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This book is an attempt to reflect on what we have learned from financial policies and financial crises in Latin America. The 21 chapters in this volume capture the developments in various ways. They cover theoretical contributions, regional empirical studies, and specific inquiries on Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Cuba, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru and Venezuela. The breadth of methodologies implemented suggests that researchers are looking at Latin American financial markets through a variety of lenses. The chapters are divided into 7 parts, including, in Part I, an initial overview. Part II examines the foreign exchange markets in Latin America and their interactions with other markets. Part III discusses dollarization issues in the region. Part IV then takes up the issue of banking in Latin America. Equity and bond markets are considered in Parts V and VI, respectively. Lastly, Part VII considers pension systems in Latin America. Taken as a whole, the 21 chapters seize the excitement of studying Latin America and provide lessons that are applicable around the world.
Latin American financial executives are emerging as strategic planners. In this chapter some linkages between strategy and finance in the case of Latin American…
Latin American financial executives are emerging as strategic planners. In this chapter some linkages between strategy and finance in the case of Latin American corporations are shown to guide decision-makers in gaining insights when applying recognized methods of capital budgeting. Results of a survey of corporate executives shed light on the criteria used in corporations of the region to evaluate investment projects, make capital budgeting decisions, consider adjustments needed, and make an appraisal of the overall interaction of factors related to strategic capital budgeting.
Propensity to dollarize in Latin America in the demand-side of some economies of the region has a strong political risk component which, in the past, was mainly carried…
Propensity to dollarize in Latin America in the demand-side of some economies of the region has a strong political risk component which, in the past, was mainly carried out by inflationary pressures. Coping with risk meant holding FCDs. A recursive multilevel model is developed and empirically tested with Colombia’s data to stress a country-specific tendency to dollarize due to political risk. The chapter’s conclusions suggest that consideration of issues, policies and implications inherent to the decision to dollarize cannot ignore that, the solution to any government-enforced dilemma in the supply-side of these economies, is also politically motivated. Results of a survey are also provided.
In 1995 the Chicago Mercantile Exchange (CME) introduced a Brazilian Real futures contract. This study explores whether the level of futures contract hedging activity has…
In 1995 the Chicago Mercantile Exchange (CME) introduced a Brazilian Real futures contract. This study explores whether the level of futures contract hedging activity has affected the volatility in Brazil’s equity market. As a proxy for volatility, a threshold autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity (TARCH) model is employed to obtain the conditional variance of the log-daily returns in the BOVESPA, the Brazilian stock market index. Impulse response functions from a vector autoregressive (VAR) model are utilized to analyze the relationship between volatility and futures trading activity. The empirical results indicate that increased hedging activity has increased return volatility in Brazil’s equity markets.
Governance and opacity issues have increased since the early 1990s and several governance indicators are introduced by international organizations and NGOs. The governance…
Governance and opacity issues have increased since the early 1990s and several governance indicators are introduced by international organizations and NGOs. The governance indicators have been used in various sectors, directly affecting a nation's political reputation. This study analyzes the context of governance and opacity in Argentina and Chile and assesses the relationship between the cultural pattern and the functioning of institutions. A first approximation to the analysis of Argentina and Chile seems to lead to the conclusion of the existence of homogeneity between them as a result of a similar background. However, differences in geography and history generate different societal norms, and functioning of institutions within them. Chile's geographical isolation and limited natural resources leads the country toward economic growth and political stability. By contrast, in Argentina, populist regimes undermine the foundations of its economy while its middle class struggles and loses public trust. The various factors interactively affect quality of public policies and governance and, consequently, are conducive to differences in the perceived and real levels of opacity between both countries. Is corruption a culture-specific issue? If yes, then, is governance a consequence of culture too? Therefore, it is important to interpret a context behind governance in order to establish appropriate anticorruption reform in practice. This chapter seeks to address some of these issues by means of a case study comparison between Argentina and Chile and contribute to the understanding of the context in which negotiations may occur when FDI and M&A deals take place.
Social pension and security systems worldwide are experiencing difficulties in maintaining the financing required to provide promised benefits. Despite their economic and…
Social pension and security systems worldwide are experiencing difficulties in maintaining the financing required to provide promised benefits. Despite their economic and political difficulties, many Latin American countries have arguably been more proactive and innovative with the implementation of social security reform than other regions of the world. Suggestions for reform of the Social Security system in Venezuela are provided by integrating many of the same concepts found in other restructurings in Latin America. It is the conclusion of this analysis that, given the political and economic instability of the region, a major overhaul of the existing system is not politically feasible. An incremental approach with minimal disruption is more attainable given the circumstances.
This paper analyzes two views on the issue of FDI and stock market development. The first view is that FDI is negatively correlated with the development of stock markets…
This paper analyzes two views on the issue of FDI and stock market development. The first view is that FDI is negatively correlated with the development of stock markets. The second view is that FDI is positively related to stock market development. After addressing the issues that might lead to these conclusions, the hypothesis is tested that the level of stock market development in a country is positively correlated to FDI. Data is collected from four Latin American countries and an empirical model is proposed to explain the observed relationship. Additional explanatory variables were included, and a model is developed.
Corporate bonds have been a major source of medium and long-term financing in Brazil. We analyze how corporate bond covenants have been used to mitigate agency costs…
Corporate bonds have been a major source of medium and long-term financing in Brazil. We analyze how corporate bond covenants have been used to mitigate agency costs between shareholders and bondholders. Our data includes 119 corporate bond indentures issued in Brazil from 1998 to 2001. This paper analyzes whether public investors have demanded stricter terms in corporate bond indentures. When comparing to previous studies of Anderson (1999) and of Filgueira and Leal (2001), we found empirical evidence that: (a) more bond issues with no indexed inflation features, but more floating rate interest features to match market needs; (b) no major changes for contingent maturity features; (c) loose covenants with respect to dividend and financing actions; and (d) tighter covenants regarding change in control and/or ownership and negative pledge. There is empirical evidence that the role of sponsor may partially mitigate risks borne by bondholders.