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Informed decisions about sampling are critical to improving the quality of research synthesis. Even though several qualitative research synthesists have recommended…
Informed decisions about sampling are critical to improving the quality of research synthesis. Even though several qualitative research synthesists have recommended purposeful sampling for synthesizing qualitative research, the published literature holds sparse discussion on how different strategies for purposeful sampling may be applied to a research synthesis. In primary research, Patton is frequently cited as an authority on the topic of purposeful sampling. In Patton’s original texts that are referred to in this article, Patton does not make any suggestion of using purposeful sampling for research synthesis. This article makes a unique contribution to the literature by examining the adaptability of each of Patton’s 16 purposeful sampling strategies to the process of qualitative research synthesis. It illuminates how different purposeful sampling strategies might be particularly suited to constructing multi‐perspectival, emancipatory, participatory and deconstructive interpretations of published research.
Research syntheses play a powerful role in shaping further research, practice, policy and public perceptions. Accordingly, the ethical issues associated with how…
Research syntheses play a powerful role in shaping further research, practice, policy and public perceptions. Accordingly, the ethical issues associated with how perspectives of different groups are included or censored in a research synthesis report must be paid adequate attention. Any research synthesis is inherently influenced by subjectivities associated with multiple layers of interpretation, selection and representation. In framing a research synthesis, it is vital that synthesists take into account: multiple interests and influences of different stakeholders; potential impact of the synthesis on different stakeholders; synthesists’ own multiple and shifting identities within the synthesis; synthesists’ methodological positioning within the synthesis; status accorded to authors and participants of the primary research studies included in the synthesis; influences of funding agencies; politics of who/what gets published; and biases introduced through common strategies for retrieving primary research studies. I have raised strategic questions and issues to structure and inform critical decision‐making throughout a synthesis process. I hope this article will stimulate debate and discussion on various ethical considerations associated with the process of synthesising research.
The purpose of this work is to explore the forms of intermetallic phase compounds (IMPCs) in Pt/In/Au and Pt/In/Ag joints by using isothermal solidification. This…
The purpose of this work is to explore the forms of intermetallic phase compounds (IMPCs) in Pt/In/Au and Pt/In/Ag joints by using isothermal solidification. This lead-free technique leads to formation of IMPCs having high-temperature stable joints for platinum-based micro-heater gas sensor fabricated on low temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) substrate.
Proposed task is to make an interconnection for Pt micro-heater electrode pad to the silver and gold thick-films printed on LTCC substrate. Both Pt/In/Au and Pt/In/Ag configured joints with different interactive areas prepared at 190 and 220°C to study temperature and contact surface area effects on ultimate tensile strength of the joints, for a 20 s reaction time, at 0.2 MPa applied pressure. Those delaminated joint interfaces studied under SEM, EDAX and XRD.
IMPCs identified through material analysis using diffraction analysis of XRD data are InPt3, AgIn2, AgPt, AgPt3, Au9In4 and other stoichiometric compounds. The interactive surface area between thick-films and temperature increment shows improvement in the formations of IMPCs and mechanical stability of joints. These IMPCs-based joints have improved the mechanical stability to the joints to sustain even at high operating temperatures. Elemental mapping of the weak joint contact interface shows unwanted oxide formations also reported. Physical inter-locking followed by the diffusion phenomenon on the silver substrate strengthen the interconnection has been noticed.
Inert gas environment creation inside the chamber to isolate the lead-free joint placed between heating stamp pads to avoid oxide formations at the interface while cooling which adds up to the cost of manufacturing. Most of the oxides at a joint-interface increase minute to moderate resistance with respect to the level of oxides took place. These oxides contributed heat certainly damage the micro-heater based gas sensors while functioning.
These isothermal solidification-based lead-free solder joints formation replace the existing lead-based packaging techniques. These lead-free interconnections on ceramic or LTCC substrate are reliable and durable, especially those designed to work for heavy-duty engines, even at severe environment conditions.
Platinum micro-heater-based gas sensors handles over a wide-range of temperatures about 300 to 500°C. The specific temperature level of different oxide films (SnO2) on the micro-heater is capable of detecting various specific gases. This feature of platinum based gas sensor demands durable and mechanically stable joints for continuous monitoring.
Man has been seeking an ideal existence for a very long time. In this existence, justice, love, and peace are no longer words, but actual experiences. How ever, with the American preemptive invasion and occupation of Afghanistan and Iraq and the subsequent prisoner abuse, such an existence seems to be farther and farther away from reality. The purpose of this work is to stop this dangerous trend by promoting justice, love, and peace through a change of the paradigm that is inconsistent with justice, love, and peace. The strong paradigm that created the strong nation like the U.S. and the strong man like George W. Bush have been the culprit, rather than the contributor, of the above three universal ideals. Thus, rather than justice, love, and peace, the strong paradigm resulted in in justice, hatred, and violence. In order to remove these three and related evils, what the world needs in the beginning of the third millenium is the weak paradigm. Through the acceptance of the latter paradigm, the golden mean or middle paradigm can be formulated, which is a synergy of the weak and the strong paradigm. In order to understand properly the meaning of these paradigms, however, some digression appears necessary.
Inhibitory control (IC) is a central executive function that shows significant development throughout the preschool years. IC is known as a factor that underlies the…
Inhibitory control (IC) is a central executive function that shows significant development throughout the preschool years. IC is known as a factor that underlies the ability to self-regulate in daily situations. This ability is challenged when a child faces negative emotions; a challenge that is seen in children’s IC performance and brain activity. This chapter elaborates on the effects that negative emotional experiences have on children’s IC functioning. Moreover, previous studies regarding the way emotional experiences are reflected in brain activity are included. Additionally, this chapter will offer a comprehensive review of the factors affecting individual differences in IC, including the role of children’s temperamental effortful control and negative affectivity. Further, the role of parenting behaviors will be discussed, focusing on the way in which maternal self-regulation influences child inhibitory control, including related educational implications.
The term “crowdwork” describes a new form of digital work that is organized and regulated by internet-based platforms. This chapter examines how crowdwork platforms ensure…
The term “crowdwork” describes a new form of digital work that is organized and regulated by internet-based platforms. This chapter examines how crowdwork platforms ensure their virtual workforce’s commitment and control its performance despite its high mobility, anonymity, and dispersion. The findings are based on a case study analysis of 15 microtask and macrotask platforms, encompassing 32 interviews with representatives of crowdwork platforms, and crowdworkers, as well as an analysis of the platforms’ homepages and community spaces. The chapter shows that performance control on crowd platforms relies on a combination of direct control, reputation systems, and community building, which have until now been studied in isolation or entirely ignored. Moreover, the findings suggest that while all three elements can be found on both microtask and macrotask platforms, their functionality and purpose differ. Overall, the findings highlight that platforms are no neutral intermediaries but organizations that adopt an active role in structuring the digital labor process and in shaping working conditions. Their managerial structures are coded and objectified into seemingly neutral technological infrastructures, whereby the underlying power relations between capital and labor become obscured.
Data literacy – the ability to read, analyze, interpret, evaluate and argue with data and data visualizations – is an essential competency in social studies. This study…
Data literacy – the ability to read, analyze, interpret, evaluate and argue with data and data visualizations – is an essential competency in social studies. This study aims to examine the degree to which US state standards require teachers to teach data literacy in social studies, addressing the questions: to what extent are US social studies teachers required to teach data literacy? If they are required to teach it, are they provided with guidance about competencies to address at each school or grade level and with respect to particular content?
The study used content analysis, using a variety of priori and emergent codes, to review social studies standards documents from all 50 states and the District of Columbia.
Findings indicate that although state standards suggest that data visualizations should play a role in social studies instruction, they provide poor guidance for a coherent, progressive and critical approach across grade levels.
Researchers currently know little about if and how teachers address data literacy in social studies education. This study provides a snapshot of guidance teachers across states are given for teaching data literacy, and by extension, the quality of data literacy instruction recommended for students across the USA.
Compares the corrosion behaviour of Ti6Al4V titanium alloy, a conventional duplex stainless steel (UNS 31803) and AISI 304 austenitic stainless steel in synthetic…
Compares the corrosion behaviour of Ti6Al4V titanium alloy, a conventional duplex stainless steel (UNS 31803) and AISI 304 austenitic stainless steel in synthetic biofluids using electrochemical techniques and comments on the suitability of DSS for use in biomedical applications. Finds that the general corrosion resistance of duplex stainless steels is slightly inferior to that of austenitic stainless steel and titanium alloy; duplex stainless steel does not show any sign of pitting when exposed to synthetic biofluids and exhibits excellent resistance to localised corrosion on par with that of titanium alloy. Concludes that duplex stainless steels are one of the best alternates to titanium alloys.