The pattern of prosecutions forfood offences has changed very little in the past decade. Compositional offences have rarely exceeded 5 per cent and, since the 1967 batch of regulations for meat products, are mostly in respect of deficient meat content. Food hygiene offences have also remained steady, with no improvement to show for all the effort to change the monotony of repulsive detail. The two major causes of all legal proceedings, constituting about 90 per cent of all cases—the presence of foreign matter and sale of mouldy food—continue unchanged; and at about the same levels, viz. an average of 55 per cent of the total for foreign matter and 35 per cent for mouldy food. What is highly significant about this changed concept of food and drugs administration is that almost all prosecutions now arise from consumer complaint. The number for adulteration as revealed by official sampling and analysis and from direct inspectorial action is small in relation to the whole. A few mouldy food offences are included in prosecutions for infringements of the food hygiene regulations, but for most of the years for which statistics have been gathered by the BFJ and published annually, all prosecutions for the presence of foreign matter have come from consumer complaint. The extent to which food law administration is dependent upon this source is shown by the fact that 97 per cent of all prosecutions in 1971 for foreign bodies and mouldy food—579 and 340 respectively—resulted from complaints; and in 1972, 98 per cent of prosecutions resulted from the same source in respect of 597 for foreign matter and 341 for mouldy food. Dirty milk bottle cases in both years all arose from consumer complaint; 41 and 37 respectively.
The purpose of this study is to empirically explore the behavioural patterns involved in entrepreneurial learning through a conceptualization of entrepreneurial learning…
The purpose of this study is to empirically explore the behavioural patterns involved in entrepreneurial learning through a conceptualization of entrepreneurial learning as a “competency”.
Semi‐structured interviews to 12 entrepreneurs were conducted with a focus on the critical incidents in which significant learning has occurred prior to and during the development of their businesses, based on a competency framework of entrepreneurial learning. The learning behaviours in which these entrepreneurs exhibited during the incidents were coded.
The findings suggested that there are six behavioural patterns of entrepreneurial learning, including: actively seeking learning opportunities; learning selectively and purposely; learning in depth; learning continuously; improving and reflecting upon experience; and successfully transferring prior experience into current practices.
Entrepreneurial learning is more than acquiring experience, skills and knowledge or possessing attributes related to learning. Rather, a competent entrepreneur needs to demonstrate a set of behavioural patterns of effective learning. Moreover, these behavioural patterns are identifiable for the purpose of measurement.
The education and training for the entrepreneur can be considered from a behavioural perspective, with an emphasis on behavioural modification of the entrepreneur's learning patterns rather than skill or knowledge acquisition only. Also, this should be grounded upon the provision of appropriate contexts that provide or simulate the experiences of which the entrepreneur will likely come across, so that the learning behaviours can be stimulated.
Studying entrepreneurial learning under a competency framework allows us to explore the behavioural patterns and other factors involved in effective entrepreneurial learning with a closer connection to entrepreneurial success.
It has often been said that a great part of the strength of Aslib lies in the fact that it brings together those whose experience has been gained in many widely differing fields but who have a common interest in the means by which information may be collected and disseminated to the greatest advantage. Lists of its members have, therefore, a more than ordinary value since they present, in miniature, a cross‐section of institutions and individuals who share this special interest.
This is a slightly shortened version of a paper presented at the symposium on corrosion held in the University of Melbourne late last year. Prof. Worner presided over the meetings which succeeded in directing the attention of many industrialists to the dangers of corrosion. In this paper some interesting aspects of corrosion costing are given, with particular application to Australian industry, and we feel that the information given here is an important addition to the not over‐prodigious amount of literature available on the subject of corrosion costs.
Both work institutions and the family, capitalism and patriarchy must change if work and family are to be capable of integration by both men and women. Obviously needed…
Both work institutions and the family, capitalism and patriarchy must change if work and family are to be capable of integration by both men and women. Obviously needed changes are: greater work scheduling flexibility, more available part‐time work for men and women, more available and affordable child care, more generous maternity and paternity leave. In order for work to be truly compatible with parenting it needs to be less alienated, and parenting needs to be less individualistically structured and isolating. Both realms need to be more creative, egalitarian and social. With the majority of wives and mothers working outside the home the previous “myth of separated worlds” has become increasingly untenable, as women are asked to reconcile work and family. The literature is examined, emphasising its limitations in its failure to disaggregate working mothers according to occupation and its one‐sided focus on the impact of work relationships on family life. Sociological theories about family and work are examined. The nature of the family work nexus for non‐professional and professional women is explored. The professional/non‐professional comparison is analysed as well as the changing family/work nexus and its impact on men and women.
ALL THE FIGURES go to prove that the recession is behind us. There is no question but that business is once again on the up and up. Order books, for the first time in ages, are full and, what is quite as important, all the indications are that delivery dates will be met in the future — as they should always have been.
Through a survey of 200 employees working in five of the thirty establishments analysed in previous research about the microeconomic effects of reducing the working time (Cahier 25), the consequences on employees of such a reduction can be assessed; and relevant attitudes and aspirations better known.
The Norsk Senter for Informatikk A/S (NSI) recently became a privately‐owned limited company. The main shareholders are the Bergens Tidende, Fabritius, IDA (a consortium of three banks), NTNF, Kunnskapsfor‐laget and twenty‐nine of the thirty‐four NSI staff members. Among its new projects will be a videotex network between Oslo and Bergen so that users in Oslo can use the Bergens Tidende videotex service bureau. Under the reorganisation NSI will place more emphasis on being an umbrella IP, on the establishment of closed user groups and development of hardware and software.