Search results

1 – 10 of 107
Open Access
Article
Publication date: 20 August 2021

Imran Yousaf, Hasan Hanif, Shoaib Ali and Syed Moudud-Ul-Huq

The authors aim to examine the mean and volatility linkages between the gold market and the Latin American equity markets in the entire sample period and two crises periods…

1288

Abstract

Purpose

The authors aim to examine the mean and volatility linkages between the gold market and the Latin American equity markets in the entire sample period and two crises periods, namely the US financial crisis and the Chinese crash.

Design/methodology/approach

To examine the return and volatility spillovers, the authors employ VAR-BEKK-GARCH model on the daily data of four emerging Latin American equity markets which include Peru, Chile, Brazil and Mexico, which ranges from January 2000 to June 2018.

Findings

The results show that the return transmissions vary across the stock markets and the crises periods. The volatility transmission is found to be bidirectional between the gold and stock markets of Brazil and Chile during the US financial crisis. Furthermore, the volatility spillover is unidirectional from Brazil to gold and from gold to Peru stock market during the Chinese crash. We also calculate the optimal weights hedge ratios for gold and stock portfolio. The result suggests that portfolio managers need to increase the weight of gold for the equity portfolios of Peru and Mexico during the US financial crisis. Furthermore, during the Chinese crisis, investors may raise the investment in gold for the equity portfolios of Brazil and Chile. Finally, the cheapest hedging strategy is CHIL/GOLD during the US financial crisis, whereas MEXI/GOLD during the Chinese crash.

Practical implications

These findings have useful insights for portfolio diversification, asset pricing and risk management.

Originality/value

The study's outcome provides policymakers and investors with in-depth insights regarding hedging, risk management and portfolio management.

Details

Journal of Economics, Finance and Administrative Science, vol. 26 no. 52
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2218-0648

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 February 2023

Hasan Hanif

Systemic risk is of concern for economic welfare as it can lower the credit supply to all the sectors within an economy. This study examines for the first time the complete…

Abstract

Purpose

Systemic risk is of concern for economic welfare as it can lower the credit supply to all the sectors within an economy. This study examines for the first time the complete hierarchy of variables that drive systemic risk during normal and crisis periods in Pakistan, a developing economy.

Design/methodology/approach

Secondary data of the bank, sector and country variables are used for the purpose of the analysis spanning from 2000 to 2020. Systemic risk is computed using marginal expected shortfall (MES). One-step and two-step system GMM is performed to estimate the impact of firm, sector and country-level variables on systemic risk.

Findings

The findings of the study highlight that sector-level variables are also highly significant in explaining the systemic risk dynamics along with bank and country-level variables. In addition, economic sensitivity influences the significance level of variables across crisis and post-crisis periods and modifies the direction of relationships in some instances.

Research limitations/implications

The study examines the systemic risk of a developing economy, and findings may not be generalizable to developed economies.

Practical implications

The outcome of the study provides a comprehensive framework for the central bank and other regulatory authorities that can be translated into timely policies to avoid systemic financial crisis.

Social implications

The negative externalities generated by systemic risk also affect the general public. The study results can be used to avoid the systemic financial crisis and resultantly save the loss of the general public's hard-earned holdings.

Originality/value

The firm, sector and country-level variables are modeled for the first time to estimate systemic risk across different economic conditions in a developing economy, Pakistan. The study can also act as a reference for researchers in developed economies as well regarding the role of sector-level variables in explaining systemic risk.

Details

South Asian Journal of Business Studies, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-628X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 21 August 2023

Muhammad Faisal Malik, Muddasar Ghani Khwaja, Hasan Hanif and Saqib Mahmood

The purpose of current study was to investigate the impact of supervisor support on Knowledge Sharing Behavior through psychological well-being, psychological ownership, and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of current study was to investigate the impact of supervisor support on Knowledge Sharing Behavior through psychological well-being, psychological ownership, and Alturism. The study also took mindfulness as first path moderator in the relation to supervisor support and psychological well-being, and psychological ownership.

Design/methodology/approach

Positivism research philosophy followed by the deductive approach is followed to meet the objectives of the current study. A total of 219 employees from the telecom sector were identified as the respondents of the study. A purposive sampling technique was used to collect the data through self-administrated questionnaires. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were used through AMOS to generate the results and test hypotheses.

Findings

The results suggested that supervisor support significantly contributes to the achievement of the knowledge-sharing behavior of employees with the chain of mediation, i.e. psychological well-being, ownership and altruism. Similarly, the moderating role of mindfulness is significant in the relationship between supervisor support and psychological well-being.

Originality/value

Although a number of researchers have studied the link between supervisor support and other employees related attitudinal and behavioral outcomes, few have explored the roles of psychological ownership, well-being and altruism in the relationship of knowledge sharing behavior. This study thus posits a novel sequential mediation and moderation mechanism, based on the social exchange theory, through which supervisor support is translated into knowledge sharing behavior.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 44 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 28 November 2023

Amal Bakour

The aim of this paper is to investigate and to measure the efficiency of Islamic banks through a comparative study with their conventional counterparts during the coronavirus…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to investigate and to measure the efficiency of Islamic banks through a comparative study with their conventional counterparts during the coronavirus period for the case of MENA region.

Design/methodology/approach

Indeed, this study will use the parametric method for a panel of 92 banks, including 27 Islamic banks and 65 conventional banks, over a ten-year period (2012–2021) and from eight MENA countries, namely, Bahrain, Egypt, Jordan, Kuwait, Qatar, UAE, Yemen and Tunisia.

Findings

The findings show that Islamic banks are more profitable than conventional banks before and during Covid-19, this result can be explained by the effectiveness of Shariah principles, differences in cost control, management and resource allocation. In addition, this study found that conventional banks outperformed Islamic banks after Covid-19.

Originality/value

This is a recent empirical study that investigates a timely and important topic.

Details

Journal of Islamic Accounting and Business Research, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0817

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 26 January 2023

Nadia Hanif, Anam Javaid, Noman Arshed and Abdul Rafay

Money laundering (ML) is the process used to convert the proceeds of crimes into lawful form. This global problem promotes social ills, corruption and organized crimes. Various…

Abstract

Purpose

Money laundering (ML) is the process used to convert the proceeds of crimes into lawful form. This global problem promotes social ills, corruption and organized crimes. Various instruments are used to counter individual illicit behavior. However, in low-income countries, these regulations are not common because of weak institutions, poor governance and a lack of awareness about the negative consequences of ML. In these countries, multinational corporations take advantage of poor law and order, lower environmental regulations and corruption and shift their domestic operations into foreign countries.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses a multiple mediator model to investigate the link between foreign direct investment (FDI), environmental degradation measured as CO2 emissions (CE), exports and ML for 118 countries between 2008 to 2018.

Findings

Results indicate that FDI promotes exports and CE, leading to illicit financial flows.

Originality/value

Policymakers should enforce checks on foreign funds flow and adopt illicit flow mitigation measures to minimize ML globally.

Details

Journal of Money Laundering Control, vol. 26 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1368-5201

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 11 January 2023

Xiaobing Huang, Yousaf Ali Khan, Noman Arshed, Sultan Salem, Muhammad Ghulam Shabeer and Uzma Hanif

Social development is the ultimate goal of every nation, and climate change is a major stumbling block. Climate Risk Index has documented several climate change events with their…

1003

Abstract

Purpose

Social development is the ultimate goal of every nation, and climate change is a major stumbling block. Climate Risk Index has documented several climate change events with their devastations in terms of lives lost and economic cost. This study aims to link the climate change and renewable energy with the social progress of extreme climate affected countries.

Design/methodology/approach

This research used the top 50 most climate-affected countries of the decade and estimated the impact of climate risk on social progress with moderation effects of renewable energy and technology. Several competing panel data models such as quantile regression, bootstrap quantile regression and feasible generalized least square are used to generate robust estimates.

Findings

The results confirm that climate hazards obstruct socioeconomic progress, but renewable energy and technology can help to mitigate the repercussion. Moreover, improved institutions enhance the social progress of nations.

Research limitations/implications

Government should improve the institutional quality that enhances their performance in terms of Voice and Accountability, Political Stability and Absence of Violence, Government Effectiveness, Regulatory Quality, Rule of Law and Control of Corruption to increase social progress. In addition, society should use renewable energy instead of fossil fuels to avoid environmental degradation and health hazards. Innovation and technology also play an important role in social progress and living standards, so there should be free hand to private business research and development, encouraging research institutes and universities to come forward for innovation and research.

Practical implications

The ultimate goal of all human struggle is to have progress that facilitates human beings to uplift their living standard. One of the best measures that can tell us about a nation’s progress is Social Progress Index (SPI), and one of many factors that can abruptly change it is the climate; so this study is an attempt to link the relationship among these variables and also discuss the situation where the impact of climate can be reduced.

Social implications

Although social progress is an important concept of today’s economics discussion, relatively few studies are using the SPI to measure social well-being. Similarly, there is consensus about the impact of climate on people, government and crops but relatively less study about its overall impact on social progress, so this study attempts to fill the gap about the relationship between social progress and climate change.

Originality/value

The main contribution of this study is the solution for the impact of climate risk. Climate risk is not in human control, and we cannot eliminate it, but we can reduce the negative impacts of climate change. Moderator impact of renewable energy decreases the negative impact of climate change, so there is a need to use more renewable energy to mitigate the bad consequences of climate on social progress. Another moderator is technology; using technology will also mitigate the negative consequences of the climate, so there is a need to facilitate technological advancement.

Details

International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management, vol. 15 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-8692

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 August 2019

Muhammad Hanif

The purpose of this paper is to present an analysis of current practices of Islamic mortgages in the light of the principles of Islamic financial system, to document divergences …

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present an analysis of current practices of Islamic mortgages in the light of the principles of Islamic financial system, to document divergences – if any. A subsidiary goal is to develop an Islamic Mortgage Model (IMM) based on Musharakah principles.

Design/methodology/approach

The author documents theoretical underpinnings of risk-return sharing from the Shari’ah perspective. A comparative study of conventional and Islamic mortgages is completed; existing practice of Islamic mortgages analyzed in the light of Musharakah principles and divergences identified. IMM is developed after taking divergences and Musharakah principles into considerations. A housing case is used to highlight differences (in financial terms) under multiple methods and scenarios.

Findings

Study documents multiple divergences from Musharakah principles in the existing practice of Islamic mortgages including ignorance of market pricing in the negotiation of rentals and trading of equity units, and transfer of all ownership risks and rewards (vacancy, damage, destruction and market) to one partner (i.e. customer). Practice is divergent from principles in the area of economic substance. Modified IMM is developed by taking into account Musharakah principles; and differences highlighted by calculating financial figures – to determine financial rights and liabilities of the parties.

Practical implications

Divergence from the principles of risk-return sharing leads to failure in the achievement of Islamic finance objective of equitable distribution of wealth. Moreover, protection of capital for financier reduces the market abilities to achieve financial stability by matching credit expansion with the rise in the real economy. Shari’ah boards and regulators, as well as, management of Islamic banking industry are expected to incorporate proposed changes in-practice for the realization of Islamic finance objectives.

Originality/value

This study contributes to Islamic finance literature in the area of risk-return sharing. Based on important objectives of Islamic finance – equitable distribution of wealth and financial stability – divergences identified and a modified IMM in the light of Musharakah principles is presented. Descriptive rules are transformed into financial figures to document financial rights and liabilities of the concerned parties.

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. 14 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 1 November 2018

Muhammad Hanif

This study aims to develop a Sharīʿah-compliance rating mechanism for the Islamic financial services industry (IFSI), with a special focus on banking. The banking sector is taken…

5474

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to develop a Sharīʿah-compliance rating mechanism for the Islamic financial services industry (IFSI), with a special focus on banking. The banking sector is taken as the area of focus due to its leadership role in the volume of global Sharīʿah-compliant assets.

Design/methodology/approach

The objectives of the Islamic financial system (IFS) are selected as the basis for ratings. A range of performance indicators (leading to achievement of the objectives) is grouped into four broader categories and used in the study to allocate scores with a sum total of 100. Special considerations – including the amount of resources required in performing an activity, suitability of prevailing business conditions, the degree of compulsion/discretion in performing a task and linkage with the essence of the IFS – were taken into account in the allocation of scores.

Findings

This study groups multiple performance measures into four categories, including portfolio construction (deposits mechanism, participatory and asset-based modes of financing), access to finance (service to the less-privileged and sector screening), reputation (disclosures and stakeholders’ survey) and Sharīʿah governance (Sharīʿah supervision and controls, charitable operations, human resources, product development and organization). The Portfolio, Audit, Reputation and System (PARS) rating system is then developed.

Practical implications

A Sharīʿah-compliance rating system is helpful in measuring the progress towards goal achievement of the IFS and in gaining stakeholders’ trust. It is also important for Sharīʿah boards and regulators in policy formulation, for management in addressing weaknesses and taking corrective measures and potentially for standard-setting bodies.

Originality/value

This study presents a comprehensive quantitative Sharīʿah-compliance rating mechanism, taking into consideration the objectives of the IFS – equitable distribution of wealth and financial stability, in addition to Sharīʿah-compliance in operations. Development of Sharīʿah-compliance quality ratings for Islamic banking is essential to gain customers’ trust; the suggested methodology is thus a contribution to the literature on Islamic finance.

Details

ISRA International Journal of Islamic Finance, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0128-1976

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 19 December 2016

Mohammad Ashraful Ferdous Chowdhury, Mohammad Shoyeb, Chowdhury Akbar and Md. Nazrul Islam

The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of risk sharing and non-risk sharing instruments on both the profitability of Islamic banks and the economic growth of the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of risk sharing and non-risk sharing instruments on both the profitability of Islamic banks and the economic growth of the country. This study also aims to improve the profit and loss sharing-based asset growth of Islamic banks.

Methodology/approach

The data for this study are obtained from the annual reports of all Islamic banks from Bangladesh using Bank scope database and annual report for the period of 1983–2014. The research uses Autoregressive Distributive Lag approach.

Findings

The findings reveal that risk sharing instruments are positively related to profitability and the economic growth of the country. This study also finds that non-risk sharing instruments play a predominant role in the profitability of the Islamic bank but are negatively related to the economic growth of the country.

Research implications

Banks and other financial institutions need to pay greater attention to systemic risk created by risk transfer and apply risk sharing methods of financing more vigorously than has hitherto been the case.

Originality/value

This study will also contribute to the literature as relatively few Islamic financial literatures deal with the relationship between equity financing and profitability which may make a strong contribution to the area of Islamic finance.

Details

Advances in Islamic Finance, Marketing, and Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-899-8

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 October 2019

Muhammad Hanif, Abdullah Iqbal and Zulfiqar Shah

This study aims to understand and document the impact of market-based – market returns and momentum – as well as firm-specific – size, book-to-market (B/M) ratio…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to understand and document the impact of market-based – market returns and momentum – as well as firm-specific – size, book-to-market (B/M) ratio, price-to-earnings ratio (PER) and cash flow (CF) – factors on pricing of Shari’ah-compliant securities as explanation of variations in stock returns in an emerging market – Pakistan’s Karachi Stock Exchange.

Design/methodology/approach

Initially, the authors test Fama and French (FF) three-factor model – market risk premium, size and B/M – followed by modified FF model by including additional risk factors (PER, CF and momentum) over a 10-year period (2001-2010).

Findings

Our results support superiority of FF three-factor model over single-factor capital asset pricing model. However, addition of further risk factors – including PER, CF and momentum – improves explanatory power of the model, as well as refines the selection of risk factors. In this study, CF, B/M and momentum factors remain insignificant. Traditional B/M factor in FF model is replaced by PER.

Practical implications

Based on the modified FF model, the authors propose a stock valuation model for Shari’ah-compliant securities consisting of three factors: market returns, size and earnings, which explains 76per cent variations in cross sectional stock returns.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study (which combines market-based as well as fundamental factors) on pricing of Islamic securities and identification of risk factors in an emerging market – Karachi Stock Exchange.

Details

Journal of Islamic Accounting and Business Research, vol. 10 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0817

Keywords

1 – 10 of 107