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Article
Publication date: 12 August 2020

Doaa Althalathini, Haya Al-Dajani and Nikolaos Apostolopoulos

This paper aims to explore the extent to which women’s entrepreneurship in conflict zones is an influential catalyst for liberalising traditionally conservative gender…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore the extent to which women’s entrepreneurship in conflict zones is an influential catalyst for liberalising traditionally conservative gender norms. This purpose is achieved by focussing on women entrepreneurs in Gaza and how they actively renegotiate their multiple gender roles and navigate the social order through entrepreneurship.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper adopts the interpretivist approach where individual in-depth interviews were conducted with 16 Palestinian women entrepreneurs operating in Gaza.

Findings

The findings demonstrate that the context of conflict itself and its impact on gender norms is a prime motivator for women to engage in entrepreneurial ventures. Some gender roles were constraining and other enabling women to initiate and sustain their ventures to contribute to their families’ well-being. In spite of the fact that the conflict context and entrepreneurship have contributed to enhancing the agency of women and their ability to navigate the conflict and its consequences, the gendered practices and assumptions are still used as guidance for legitimising women’s entrepreneurship.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to the gender and entrepreneurship literature by giving greater visibility to women entrepreneurs operating in conflict zones, which remain under researched. This paper also demonstrates how prolonged conflict instigates social and economic changes that can empower women entrepreneurs while simultaneously reinforcing gendered norms.

Details

International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, vol. 12 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-6266

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Article
Publication date: 2 September 2014

Haya Al-Dajani, Zografia Bika, Lorna Collins and Janine Swail

This editorial aims to investigate the interface between gendered processes and family business by exploring the extent to which gendered processes are reinforced (or not…

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Abstract

Purpose

This editorial aims to investigate the interface between gendered processes and family business by exploring the extent to which gendered processes are reinforced (or not) in family business operations and dynamics. This approach will complement the agency and resource-based view theoretical bases that dominate family business research (Chrisman et al., 2009) and further contribute to extending gender theories.

Design/methodology/approach

Acknowledging that gender is socially constructed, this editorial discusses the interface between gendered processes and family business within entrepreneurship research.

Findings

Despite a growing interest in gender and family business, there is limited literature that explores gender theory within family business research. A gender theory approach embracing family business research contributes to a needed theoretical deconstruction of existing perspectives on the operations, sustainability and succession of family businesses in the twenty-first century.

Originality/value

This editorial makes a contribution to extant scholarship by extending gender theories through an exploration of the gendered processes in family business research.

Details

International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, vol. 6 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-6266

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Article
Publication date: 9 August 2013

Haya Al-Dajani and Susan Marlow

The purpose of this paper is to develop an empirically informed conceptual framework to analyse the gendered relationship between empowerment and entrepreneurship…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop an empirically informed conceptual framework to analyse the gendered relationship between empowerment and entrepreneurship contextualised within the lives of displaced Palestinian migrant women operating home-based enterprises in Amman, Jordan.

Design/methodology/approach

A longitudinal qualitative study was undertaken during which semi-structured in-depth interviews were regularly conducted with 43 women producing high-quality traditional embroidered goods within home-based enterprises. The empirical material was utilised to inform and illustrate the creation of an empowerment framework.

Findings

Entrepreneurship is popularly presented as an individually focused economic undertaking. However, this paper demonstrates it is also a socio-politically situated activity; within this particular context, marginalised subordinated women were empowered through their home-based enterprises.

Originality/value

This paper offers a gender informed conceptual framework to inform the analyses of empowerment and entrepreneurship. The discussion describes the necessary processes for development goals to be realised, and explains how traditionally subordinated women can utilise enterprise to contribute to social change. In so doing, the proposed conceptual framework acts as a theoretical illustration of the gendered relationship between empowerment and entrepreneurship.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research, vol. 19 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

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Book part
Publication date: 8 October 2018

Nikolaos Apostolopoulos, Haya Al-Dajani, Diane Holt, Paul Jones and Robert Newbery

This book explores the interaction between entrepreneurship and UN sustainable development goals (SDGs). Our existing knowledge of how entrepreneurship can contribute to…

Abstract

This book explores the interaction between entrepreneurship and UN sustainable development goals (SDGs). Our existing knowledge of how entrepreneurship can contribute to the SDGs and how their implementation can transform enterprises is limited. This is due to several factors including the recent launch of the SDGs and the rapidly growing and changing global economic, social and environmental challenges. Entrepreneurship, however, can be the engine for transforming our world and overcoming the diverse nature of these global challenges. Beyond the rationale of this book, the organisation and structure of the book is presented. All chapters are introduced and their key points highlighted. At the end of this chapter, the editors provide concluding remarks, future research avenues and policy implications arising from this collective volume.

Details

Entrepreneurship and the Sustainable Development Goals
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-375-9

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Book part
Publication date: 8 October 2018

Abstract

Details

Entrepreneurship and the Sustainable Development Goals
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-375-9

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Article
Publication date: 2 September 2014

Jonathan H Deacon, Jacqueline A Harris and Louise Worth

The purpose of this paper is to engage with contemporary gender and entrepreneurship theories to gain insights into the division of labour, capitals and capacities and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to engage with contemporary gender and entrepreneurship theories to gain insights into the division of labour, capitals and capacities and gendered identities within husband and wife heterosexual copreneurial businesses. This paper acknowledges copreneurship as a constituent sub group of research within family business and in doing so, the wider small business domain.

Design/methodology/approach

A multiple exploratory interview approach was used, with data generated through face-to-face in-depth interviews and ethnographic participant – observer multi-setting observation. This approach provided exceedingly rich and detailed data, and thus insights into the complex relationships found within copreneurial businesses.

Findings

The interviews generated a large amount of qualitative data, which were organised into themes through a process of recursive abstraction. Expelling the myth of the “male lead entrepreneur”, this study found that entrepreneurial identity and roles and responsibilities within a copreneurial business are shared and complementary, and are dependent upon the unique capacities and capitals of each partner. While there is evidence of duties that could be stereotypically described as either “men’s work or women’s work”, there was no apparent role tension between the partners. Thus, no partner’s contribution was deemed more valuable than the other.

Originality/value

By examining the division of labour and unique value/contribution of both men and women within the copreneurial/familial relationship the stereotyped perception of the husband being the lead (male) entrepreneur is challenged in favour of the more complementary capacities, roles, responsibilities and, thus, value of each actor/participant.

Details

International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, vol. 6 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-6266

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Article
Publication date: 2 September 2014

Sylvia Chant

The purpose of this paper is to explore links between a revisionist view of the “feminisation of poverty” in developing countries and women’s work and home-based…

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1436

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore links between a revisionist view of the “feminisation of poverty” in developing countries and women’s work and home-based enterprise in urban slums.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper’s discussion of the “feminisation of poverty” draws substantially from ethnographic field research conducted in The Gambia, The Philippines and Costa Rica. This research led the author to propose the notion of a “feminisation of responsibility and/or obligation”. The latter approach draws attention to issues such as gendered disparities of labour, time and resource inputs into household livelihoods, which are often most marked in male-headed units, and are not captured in conventional referents of the “feminisation of poverty”, which are rather narrowly confined to incomes and female household headship.

Findings

An integral element of the author’s critique is that the main policy response to classic “feminisation of poverty” thinking, to date, has been to “feminise” anti-poverty initiatives such as Conditional Cash Transfer (CCT) and microfinance programmes.

Originality/value

The paper argues that the “feminisation of poverty” compounds the tensions women already face in terms of managing unpaid reproductive and/or “volunteer” work with their economic contributions to household livelihoods, and it is in the context of urban slums, where housing, service and infrastructure deficiencies pose considerable challenges to women’s dual burdens of productive and reproductive labour. The paper emphasizes that to more effectively address gender inequality while also alleviating poverty, policy interventions sensitive to women’s multiple, time-consuming responsibilities and obligations are paramount.

Details

International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, vol. 6 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-6266

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Article
Publication date: 2 September 2014

Robert Smith

The purpose of this paper is to assess the contribution of “Matriarchy” to the entrepreneurship and family business literature. The literature on gendered aspects of…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to assess the contribution of “Matriarchy” to the entrepreneurship and family business literature. The literature on gendered aspects of entrepreneurship is expanding and maturing in its level of theoretical sophistication and subject coverage. At the same time, our nuanced understanding of how gender influences entrepreneurial action also expands, as does our appreciation of how men and women do entrepreneurship. It is widely acknowledged that although the theories of entrepreneurship and small business are cognate literature, entrepreneurship has primacy. The heroic male entrepreneur is the master narrative against which we measure other forms of entrepreneurship. The role played by wives, partners, family and employees is often left unstated. In our eternal quest to theorise and explain entrepreneurial action in its entirety, we seldom consider the explanatory power of the sociological theory of “Matriarchy”. Consequentially, in this theoretical paper, we present and discuss several important aspects of the theory which are applicable to our understanding of the diverse nature of gendered enactment within entrepreneurship and small business in which entrepreneurship provides the action to be measured and small business, the setting in which it is encountered. The work primarily concentrates on the theoretical aspects of Matriarchy as well as building upon the extant literature of entrepreneurship, gender and small and family business.

Design/methodology/approach

The literature on Matriarchy is presented and analysed in conjunction with appropriate texts from the above literature. The readings help construct a theoretical framework which is tested against narratives of Matriarchial figures encountered via research and written up using retrospective ethnography. This unusual qualitative methodology allows the author to test and develop the utility of the theoretical framework. The resultant narratives and vignettes are both illuminating and enlightening.

Findings

The stories of the Matriarchs illustrate how gender differences impact upon entrepreneurial identities and the everyday practicalities of doing business. While the male head of the family may be the titular business owner, many privately defer to the Matriarchal voice which acts as a positive driving force in business, binding a family together.

Research limitations/implications

The theory of Matriarchy offers another powerful explanatory variable in how gendered relationships influence entrepreneurial identities and in making the theory the focal point, we can avoid some of the common assumptions we make when we concentrate on entrepreneurship as the key variable. In perpetuating heroic entrepreneurial narrative as success stories, we as the ultimate consumers of such socially constructed fiction are also complicit. This article, therefore, has the potential to influence how we as authors of such narratives narrate stories of women in family business.

Originality/value

The paper challenges the universality of traditional renditions of family businesses as entrepreneur stories. It re-examines and challenges accepted wisdom building up a discussion, which confronts accepted theories of entrepreneurship and family business.

Details

International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, vol. 6 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-6266

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Article
Publication date: 2 September 2014

Mary Barrett

The purpose of this paper is to study women’s entrepreneurship from the family-firm context and radical subjectivist (RS) economics. While women’s entrepreneurship is a…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study women’s entrepreneurship from the family-firm context and radical subjectivist (RS) economics. While women’s entrepreneurship is a long-standing topic of research interest, there have been calls for more theory-oriented research and research which takes context factors in women’s entrepreneurship seriously. The paper responds to this by using an RS’s view of economics as a theoretical lens to consider women’s entrepreneurship in family firms.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper briefly reviews the potential of the family-firm context for examining women’s entrepreneurship in a non-reductive fashion, then outlines radical subjectivism (RS). The three main elements of RS’s “entrepreneurial imagination” are explained, then linked with other theories of family-firm behaviour and applied to casework on women entrepreneurs in family firms.

Findings

Each element of the entrepreneurial imagination, empathy, modularity and self-organization, generates new research questions which contest previous apparently settled views about women entrepreneurs. Protocols for investigating the questions are suggested. The third element, self-organization, while more difficult to operationalize for empirical testing, suggests how women’s entrepreneurship might generate new industries.

Research limitations/implications

While this is primarily a conceptual study, its case studies invite further exploration of both women entrepreneurs and family firms. The RS perspective could also increase understanding of shared leadership and innovation in family firms. Specific research questions and protocols for investigating them are offered.

Practical implications

Insights from the research have practical implications for entrepreneurship education, for understanding entrepreneurship at the level of society, the firm and the individual.

Social implications

The importance of both family firms and women entrepreneurs to society makes it important to understand both of them better. The RS perspective can help.

Originality/value

The paper highlights the value of combining attention to entrepreneurial context (family firms) and theory (RS) to reinvigorate some old research questions about women entrepreneurs. The combination of family firms and RS is also novel.

Details

International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, vol. 6 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-6266

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Article
Publication date: 2 September 2014

Jane L. Glover

The purpose of the paper is to present a case example of the power struggles and gender issues one daughter faced when she became a partner, and future successor, in the…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the paper is to present a case example of the power struggles and gender issues one daughter faced when she became a partner, and future successor, in the family business. This paper uses an ethnographic approach in order to study a small family farm in England. The case focuses on a small family farm, these businesses are unique in terms of their values and expectations for succession (Haberman and Danes, 2007), and identified by Wang (2010) as a fruitful avenue for research on daughter succession.

Design/methodology/approach

The empirical work was gathered through the use of a single site ethnographic case study involving participant observation as the researcher worked on the family farm and semi-structured interviews with family members over two years.

Findings

The results shed light on some of the social complexities of small family farms and power struggles within the family exacerbated by perceived gender issues. The work also highlights the potential threat to the daughter’s position as a partner, from her father’s favouritism of male employees.

Practical implications

Institutions that provide help to family farm businesses need to be aware of the potential power issues within the family specifically related to gender, particularly in terms of succession planning.

Originality/value

Using ethnography in family firms allows the researcher to be a part of the real-life world of family farmers, providing rich data to explore daughter succession.

Details

International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, vol. 6 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-6266

Keywords

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