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Article
Publication date: 9 February 2018

Tri Keah Henry, Brittany E. Hayes, Joshua D. Freilich and Steven Chermak

The purpose of this paper is to compare the role honor and shame play in honor killings and anti-LGBTQ homicides by identifying similarities and differences across these…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to compare the role honor and shame play in honor killings and anti-LGBTQ homicides by identifying similarities and differences across these two homicide types.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses data from the US Extremist Crime Database (ECDB). Data for each of the incidents included in the ECDB are gathered from various open sources through a multi-stage process. A total of 16 honor killings and 21 anti-LGBTQ cases (i.e. the universe for both groups) are examined in this analysis. A closed-coded analysis technique is utilized to assess each case for evidence of shame and honor as well as an iterative coding process to identify sub-categories within these broader themes.

Findings

Results indicate that shame and honor play important roles in both honor killings and anti-LGBTQ homicides, although their influence manifests differently across these two types of homicide. Perceived shame to the family is most closely related to honor killings, while suppressing homosexual urges underlines anti-LGBTQ homicides. Violations of religious tenets, protection of masculinity, and protection of honor are evidenced in both types of homicide.

Originality/value

This study uses a unique database to examine the ideological motivations of individuals who perpetrate extremist crimes in comparison to those who commit honor killings. Findings may inform forensic practices, including rehabilitation and prevention programs.

Details

Journal of Aggression, Conflict and Peace Research, vol. 10 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-6599

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Article
Publication date: 12 October 2015

Ged Doherty

– The purpose of this paper is to explore the phenomenon of mate crime and attempts to assess its practical as well as its theoretical implications.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the phenomenon of mate crime and attempts to assess its practical as well as its theoretical implications.

Design/methodology/approach

It begins with an account of the short history of the concept and then positions mate crime within academic theorising around general hate crime and disability.

Findings

Particular reference is made to the significance of the issue of vulnerability and how its interpretation might affect understanding of this phenomenon.

Research limitations/implications

This is followed by some observations on how agencies of social policy and the legislature are responding to the issue of mate crime.

Practical implications

Particular reference is paid to the impact of safeguarding adults procedures.

Originality/value

It concludes that, although “mates” can (and do) “hate”, further research is required on the subject in order to gain better knowledge of the issue from both a theoretical and a practice position.

Details

The Journal of Adult Protection, vol. 17 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1466-8203

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Article
Publication date: 4 June 2020

Sheraz Mustafa Rajput

This paper aims to assess the effects of different levels of education, namely, primary, secondary and tertiary, on global terrorism, measured by incidence of global terrorism.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to assess the effects of different levels of education, namely, primary, secondary and tertiary, on global terrorism, measured by incidence of global terrorism.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on annual panel data covering 120 countries from 1990 to 2017, zero-inflated negative binomial regression (NBR) model is applied to estimate relationship between education and terrorism.

Findings

The findings reveal that higher attainment of education at primary and secondary level lowers terrorism worldwide. The findings strongly hold across the most affected regions of the world including Middle East and North Africa, South Asia, Sub-Saharan Africa and Europe. Drawing a comparison between the OECD and non-OECD countries, the results are substantially supported throughout.

Research limitations/implications

This study highlights the significance of education, at least up to secondary level, as an effective measure to reduce the extent of terrorist activities worldwide. Apart from this, more focus on education is recommended across the most affected regions (Middle East and North Africa, South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa), specifically and the world, generally. Furthermore, as this study focuses at macro level, the future research may focus on factors enforcing individuals to resort to terrorism at individual and group level.

Originality/value

Unlike previous studies, this study contributes to existing literature through investigating the impact of terrorism at different levels of education.

Details

Journal of Aggression, Conflict and Peace Research, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-6599

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Book part
Publication date: 6 September 2018

Kayla Allison

Purpose – The overall purpose of this chapter is to discuss what is known about serious forms of bias violence, obstacles to studying bias violence, and how alternative…

Abstract

Purpose – The overall purpose of this chapter is to discuss what is known about serious forms of bias violence, obstacles to studying bias violence, and how alternative theoretical and methodological approaches can advance our understanding of bias violence in the twenty-first century.

Design/methodology/approach – Following a review of the literature, the applicability of identity fusion theory for explaining bias violence is considered and applied to the anti-racial mass shooting at an historically Black church in Charleston, South Carolina. Data come from an innovative open-source project known as the United States Extremist Crime Database.

Findings – Drawing from identity fusion theory, information from open-source data on the Charleston church shooting suggests that the perpetrator was a highly fused individual who perceived African Americans as a threat toward his social identity group and committed an act of extreme behavior (i.e., bias homicide) as a means for stabilizing his self-views.

Originality/value – This chapter builds upon prior studies of bias violence by demonstrating how (1) publicly available open sources (e.g., court documents and media reports) may be systematically compiled and used as reliable data for studying serious forms of bias violence, and (2) the use of social psychological theories, specifically identity fusion theory, can help to explain the role of personal and group identities in discriminatory violence.

Details

Homicide and Violent Crime
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-876-5

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Article
Publication date: 4 December 2017

Paulo R.A. Loureiro, Tito Belchior Silva Moreira and Roberto Ellery

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impacts of left Brazilian political parties and partisan disruption on the homicide rate in Brazil.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impacts of left Brazilian political parties and partisan disruption on the homicide rate in Brazil.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use panel data for the states between the years 1980 and 2011. The database used is an unbalanced panel covering a sample of 27 Brazilian states over 32 years, 1980-2011, totaling about 855 observations.

Findings

It is estimated that these two political factors are sources that have connection to the increased level of violence in Brazil. These analyses provide several important results. First, partisan disruption is associated with a higher homicide rate, compared to non-partisan disruption. The results from the panel also suggest that left-parties in government have a positive impact on homicide, compared to non-left-parties.

Research limitations/implications

Information regarding premeditated homicides (CID-BR-9 database) is available for all Brazilian states, and may be tabulated from the same micro-data at any level of aggregation. Some of the well-known problems regarding the choice of this variable are as follows. First, deaths resulting from wounds are sometimes included in the statistics whether wounds were intentionally inflicted or not. In addition, some incidents end up not being registered because certain deaths are not reported. This tends to occur more frequently in rural areas. Fortunately, this second problem does not appear to be too significant, as under-registry of deaths due to external causes is much lower than the amount resulting from natural causes (see, e.g. Cano and Santos, 2000). In addition, this problem may be controlled if under-registry remains stable over time by applying fixed effects to the panel data.

Practical implications

The main Brazilian political parties diverge on the causes of crime and how criminals should be punished. For example, in Brazil, the minimum age for one individual to be punished with imprisonment is 18 years old. Practices crimes for young people between 12 and 18 implies only in socio-educational measures. Given the high level of violence in Brazil, there is a bill being debated in the parliament that proposes to reduce the age to 16 years. Based on the research, 90 percent of the population approves the reduction of age to 16 years. However, the majority of parliament is opposed to changing the law. In general, the more conservative parties are favorable to changing the law.

Social implications

These divergent postures can be associated with the ideological essence or to belief system of each political party. Political parties have the potential capacity of changing crime trends through economic and social policies as well as by applying stronger sanctions against crime. Given the law enforcement system, the cycle of crime in Brazil may be related to the profile of the political party elected.

Originality/value

The authors assume the hypothesis that the current Brazilian multi-partisan system has an incentive system in which politicians do not respond adequately to the basic wishes of voters. Among such desires, the authors emphasize public safety. This paper evaluates the empirical effect of partisan disruption on homicide rate.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 44 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Book part
Publication date: 18 January 2021

Marian Duggan

In England and Wales, legislation pertaining to hate crime recognizes hostility based on racial identity, religious affiliation, sexual orientation, disability or…

Abstract

In England and Wales, legislation pertaining to hate crime recognizes hostility based on racial identity, religious affiliation, sexual orientation, disability or transgender identity. Discussions abound as to whether this legislation should also recognize hostility based on gender or misogyny. Taking a socio-legal analysis, the chapter examines hate crime, gender-based victimization and misogyny alongside the impact of victim identity construction, access to justice and the international nature of gendered harm. The chapter provides a comprehensive investigation of gender-based victimization in relation to targeted hostility to assess the potential for its inclusion in hate crime legislation in England and Wales.

Details

Studies in Law, Politics, and Society
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80071-221-8

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Abstract

Details

Transforming State Responses to Feminicide: Women's Movements, Law and Criminal Justice Institutions in Brazil
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80071-566-0

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Book part
Publication date: 6 September 2018

Abstract

Details

Homicide and Violent Crime
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-876-5

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Article
Publication date: 18 September 2019

Katarina Mozova

The purpose of this paper is to provide the reader with senior investigating officer (SIO) perspectives of their understanding of gang-related homicide and associated…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide the reader with senior investigating officer (SIO) perspectives of their understanding of gang-related homicide and associated investigative challenges.

Design/methodology/approach

A phenomenological design was utilised in this study. In sum, 15 SIOs from the Metropolitan Police Service were interviewed using a semi-structured interview and analysed using thematic analysis.

Findings

It was found that the original typology of “gang homicide” might be too narrow and focus should be paid to “gang-related homicide”, characterised via motive behind the offence. This type of homicide exhibited specific characteristics (e.g. violent nature, large potential scene and pool of suspects) and investigative challenges which made it different from other types of homicide (e.g. complexity, need for more resources, managing unwilling witnesses, managing media interest, specific evidence challenges, need for thorough risk assessments). The need for expertise in the deployment of officers was highlighted and related to the desire for more continuing professional development (CPD).

Practical implications

Gang-related homicide is especially challenging, but due to its volume, SIOs in London developed a sort of “muscle memory” – something that other police services do not have, even though the “gang problem” is spreading outside of metropolitan areas. Support for changes (e.g. in the utility of community impact assessment) and non-standard procedures (e.g. consideration of covert operations early on) should be discussed in further training and manual development. More attention needs to be paid to the synthesis of experience, expertise and science, SIOs being especially interested in debriefs and CPD opportunities. Multi-agency training is key for homicide investigators, relating to the complex nature of gang-related homicide and relevant safeguarding issues. Resourcing is a clear issue relating to the increase in gang-related homicide, as well as its investigation.

Originality/value

This is the first research into investigative challenges of gang-related homicide in England and Wales, and the findings can be utilised by all police services who may be dealing with gangs in their area. The findings can also support calls for change and development within services.

Details

Journal of Criminological Research, Policy and Practice, vol. 5 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-3841

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 21 April 2021

Fiona Macaulay

Abstract

Details

Transforming State Responses to Feminicide: Women's Movements, Law and Criminal Justice Institutions in Brazil
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80071-566-0

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