tables (DHT) based Peer‐to‐Peer overlay networks, while maintaining the desired scalability and guaranteed lookup properties of the DHTs.

Design/methodology/approach

Agyaat uses a novel hybrid‐overlay design, a fully decentralized topology without any trusted proxies. It anonymizes both the querying and responding peers through the use of unstructured topologies, called clouds, which are added onto the structured overlays. In addition, it regulates the cloud topologies to ensure the guaranteed location of data and scalability of routing. A unique characteristic of the design is the ability of users to tradeoff between desired anonymity and performance. The paper presents a thorough performance and anonymity analysis of the system, and also analyzes few anonymity compromising attacks and countermeasures.

Findings

The results indicate that Agyaat is able to provide mutual anonymity while maintaining the scalability of lookups, affecting the costs only by a constant factor.

Research limitations/implications

While Agyaat is able to meet its mutual anonymity and performance goals, there exist other security vulnerabilities like possible Denial‐of‐Service (DoS) attacks, both due to its design and the underlying DHT overlay. This is fertile ground for future work.

Originality/value

Agyaat uses a novel topology architecture and associated protocols that are conducive to providing mutually anonymous services.

Details

Internet Research, vol. 16 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1066-2243

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 February 1977

Hazel Henderson

There still exists today, after millions of words from learned economists on the subject, much confusion concerning the definition, causes, and effects of “inflation.”…

Abstract

There still exists today, after millions of words from learned economists on the subject, much confusion concerning the definition, causes, and effects of “inflation.” Consider, for example, the argument as to whether inflation or unemployment is the more serious social problem. Framing our economic debate in this manner presupposes the validity of the Phillips Curve model of the presumed trade‐off between these two scourges of mature industrial societies. The companion assumption is that they are both aberrations of some imaginary equilibrium state rather than structural features of industrial societies committed to economic growth.

Details

Planning Review, vol. 5 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0094-064X

Article
Publication date: 1 March 1899

The method of dealing with the proposed additions varies in different libraries. In the Battersea Library, the librarian makes an author‐entry on a cataloguing slip for…

Abstract

The method of dealing with the proposed additions varies in different libraries. In the Battersea Library, the librarian makes an author‐entry on a cataloguing slip for each book he proposes, with name of publisher, price, and, if necessary, a note as to the review of the work, and its suitability for addition to the library. Before each committee meeting these are arranged in alphabetical order, and at the committee the librarian calls them over and marks on each the decision arrived at. Afterwards the slips can be sorted into “rejected,” “postponed,” and “ordered,” and dealt with accordingly. The “ordered” slips can again be sorted into two lots, one for books to be purchased new, and the other for those whose purchase is deferred until they can be met with second‐hand. When the books are received from the vendors, the number of copies, and the branch libraries to which they are allocated, are marked upon the slips. By this means a rough record is kept of the additions to the library, which is of great use to the librarian.

Details

New Library World, vol. 1 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4803

Article
Publication date: 1 June 1941

The factories are instructed as to what kinds of pack they are to produce, and their product is controlled by samples sent at specified times to the research laboratory…

Abstract

The factories are instructed as to what kinds of pack they are to produce, and their product is controlled by samples sent at specified times to the research laboratory. With greater and less attention to detailed steps the whole of agriculture and the food industry in Italy is so controlled. In Germany can be noted as an example the development on a large scale of the fishing industry in the Baltic—the scrapping of the privately‐owned small fishing boats in that sea—the launching of large vessels with their factory vessels in attendance— the keenness with which every step in the development of fish preservation has been followed—the official tests on such methods as the American Birdseye Quick Freezing, the German Heckerman process, the English Z process, and the building and the equipping of the large factories where the whole of the waste fish products are worked up into edible and useful products. This last is the keynote of the German system : waste nothing. The recovery of waste fats has been practised in Germany in an intensive fashion for several years. There have been in Germany other changes of a more subtle character, and not so obvious to the outside world. The food laws of Germany were such that the nation could be justly proud of them, but for some time there has been a distinct slackening of the control—as for example in the use of preservatives. These were strictly limited in kind and number—but even before the present phase the blind eye of the official had often been turned towards the use of disallowed preservatives and I am given to understand that certain chemicals, erstwhile forbidden, can now be used officially. It may be policy for our Ministry of Health to aid in the present critical situation by relaxing some of the regulations at present in force. Those preservatives to be released would not in any way lower the nutritional value of the foods, nor would there be allowed any of those preservatives against which a case has been made in respect of their physiological action. The impetus given to research work by totalitarian states should be an inspiration to the democracies. One of the first things the Italian Government took in hand after their conquest of Abyssinia was a scientific survey of the natural products of the country. A recent issue of Nature states that the first number of a new official Italian journal contains the results of the first three years' work on the fish of the inland waters of the former Ethiopia. As Nature points out, the far greater areas of British Eastern Africa have been subjected simply to spasmodic and short‐termed scientific examinations, chiefly resulting from the initiative of private individuals or of institutions. It is to be stressed, however, that the stimulus given to scientific studies of food production and manufacture both in Germany and Italy was activated by abnormal conditions. In neither the one nor the other can it be said that the development was a natural one—in both it was originated by the desire of the government to make the country as self‐sufficient as possible in case of war, and therefore the whole idea was abnormal and biased. In this country and in the United States the development has followed much sounder lines. In this country the standard of living has become remarkably high, although perhaps somewhat lop‐sided. One might quote the example of bread. The loaf as we know it to‐day is made almost wholly from wheat flour, derived from that portion of the wheat kernel which gives the whitest flour. The Ministry of Health has, I think, been very properly concerned to maintain our high standard and has looked with disfavour on flours which, in order to simulate that particular white portion of the wheat grain, have been bleached. America is the only other country in the world where the people demand white loaves of such delicate and even texture. There much be something very attractive to the public in this type of loaf: some of us remember the fiasco of the standard bread, and members of the bakery trade know what a small proportion of their sales are concerned with brown loaves. The general character of the bread in continental European countries is very different; even the delightful loaves of France, generally well baked, are dark in comparison, although in no sense “ brown ” or “ whole‐meal.” In most countries flours other than wheat are incorporated. We may have to incorporate potato‐flour, but if this is done in any large quantity the resultant loaf has an entirely different texture. It is obvious that the dividing line between the scope of agriculture and that of the food industry is essentially ill‐defined. The importance, however, of the pre‐industrial treatment is such that it is really impossible to dissociate the scientific work of the agriculturalist from that of the industrialist. To quote examples :— Under the aegis of the Food Investigation Board a study has been made of the production of bacon in this country, with remarkably successful results to the farmer, to the bacon‐curer and to the consumer. Similarly the extensive series of experiments carried out by the Food Investigation Board on the storage of fruit has had great success, and the economic effect on the fruit trade, not only here, but also in the Dominions and Colonies cannot be estimated at the moment. An agricultural study of great importance to the housewife was undertaken by the Potato Marketing Board; this was concerned with the blackening of potatoes and was unfortunately not concluded when the war brought a sudden halt to the work. The problem of obtaining “ figures ” for characteristics of food is the most difficult with which the chemist has to deal. There is no method by which palatability can be registered, for it is compounded of many factors which themselves are not possible of measurement. Flavour, appearance and edibility are all concerned. It is comparatively simple to connect softness on the palate of a cream centre of a chocolate with the size of the grain of the sugar crystals, or the smoothness of an ice cream with the size of the ice‐crystals, but to express the texture of a cake in terms measuring the reaction of the palate, or the toughness or tenderness of a beef‐steak are far more difficult. This last example has been considered in some detail. Much work has been done at the Low Temperature Station at Cambridge on methods of judging the tenderness of meat. There is no simple method of reproducing the complicated movement of the jaws in mastication—but the consumer of the steak judges the tenderness by the reactions of his jaws to the muscle fibre, and the problem is complicated by the fact that the judgment of a person with a denture is entirely different from that of a person with his natural teeth; it has been estimated, for example, that the pressure which can be applied during mastication is only, even by those with the most perfect denture, one tenth that of normal. A somewhat complicated instrument has been designed and constructed at the Research Station at Karlsruhe in order to make possible investigations on the problem of the toughness of meat. Sufficient data have not yet been accumulated to pass judgment on its efficiency but it appears to be the most satisfactory attempt yet made to enable definite measurements of the toughness of meat to be determined. These are but examples of the general trend of scientific work in food production and manufacture, examples of the range of subjects and problems being attacked with an ever increasing vigour.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 43 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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