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Article
Publication date: 24 September 2019

Sahar Feili, H.R. Sabouhi, Hassan Sobhani and M. Traz

This study aims to propose a new scheme for designing a high-sensitivity optical biosensor. For this, two agents have been considered: reflection-type micro-resonators…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to propose a new scheme for designing a high-sensitivity optical biosensor. For this, two agents have been considered: reflection-type micro-resonators, which filter the noise of the pump, and coupled-ring reflectors (CRRs), which are coupled to partial reflecting elements in the bus waveguide to create Fano-resonance. These two agents improve the sensor sensitivity and have low-power optical switching/modulation.

Design/methodology/approach

The proposed model is based on the coupling of the CRRs with the Fabry–Pérot cavity. The slope of the Fano-resonance line shape and consequently the sensitivity of the proposed CRRs are higher than those of conventional microring resonators.

Findings

The proposed scheme has many characteristics: CRRs have been used to create a higher slope of the Fano-resonance line shape; the sensitivity of the sensor shows improvement on the basis of reflection-type micro-resonators and by the removal of the pump noise; the designed sensor has low-power optical switching/modulation; and the modeling and designing of a novel high-sensitivity resonator is based on coupling the CRRs with the Fabry–Pérot cavity.

Originality/value

This study has proposed a new scheme for designing a high-sensitivity optical biosensor. This method is based on the improvement of the sensitivity by two agents: reflection-type micro-resonators, which filter the noise of the pump, and coupled-ring reflectors, which are coupled to partial reflecting elements in the bus waveguide to create Fano-resonance.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 39 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 January 2021

Tze Kiat Lui, Mohd Haniff Zainuldin, Ahmad Nazri Wahidudin and Chuan Chew Foo

The purpose of this study aims to empirically examine the corporate social responsibility disclosure (CSRD) levels of conventional and Islamic banks in Malaysia…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study aims to empirically examine the corporate social responsibility disclosure (CSRD) levels of conventional and Islamic banks in Malaysia. Additionally, as Malaysian banks have different shareholding patterns that are more highly concentrated than those in the developed economies, this study also investigates the impact of ownership concentration on CSRD in both types of banks.

Design/methodology/approach

This study employs hand-collected corporate social responsibility (CSR) data from the annual and sustainability reports of 21 conventional banks and 16 Islamic banks in Malaysia during 2010–2017. The data are then run using the pooled ordinary least square (OLS) with robust standard errors and robust regressions models together with all possible factors determining CSRD in the banking sector.

Findings

This study discovers that Islamic banks disclose a higher level of total CSRD than their conventional counterparts after controlling a number of important determinants of CSRD. These results remain consistent for four different dimensions of CSRD, i.e. employees, communities, environment and products and services. In relation to the impact of ownership concentration on CSRD level, the results show that high ownership concentration reduces the level of CSRD by Malaysian banks. However, in an additional interaction test, the result exhibits a complementary relationship between Islamic banks and ownership concentration in influencing CSRD level.

Research limitations/implications

This study finds that the principle of Islamic accountability has been internalised by Islamic banks, and shaped them to put equal emphasis on the disclosure of CSR practices and the financial information disclosure.

Practical implications

It is recommended for all banks to ensure the integration of a more comprehensive ethical system, such as theological ethical values in every aspect of their business activities. The findings from this study also highlight the necessity for the central bank to increase their monitoring role, especially towards banks with a more concentrated ownership structure by limiting the size of shareholdings by any particular types of owners.

Originality/value

Only a few studies have compared CSR practices between these two types of banks, and most of them are descriptive and qualitative in nature. This study is the first that uses a robust model with a high R-squared value, which control for all possible factors determining CSRD in the banking sector.

Details

International Journal of Bank Marketing, vol. 39 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-2323

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 20 April 2020

Shamsun Nahar, Mohammad Istiaq Azim and Md Moazzem Hossain

The purpose of this paper is to explore to what extent risk disclosure is associated with banks’ governance characteristics. The research also focuses on how the business…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore to what extent risk disclosure is associated with banks’ governance characteristics. The research also focuses on how the business environment and culture may create a bank’s awareness of risk management and its disclosure. This study is conducted in a setting where banks are not mandated to follow international standards for their risk disclosures.

Design/methodology/approach

Using 300 bank-year observations comprising hand-collected private commercial bank data, the study uses regression analysis to investigate the influence of risk governance characteristics on risk disclosure.

Findings

This paper reports a positive relationship between risk disclosure and banks’ governance characteristics, such as the presence of various risk committees and a risk management unit.

Practical implications

Because studies are lacking on risk disclosure and risk governance conducted in developing countries, it is expected that this research will make a significant contribution to the literature and provide a foundation for further research in this field.

Social implications

This study complements the corporate governance literature, more specifically the risk governance literature, by incorporating agency theory, institutional theory and proprietary cost theory to provide robust evidence of the impact of risk governance practices in the context of a developing economy.

Originality/value

Previous studies on risk disclosure and governance determinants primarily involve developed countries. This paper’s contribution is to examine risk disclosure and risk governance characteristics in a developing country in which reporting according to international standards is effectively voluntary.

Details

International Journal of Accounting & Information Management, vol. 28 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1834-7649

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 March 2016

Shamsun Nahar, Christine Jubb and Mohammad I Azim

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the association between risk governance and bank performance in a country where disclosure of risk information is virtually…

2312

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the association between risk governance and bank performance in a country where disclosure of risk information is virtually voluntary.

Design/methodology/approach

Using 210 bank-year observations comprising hand-collected data for the period 2006-2012, the study uses regression analysis to test whether a significant relationship exists between risk governance and banks’ accounting- and market-based performance.

Findings

This paper investigates risk governance in terms of risk disclosure, number of risk committees and existence of a risk management unit, controlling for other corporate governance variables. Accounting-based performance is measured by return on equity and return on assets; market-based performance is measured by Tobin’s q and buy-and-hold returns. The results show that there is a significant relationship between risk governance and bank performance measures used in this study.

Research limitations/implications

This paper complements the governance literature by incorporating agency and neo-institutional theory to provide robust evidence that risk monitoring and management are associated with bank performance, which has become extremely important following the global financial crisis (2007-2008).

Practical implications

Empirical evidence in this paper suggests that risk governance characteristics can be used as channels to improve bank performance. In addition, stakeholders may find these results useful in selecting their preferred bank.

Originality/value

The uniqueness of this paper lies in its country setting. Most studies on governance and performance involve developed countries. This paper’s contribution is to examine the association of risk governance characteristics for both accounting-based and market-based performance in a developing economy setting, with virtually voluntary compliance mechanisms in place.

Details

Managerial Auditing Journal, vol. 31 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-6902

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 June 2018

Rashid Zaman, Jamal Roudaki and Muhammad Nadeem

The purpose of this study is to present and test a conceptual framework that describes the Islamic religiosity parameters of riba, zakat and mafsadah and their influence…

1028

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to present and test a conceptual framework that describes the Islamic religiosity parameters of riba, zakat and mafsadah and their influence on the adoption of firms’ corporate social responsibility (CSR) practices.

Design/methodology/approach

The study applied structural equation modelling to empirically test the proposed model on a sample of 109 Pakistan Stock Exchange (PSX) listed firms.

Findings

The study finds that the Islamic religiosity parameters of riba and mafsadah have a positive influence on the adoption of CSR practices, thus confirming the two study hypotheses. However, the authors did not find any significant influence of the zakat parameter on the adoption of firms’ CSR practices.

Research limitations/implications

This study is limited to the Islamic religious concept and only surveyed one stakeholder group, i.e. firms’ managers in the Pakistani context. The authors recommend that future studies should look beyond a single religion with the inclusion of multiple stakeholders in a cross-country setting.

Practical implications

The findings possess important policy implication for regulators, stakeholders and practitioners, as the authors demonstrate that different parameters of religiosity are related to CSR practices and these parameters can be used as a substitute for and complement legal institutions in promoting and developing CSR practices.

Social implications

The stakeholders’ particular investors and other market participants should be aware of the degree of religiousness and the CSR nexus, as surveyed manger responses in PSX listed firms indicate that better religious firms seem to place more emphasis on social responsibility obligations.

Originality/value

This study is among few studies that propose a comprehensive conceptual Islamic religiosity framework to evaluate the influence of a firm’s Islamic religiosity on CSR best practices. It differs from the past studies that were either on Islamic financial institutes or examined the religious influence on a firm’s economic behaviours.

Details

Social Responsibility Journal, vol. 14 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-1117

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 July 2020

Muzammal Khan, Abeer Hassan, Christian Harrison and Heather Tarbert

This paper aims to provide a systematic review of the published literature on corporate social responsibility reporting (CSRR). Furthermore, it assesses the main…

1353

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to provide a systematic review of the published literature on corporate social responsibility reporting (CSRR). Furthermore, it assesses the main limitations reported in previous CSRR studies and offers recommendations for best practice and future research.

Design/methodology/approach

A review protocol was developed to search nine major databases over a decade (2005–2017) using specific keywords. As a result, 221 articles were identified that deal explicitly with CSRR in both developed and developing countries, and a descriptive analysis was undertaken.

Findings

Findings of the review show that scholarly work on CSRR across the globe have increased exponentially. However, there still remain quite a few countries and industries that have been underrepresented in CSRR literature. Moreover, methodological- and sampling-related limitations have been noted by a number of scholars in the area. Based on these results, the review provides directions for future research.

Originality/value

The review provides a categorised bibliography of CSRR research on developed and developing countries from 2005 to 2017, covering a range of journals and countries. The review provides state of the art of the CSRR research and highlights the major loopholes in the current literature. This is a valuable study for academics pursuing research on CSRR as it provides a comprehensive and critical discussion on academic research in the field.

Expert briefing
Publication date: 24 January 2020

Iranian capacity to mobilise Afghan clients.

Details

DOI: 10.1108/OXAN-DB250226

ISSN: 2633-304X

Keywords

Geographic
Topical
Article
Publication date: 20 January 2020

Nurul Ain Shahar, Anuar Nawawi and Ahmad Saiful Azlin Puteh Salin

This paper aims to examine the extent of the Shari’a corporate governance disclosure in the annual report of Islamic financial institutions (IFIs) in Malaysia to determine…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the extent of the Shari’a corporate governance disclosure in the annual report of Islamic financial institutions (IFIs) in Malaysia to determine the significant differences in this disclosure between the local and foreign-owned IFIs, small and large size IFIs and IFIs belong to Islamic and conventional holding companies.

Design/methodology/approach

All 16 IFIs in Malaysia were selected to analyse the extent of disclosure in their annual reports on issues related to Shari’a corporate governance. For this purpose, an index of Shari’a corporate governance disclosure for IFIs was created based on adapting Sulaiman et al. (2015). The index consists of 127 items classified into 14 dimensions. The scoring of the disclosed items is binary, where a score of “1” if disclosed and “0” if it was not disclosed in the annual report.

Findings

The result shows no significant differences in the Shari’a corporate governance disclosure between the local and foreign-owned IFIs, small and large size IFIs and IFIs belonging to Islamic and conventional holding companies. However, further examination shows that there was a significant difference in the disclosure of the risk management committee dimension between the large and small IFIs and investment account holders dimension between the conventional and Islamic holding companies.

Research limitations/implications

The results provide new emerging evidence that deviates from many prior empirical research studies, which document the domination of Islamic-based IFIs in the corporate governance practices, as compared with their conventional financial institutions that venture into Islamic finance. This study, however, was conducted on only 16 IFIs in a one-year period, i.e. 2013. Future research should consider data from a larger number of IFIs that involve a number of countries with more than one year of data to have a better understanding of the extent of Shari’a corporate governance disclosure.

Practical implications

This study provides an indicator to the stakeholders of Islamic finance that the Islamic-based IFIs and conventional IFIs are equal and cannot be differentiated based on the Shari’a corporate governance disclosure. For Islamic-based IFIs, as a pioneer in Islamic banking and finance industry, they need to take more efforts in adopting the Shari’a governance framework issued by the Central Bank of Malaysia (BNM), namely, the Shari’a review, audit and risk management.

Originality/value

This study is original, as it includes the latest requirements by the Shari’a governance framework issued by the BNM, namely, the Shari’a review, audit, risk management and research functions in its research instrument. In addition, this research also scrutinised the disclosure in detail of all the dimensions constructed in the governance index.

Details

Journal of Islamic Accounting and Business Research, vol. 11 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0817

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 April 2016

Odhiambo Odera, Albert Scott and Jeff Gow

This study seeks to examine the quantity and quality of social and environmental disclosures (SEDs) of Nigerian oil companies. The study aims to analyse SED activities as…

Abstract

Purpose

This study seeks to examine the quantity and quality of social and environmental disclosures (SEDs) of Nigerian oil companies. The study aims to analyse SED activities as reported by the oil companies in their annual reports.

Design/methodology/approach

The study analyses annual reports through content analysis. SED quantity is measured by alternative two units: number of sentences and number of pages. A two-point scale system to assess SED quality is used as follows: 1 = if SED is quantitative and reports specific activities of a company concerning its social and environmental responsibility; 0 = otherwise. Correlation analysis is performed among the different SED categories to identify the relationships among them. Kolmongrov–Smirnov and Shapiro–Wilk tests for normality are utilised.

Findings

SED activities are reported by most of the companies, and by quantity, employee information is found to be the most common type of disclosure. SED quantity and quality in the environment category is found to be overwhelmingly low despite the large-scale public concern expressed about the levels of the environmental degradation caused by oil company operations.

Research limitations/implications

The data collected for this study are based on one country, which controls diversity but limits the generalizability of the findings. The study is limited by the sample which includes mainly quoted companies, as they are believed to make improved disclosures because of their investor orientation and statutory obligations.

Originality/value

The study extends SED research by focusing on social disclosures such as employee-, community- and health- and safety-related disclosures. The study also investigates the motivations of SED providers and establishes a link between stakeholder demands/engagement and the level of disclosure.

Details

Corporate Governance, vol. 16 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1472-0701

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 29 January 2020

Fatimah Noor Rashidah Mohd Sofian and Rusnah Muhamad

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between the modified integrated Islamic CSRD index (MIICSRDi) and financial performance of Malaysian Islamic banks…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between the modified integrated Islamic CSRD index (MIICSRDi) and financial performance of Malaysian Islamic banks as perceived by the stakeholders.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper used survey questionnaire with a purposive sample of 343 stakeholders of Malaysian Islamic banks. A theoretical framework was developed and tested by using partial least square analysis.

Findings

The findings reveal that there is a significant positive relationship between the MIICSRDi and financial performance as perceived by the stakeholders.

Research limitations/implications

There is a lack of empirical research proposing an Islamic CSRD framework that is suitable to be applied within the context of the Malaysian environment. Hence, this paper shows that MIICSRDi in line with the stakeholder theory, Shariah principles and ‘urf principle (customary practice) can be used by Malaysian Islamic banks to increase their performance.

Practical implications

MIICSRDi can be used as one of the strategies to improve the financial performance of Islamic banks. In fact, it can be instilled in the value-based intermediation introduced by Bank Negara Malaysia for the rebranding of Islamic banks.

Originality/value

The relationship between perceived MIICSRDi and perceived financial performance is explained in light of the stakeholder theory, Shariah principles (unity, equilibrium, free will, responsibility and tazkiyah) and ‘urf principle (customary practice).

Details

Journal of Islamic Accounting and Business Research, vol. 11 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0817

Keywords

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