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Article
Publication date: 12 September 2016

Abdulla Ali Alhmoudi and Zeeshan Aziz

The impacts and costs of natural disasters on people, properties and environment are often severe when these occur on a large scale and with no warning system in place…

Abstract

Purpose

The impacts and costs of natural disasters on people, properties and environment are often severe when these occur on a large scale and with no warning system in place. The lack of deployment of an early warning system (EWS), low risk and hazard knowledge and impact of natural hazard experienced by some communities in the UAE have emphasised the need for more effective EWSs. This work focuses on developing an integrated framework for EWSs for communities prone to the impact of natural hazards to reduce their vulnerability and improve emergency management arrangements in the UAE.

Design/methodology/approach

The essential elements of effective EWS were identified through literature review to develop an integrated framework for EWS. Semi-structured interviews and questionnaires were also used to identify and confirm hindering factors to deployment of effective EWSs in Abu Dhabi and Fujairah Emirates, while areas that require further development were also identified through this means.

Findings

The outcome of this research revealed that the warning for natural hazards in the UAE lacked the required elements for effective EWS, whereas the elements which are present are insufficient to mitigate the impacts of natural hazards. The information in this work emphasises the need to improve two elements, and to develop the other two essential elements of EWS in the UAE.

Originality/value

The outcome of this research revealed that the warning for natural hazards in the UAE lacked the required elements for effective EWS, whereas the elements which are present are insufficient to mitigate the impacts of natural hazards. The information in this work emphasises the need to improve two elements and to develop the other two essential elements of EWS in the UAE.

Details

International Journal of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment, vol. 7 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-5908

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 15 November 2011

Devanjan Bhattacharya, Jayanta Kumar Ghosh, Piero Boccardo and N.K. Samadhiya

Communication of an impending hazard to people in near real time is critical. The purpose of this paper is to develop an internet‐SMS based geo‐hazard warning communication system.

Abstract

Purpose

Communication of an impending hazard to people in near real time is critical. The purpose of this paper is to develop an internet‐SMS based geo‐hazard warning communication system.

Design/methodology/approach

A warning system based on an internet‐resident concept and the available cellular mobile infrastructure is proposed in this study. The functionality of the system is modular in architecture.

Findings

The messages have been transmitted in a set of 20 SMSs six times, to locally‐owned mobile numbers, resulting in a total number of 120. It has been found that 58 messages got delivered within ten seconds, the rest within 40 more seconds. The threat messages reached the impending threat areas within acceptable time delay.

Originality/value

The paper describes the implementation of a novel and stand‐alone system for dynamic hazard warning. Cellular or mobile phone, a gadget used by common man, is expected to be the best proposition to effectively warn people individually and to propagate hazard messages to users in large regions ubiquitously. The concept allows pervasiveness and redundancy, important to withstanding hazards and bringing several original elements through the development of this “fast warning system”, as current warning strategies do not include such solutions.

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Article
Publication date: 31 October 2018

Mahar Lagmay and Bernard Alan Racoma

Tropical storms Urduja and Vinta battered the Philippines in December 2017. Despite advances in disaster risk reduction efforts of the country, the twin December storms…

Abstract

Purpose

Tropical storms Urduja and Vinta battered the Philippines in December 2017. Despite advances in disaster risk reduction efforts of the country, the twin December storms caused numerous deaths in the Visayas and Mindanao regions. Analysis of these events shows that alerts raised during the Pre-Disaster Risk Assessment (PDRA) for both storms were largely ineffective because they were too broad and general calling for forced evacuations in too many provinces. Repeated multiple and general warnings that usually do not end up in floods or landslides, desensitize people and result in the cry-wolf effect where communities do not respond with urgency when needed. It was unlike the previous execution of PDRA from 2014 to early 2017 by the National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Council (NDRRMC), which averted mass loss of lives in many severely impacted areas because of hazard-specific, area-focused and time-bound warnings. PDRA must reinstate specific calls, where mayors of communities are informed by phone hours in advance of imminent danger to prompt and ensure immediate action. Mainstreaming Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Reduction information using probabilistic (multi-scenario) hazard maps is also necessary for an effective early warning system to elicit appropriate response from the community. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

Methods of early warning through the PDRA of the National Disaster Mitigation and Management Council (NDRRMC) of the Philippines during tropical storm Urduja and Typhoon Vinta were assessed in this study and compared to the previous PDRA system from 2014 to early 2017.

Findings

It was found out that the numerous casualties were due to inadequate warning issued during the approach of the tropical cyclones. During an impending hazard, warnings must be accurate, reliable, understandable and timely. Despite the availability of maps that identified safe zones for different communities, warnings raised during the PDRA for both tropical cyclones were deemed too general calling for evacuations of whole provinces. As such, not all communities were evacuated in a timely manner because of failure in the key elements of an effective early warning system.

Originality/value

To avoid future disasters from happening, it is recommended that the PDRA reinstate its hazards-specific, area-focused and time-bound warnings. Similarly, to increase the resilience of communities, more work on mainstreaming of Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk and Vulnerability Reduction systems for communities must be done as well. Learning from the lessons of these previous disasters will enable communities, their leaders and every stakeholder, not to repeat the same mistakes in the future.

Details

Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal, vol. 28 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-3562

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 9 April 2018

Rishiraj Dutta and Senaka Basnayake

This paper aims to focus on the gap assessment carried out in the existing early warning systems (EWSs) in Southeast Asia as a means to address such gaps in terms of…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to focus on the gap assessment carried out in the existing early warning systems (EWSs) in Southeast Asia as a means to address such gaps in terms of communication and information dissemination.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper was based on the surveys conducted in some of the Southeast Asian countries through interviews, group discussions and consultation to get an understanding about people’s knowledge towards EWSs and their awareness towards warning information.

Findings

The conclusions showed that there exist gaps in the existing systems which need to be strengthened to increase its efficiency for providing reliable, timely and accurate information.

Research limitations/implications

Limitation of finding more references to support the work.

Originality/value

This paper is based on the gap assessment carried out in different countries of Southeast Asia for strengthening EWSs. This paper is the original research and has never been published in any other journal.

Details

International Journal of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-5908

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 21 June 2013

Laura Radford, Jason C. Senkbeil and Meganne Rockman

The cone of uncertainty (COU) warning graphic has created confusion for people trying to make evacuation and safety decisions. The purpose of this research was to create…

Abstract

Purpose

The cone of uncertainty (COU) warning graphic has created confusion for people trying to make evacuation and safety decisions. The purpose of this research was to create several alternative tropical cyclone graphics and present them to the public and college students via face‐to‐face surveys and polling.

Design/methodology/approach

Surveys depicting hypothetical landfall scenarios were administered in Pensacola and Jacksonville, FL. Respondents ranked five graphics in order of preference, and were encouraged to discuss their rankings. Following this initial field research, the most popular graphic of these five was compared to a graphic resembling the one used by The Australian Bureau of Meteorology. Comments were recorded for respondents favoring or disliking the Australian graphic in two separate analyses. A final graphic emphasizing post‐landfall hazards was also created as a suggestion for future research and evaluated directly against the most popular graphics from field research.

Findings

A graphic called the color‐probability‐cone was the most popular graphic in field research. There were subtle differences in graphic preference resulting from age and gender influences, with only one significant result. Comments from subsequent analyses reveal that the Australian graphic causes mixed reactions. A final analysis with a larger sample of college students revealed that the color‐probability‐cone was the most popular choice; however, comments reveal that many respondents who had used hurricane graphics before liked the specificity presented by the Australian graphic and the hazards graphic.

Originality/value

This research represents a possible initial step in the process of establishing a tropical cyclone warning graphic that is informative, visually appealing, and effective.

Details

Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal, vol. 22 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-3562

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2018

Ilan Kelman, Bayes Ahmed, Md Esraz-Ul-Zannat, Md Mustafa Saroar, Maureen Fordham and Mohammad Shamsudduha

The purpose of this paper is to connect the theoretical idea of warning systems as social processes with empirical data of people’s perceptions of and actions for warning

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to connect the theoretical idea of warning systems as social processes with empirical data of people’s perceptions of and actions for warning for cyclones in Bangladesh.

Design/methodology/approach

A case study approach is used in two villages of Khulna district in southwest Bangladesh: Kalabogi and Kamarkhola. In total, 60 households in each village were surveyed with structured questionnaires regarding how they receive their cyclone warning information as well as their experiences of warnings for Cyclone Sidr in 2007 and Cyclone Aila in 2009.

Findings

People in the two villages had a high rate of receiving cyclone warnings and accepted them as being credible. They also experienced high impacts from the cyclones. Yet evacuation rates to cyclone shelters were low. They did not believe that significant cyclone damage would affect them and they also highlighted the difficulty of getting to cyclone shelters due to poor roads, leading them to prefer other evacuation options which were implemented if needed.

Originality/value

Theoretical constructs of warning systems, such as the First Mile and late warning, are rarely examined empirically according to people’s perceptions of warnings. The case study villages have not before been researched with respect to warning systems. The findings provide empirical evidence for long-established principles of warning systems as social processes, usually involving but not relying on technical components.

Details

Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal, vol. 27 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-3562

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 12 October 2020

Ruben Paul Borg, Glorianne Borg Axisa, Taufika Ophiyandri and Abdul Hakam

This paper aims to provide a framework for building resilience to coastal hazards with reference to Asian nations at the local, intra-regional and inter-regional levels…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to provide a framework for building resilience to coastal hazards with reference to Asian nations at the local, intra-regional and inter-regional levels. This framework provides a roadmap that will enable higher education institutions in the region to play a significant role in educating and training new leaders for disaster risk reduction (DRR) and in working directly with local communities to implement plans.

Design/methodology/approach

Events such as the 2004 tsunami highlighted the transboundary nature of coastal hazard and the importance of regional cooperation. A framework for inter- and intra-regional cooperation was developed through focus groups organised with community participants in five Asian nations exposed to coastal risks: Sri Lanka, Maldives, Myanmar, Indonesia and the Philippines.

Findings

Different stakeholders assessed inter- and intra-regional cooperation at different levels as a means to provide a baseline scenario to develop a capacity-building roadmap for such cooperation. The discussions organised through structured face-to-face encounters considered cooperation at different scales: international, regional, national and local. The framework key areas were developed and included knowledge databases, data and resource sharing and exchange education programmes.

Originality/value

Multi-hazard early warning for more resilient coastal communities is increasingly complex in view of the discourse related to the wider economic and social environments. The research proposes a framework for inter- and intra-regional cooperation at different scales; from local to regional and to the inter-continental dimensions and even through a bottom-up approach, together with the experts’ and managing authorities’ top-down positions.

Details

International Journal of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-5908

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2006

Ben Wisner and Peter Walker

The massive human and economic impact of the Asian tsunami in later 2004 is mirrored in the aftershocks felt among humanitarian organisations, development agencies, and…

Abstract

The massive human and economic impact of the Asian tsunami in later 2004 is mirrored in the aftershocks felt among humanitarian organisations, development agencies, and policy makers. This paper raises a number of these troubling, fundamental issues. Firstly, the call for an Indian Ocean tsunami warning system raises fundamental issues about what warning systems can, and cannot, do. Secondly, one is also forced to consider why in the first place so many people live on exposed coasts today, vulnerable not only to tsunamis but tropical storms and rainy season flooding among other hazards. Thirdly, one is challenged to question the very meaning of “recovery”. Such massive damage has been done and so many people and their livelihoods have been dislocated, is it actually possible to imagine a return to the status quo ante? Fourthly, reconstruction of the magnitude now underway in the affected areas raises many difficult questions about accountability, transparency, and the unevenness with which the international community responds to crises. The paper finishes with some recommendations.

Details

Open House International, vol. 31 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0168-2601

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 14 October 2009

Rune Elvik, Alena Høye, Truls Vaa and Michael Sørensen

Abstract

Details

The Handbook of Road Safety Measures
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-250-0

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Article
Publication date: 11 April 2016

David King, Yetta Gurtner, Agung Firdaus, Sharon Harwood and Alison Cottrell

The Hyogo Framework for Action focussed disaster risk reduction (DRR) on land-use planning, with international agencies, research organisations and national governments…

Abstract

Purpose

The Hyogo Framework for Action focussed disaster risk reduction (DRR) on land-use planning, with international agencies, research organisations and national governments recognising the importance of DRR through hazard informed land-use planning. This paper aims to examine the roles of planners in reducing hazard risk through settlement design, land-use plans and legislation, and identify shortcomings and constraints towards achieving Disaster Risk Reduction.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper uses community-based research from Australia, Thailand and Indonesia to discuss land-use planning in local governance frameworks following major disasters, including cyclone, flood and tsunami.

Findings

This paper shows that land-use planning systems are still primarily geared toward promoting and facilitating development and have not evolved sufficiently to take account of DRR and climate change.

Social implications

Land-use planning frameworks for hazard-resilient communities remain disconnected from the emergency management and disaster risk reduction systems. The goal to create disaster-resilient communities through the land-use planning systems requires a fundamental change to the way in which planning is conceptualised and practised. Social equity is also a huge issue where investment focuses on urban development.

Originality/value

The study contributes to an understanding of the opportunities and constraints for land-use planning to enhance climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction through legislation, policies, regional and local statutory planning schemes, enforceable planning and development controls and building codes.

Details

International Journal of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment, vol. 7 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-5908

Keywords

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