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Compares the social comparison experience on young Japanese adults with a similar one on young Canadians. Reveals that satisfaction of the Japanese with their possessions…
Compares the social comparison experience on young Japanese adults with a similar one on young Canadians. Reveals that satisfaction of the Japanese with their possessions did not change with the social comparison experience in the same way as it did with Canadians. Suggests the Japanese reaction was on a more general level of effect with possessions, rather than simply satisfaction as was the case in Canada. Observes an interaction between direction of social comparison and respondents’ gender that was considerably different in nature from that of Canadians. Suggests that Canadians had a stronger desire for more and better possessions, willingness to strive for more possessions, together with a high degree of how possessions contribute to self‐image.
The purpose of this paper is to examine levels of materialism in Canada and China and how they vary with differences in culture.
The purpose of this paper is to examine levels of materialism in Canada and China and how they vary with differences in culture.
Data were gathered from students and the general public with self‐completed surveys using measures for materialism and culture.
In the first stage of analysis, levels of materialism were examined across countries. Overall, materialism was higher for the Chinese than the Canadians on all Richins and Dawson's dimensions except acquisition centrality. To investigate these unexpected results, levels of Hofstede's cultural dimensions were compared across country, age, and gender and it was seen that the Chinese outscored Canadians on all dimensions except uncertainty avoidance. Finally, the association between the components of materialism and dimensions of culture was examined and a cultural explanation for at least part of the difference in level of materialism between the two countries found.
Data were collected in specific regions of the countries. Owing to the characteristics of the two regions, a more general approach to data sampling would likely produce even more pronounced differences than those noted here.
A better understanding of the nature of materialism and how it varies across cultures should enable marketers, policy makers, and social planners to act more effectively.
This paper finds some unexpected differences in materialism and goes on to find that the cultural differences between Canada and China have changed since the original Hofstede data were collected.
The author, appointed University Librarian in 1999, saw that the library was not fulfilling its potential from the perspectives of congenial environment and student…
The author, appointed University Librarian in 1999, saw that the library was not fulfilling its potential from the perspectives of congenial environment and student awareness. She used student marketing projects to examine perceptions of the Patrick Power Library, and develop ways of raising its profile within the university community. The tired‐looking building, a product of the 1970s, undermined the quality of staff and services. She used the information gathered through the projects to enhance services as well as make the library a more welcoming and vibrant space to attract students, without a major infusion of funds. This article charts the development of the library over a two‐year period.
Communications regarding this column should be addressed to Mrs. Cheney, Peabody Library School, Nashville, Tenn. 37203. Mrs. Cheney does not sell the books listed here. They are available through normal trade sources. Mrs. Cheney, being a member of the editorial board of Pierian Press, will not review Pierian Press reference books in this column. Descriptions of Pierian Press reference books will be included elsewhere in this publication.
“The year covered by the report starts in July, 1945, and ends in September, 1946. During this time the Council has had many complicated administrative tasks to perform because the period is the first almost complete year covering the change‐over from war to peace. In July of last year the ice cream trade was in the middle of one of the most phenomenal sets of conditions in the whole of its varied existence. It will be remembered that 60 per cent. of the pre‐war usage of sugar and an allocation of shimmed milk powder was still available to the trade, but the quantities were relatively small compared with the enormous public demand for our product, and the ice cream trade had begun to attract the attention of unscrupulous speculators. Every effort was made by the Ministry of Food, who alone had the power to exert any regulation whatever, to prevent unauthorised persons from entering the trade. These efforts were not always successful, but the Association took whatever steps lay in its power to assist the Ministry to prevent firms who had never been in the trade before starling the manufacture and the sale of ice cream, to the detriment of the established trader who had been doing his very best against almost overwhelming obstacles. The loose interpretation of the right of a caterer to make and sell ice cream was for a long time a most difficult problem, but during the year the Ministry of Food Executive Officers have managed to curtail a great many of the unauthorised sales of ice cream which were taking place at points far distant from the caterer's premises when the product had been made with materials obtained under a catering licence. In many of the large cities this type of trade brought the whole industry into disrepute because various forms of ice cream were being sold to the public at fantastically high prices. The whole problem of the manufacture of ice cream has been the subject of discussions by the members of the Technical Advisory Committee, mainly on the subject of proposed standards of quality and bacteriological purity. The Executive Council is indebted to the painstaking efforts of the members of this Committee for their careful researches and many long discussions. The work undertaken by the Ministry of Food and the knowledge it has gained in dietetic values during the years of war‐time feeding of the British population has been considered very carefully and the point of view of what constitutes the maximum nutrition in ice cream has altered from the pre‐war knowledge of rating the value of ice cream in accordance with the highest possible milk fats content. Professor Sir Jack Drummond, when he was the Nutritional Officer to the Ministry of Food, emphasised the need in the everyday diet of both children and adults, of the maximum amount of milk minerals and milk solids not fat. In normal times when ingredients are in free supply there is no difficulty with either children or grown‐ups in obtaining plentiful supplies of fat, but almost all of the value of the milk solids not fat has been forgotten or else brought into disrepute following the laws which were passed many years ago compelling tins of condensed skimmed milk to be marked ‘Unfit for Babies.’ The Technical Committee, taking all of these facts into consideration, has evolved a standard which has been agreed by the Executive Council and submitted to the Ministry of Food, designed to give the best type of ice cream, planned in such a way that the maximum amount of milk‐solids‐not‐fat can be included. This skimmed milk powder can be incorporated into the mix and still keep a reasonable quantity of fat, which in the Committee's opinion should consist only of milk fat. After the most careful research and discussions, having in mind the interest of the small trader who cannot install very elaborate machinery, it was agreed by the Committee that, when fresh dairy cream becomes available again, a minimum standard of milk fat in ice cream should be arranged to include the use of both fresh dairy milk and cream as well as enough skimmed milk powder to bring the total to a correct balance of ingredients which would freeze in the average type of freezer without becoming sandy or crystallised. There was a good deal of experience on which the Committee could base its findings, obtained from the use of the standards put into force by the Government of Northern Ireland before the war; these were not fully balanced and required some adjustment. Negotiations on the question of the standard between Ice Cream Alliance and the Wholesale Ice Cream Manufacturers' Federation were conducted at great length and the different points of view were examined with the utmost care. It has been found, however, that the proposals by the different Associations cannot be reconciled to form one standard common to the best interest of the members of both Associations. The Ice Cream Alliance has been safeguarding the welfare of the general public and thereby the future trade of its members, and it has insisted that the minimum standards which its Technical Committee has recommended should not be varied in principle to comply with the somewhat wider interpretation of the Wholesale Federation. One point upon which the Technical Committee lays great stress is that the tests for the standard should always be conducted by sampling the finished ice cream as delivered to the consumer, and not the ice cream mix as made in the factory. This would place definite limitations on the amount of over‐run which could be permitted and would prevent any ice cream manufacturer, regardless of his type of machinery, from giving a smaller quantity of fat or milk solids to the consumer, than his competitor who might have less elaborate and expensive machinery. It has, of course, been made clear that all questions relating to a standard for ice cream refer not to the present period of emergency, with its substitute ingredients, but to the time when all ingredients can be purchased free of any restriction by every ice cream manufacturer. There is no doubt that if it were possible to evolve a standard of substitute ingredients it would be of the greatest advantage to the trade, but this cannot be done until the right ingredients, namely skimmed milk powder, fat and sugar are made available to every member of the trade in equal proportions. Your Executive Council has approached the Minister of Food on various occasions seeking an interview to put these points before him and to emphasise the need for better and more consistent supplies of the right types of materials so that ice cream can be made worthy of its name by all manufacturers. It is also anxious to remove the difference in the allocations as between the larger manufacturer who receives 70 per cent. of his datum usage of fat and the ice cream trader who made his product in pre‐war days only from fresh milk, and who is now prohibited from making an ice cream for consumption with more than about 2¼ per cent. fat. The serious world position and shortage of food materials has, of course, worked against this project, and until there is some easing of the supply of raw materials for better distribution within the world as a whole, the British Government has found it is unable to provide supplies of the right ingredients. Your Chairman and Executive Council are, however, using every effort to bring about the desirable situation as quickly as possible. In recent months there had been major disasters to the trade which had been caused by the outbreak of typhoid fever conveyed through carriers of this disease to members of the general public through the medium of ice cream. These outbreaks have led to a tremendous amount of wrongful reporting in the daily Press and the many quite unjustified allegations against both the ice cream traders and the Local Government officials, particularly the Sanitary Inspectors and Medical Officers of Health, who are responsible for the interpretation of the 1938 Food and Drugs Act controlling the registration of ice cream manufacturing premises, and who have worked very hard to help both the trade and the public. It must be agreed that many ice cream manufacturers have been working without very much knowledge of the responsibilities of their trade and under enormous handicaps, due to the dilapidations caused by six years of war and their inability to have building work and decorations carried out to make their small factories suitable for the manufacture of ice cream. These years of war have also led to a much greater wear and tear on ice cream plant than would normally have been the case, because the trade has had to put up with flour instead of skimmed milk powder even before it was shut down in 1942. Deterioration and rust during the shut down period from September, 1942, until December, 1944, was even greater than if the plant had been in constant use even with substitute materials. The result has been that many ice cream traders have been faced with enormous difficulties of plant renewals at a time when machinery is unobtainable, with the result that unhygienic vessels and utensils have had to be kept in service, which in the ordinary way would have been scrapped many years ago. The Alliance is taking every step possible with the other Associations that manufacture plant equipment and utensils, to improve supplies to those who need the articles, but here again supplies of raw materials to the machinery equipment manufacturers are growing worse and worse. It is because of this situation that in the negotiations with the Ministry of Health regarding the compulsory heat treatment programme the greatest latitude is being requested so that no regulations would be brought into force until the trade is in a position to comply with them without undue hardship. We would like to record our appreciation to the other Associations who have expressed their willingness to collaborate with us for the good of the trade as a whole.”
Communications regarding this column should be addressed to Mrs. Cheney, Peabody Library School, Nashville, Term. 37203. Mrs. Cheney does not sell the books listed here. They are available through normal trade sources. Mrs. Cheney, being a member of the editorial board of Pierian Press, will not review Pierian Press reference books in this column. Descriptions of Pierian Press reference books will be included elsewhere in this publication.
President, Charles S. Goldman, M.P.; Chairman, Charles Bathurst, M.P.; Vice‐Presidents: Christopher Addison, M.D., M.P., Waldorf Astor, M.P., Charles Bathurst, M.P., Hilaire Belloc, Ralph D. Blumenfeld, Lord Blyth, J.P., Colonel Charles E. Cassal, V.D., F.I.C., the Bishop of Chichester, Sir Arthur H. Church, K.C.V.O., M.A., D.Sc., F.R.S., Sir Wm. Earnshaw Cooper, C.I.E., E. Crawshay‐Williams, M.P., Sir Anderson Critchett, Bart., C.V.O., F.R.C.S.E., William Ewart, M.D., F.R.C.P., Lieut.‐Colonel Sir Joseph Fayrer, Bart., M.A., M.D., Sir Alfred D. Fripp, K.C.V.O., C.B., M.B., M.S., Sir Harold Harmsworth, Bart., Arnold F. Hills, Sir Victor Horsley, M.D., F.R.C.S., F.R.S., O. Gutekunst, Sir H. Seymour King, K.C.I.E., M.A., the Duke of Manchester, P.C., Professor Sir Wm. Osler, Bart., M.D., F.R.S., Sir Gilbert Parker, D.C.L., M.P., Sir Wm. Ramsay, K.C.B., LL.D., M.D., F.R.S., Harrington Sainsbury, M.D., F.R.C.P., W. G. Savage, M.D., B.Sc., R. H. Scanes Spicer, M.D., M.R.C.S., the Hon. Lionel Walrond, M.P., Hugh Walsham, M.D., F.R.C.P., Harvey W. Wiley, M.D., Evelyn Wrench.
The year 1820 was a landmark in the story of adulteration for in that year was published “A Treatise on the Adulteration of Food, and Culinary Poisons, etc., etc.” by Dr. F. Accum. The first edition of 1,000 copies was sold in a month and a second edition was at once printed. The preface to this second edition says that the author had received a number of anonymous communications containing maledictions and menaces. The book says, “it would be difficult to mention a single article of food which is not to be met with in an adulterated state ; and there are some substances which are, scarcely ever to be procured genuine.” He records that butchers meat and fish were blown by means of a quill or the stem of a tobacco pipe to make the flesh appear firm and glistening. The water used in London came from the Thames which received all the contents of the sewers, drains and water‐courses. He says that no water becomes putrid sooner than that of the Thames, smelling of carburetted and sulphuretted hydrogen gases. Sawdust was used for increasing the stringency of wine and this was supplied by wholesalers to the brewers' druggist as an ordinary article of commerce. Old and stale beer which had gone acid was converted to mild by using oyster shells to neutralise the acid. He states that the detection of adulteration of beer with deleterious vegetable substances is beyond the scope of chemical science ; but within about 20 years methods were available for them. Most lozenges were kept in two grades, the cheaper at half the price being “reduced,” as it was called, with clay, sugar, pepper or other spices. With regard to wine‐brewers he quotes from “The Tatler” of 1797: “There is in this city a certain fraternity of chemical operators who work in underground holes, caverns and dark retired spots to conceal their mysteries from the eyes and observations of mankind. These subterranean philosophers are daily employed in the transmutation of liquors and of the power of magical drugs and incantations, raising under the streets of London the choicest products of the hills and valleys of France. They can squeeze Bordeaux out of the sloe and draw Champagne from an apple.” He records how bottles were “Crusted,” i.e. the interior of empty wine bottles were lined with a red crust to imitate the deposit from wine ; a factitious product was added and the bottles closed with corks having the lower part dyed a fine red as if they had long been in contact with wine. With regard to tea he records how different varieties of leaves from trees and shrubs were first boiled and then baked on an iron plate. When dry they were coloured and rubbed in the hand to produce a curl resembling that of genuine tea. To obtain a green variety, the leaves were coloured with verdigris. Usually the sloe leaf was used. Accum suggested that the housewife could take her part in detecting false teas and said “Our ladies are our teamakers ; let them study the leaf as well as the liquor ; let them become familiar with both vegetables, with their forms, colours, flavours and scents ; let us drink our tea upon the responsibility of our wives, daughters and sisters, and not upon that of our grocers. Let every female distinguish tea leaves from sloe‐leaves, as well as if she had served an apprenticeship in the warehouse in Leadenhall Street.” The reason for the prevalent adulteration of tea was the heavy revenue duties. Spices were also heavily dutied and expensive, and nearly all were adulterated. The pepper duty was 2s. 6d. a lb. and factitious pepper berries were made from linseed cake, clay and cayenne pepper. Accum wrote several books on food technology and did a lot of useful work by lecturing on adulteration ; but probably his greatest service was drawing attention to the dangers from poisoning by metallic compounds either added as colouring matters or introduced accidentally by the use of unsuitable metal containers. These hazards were generally caused through ignorance. For example in “The Falsification of Food” by Mitchell there is an account of an investigation of poisoning by Gloucester cheese. A man was taken seriously ill at an inn and some observant person noticed that a cat became violently ill after eating the rind of the Gloucester cheese which the man had left. The cheese was examined and found to contain large quantities of lead. The manufacturer of the cheese was unable to account for it as he was certain of the purity of his own materials and had purchased the annatto, with which it was coloured, from a reputable firm. This firm was certain that the annatto supplied consisted solely of genuine annatto, improved in colour with vermilion, a normal practice in the trade. On further enquiry it was found that the druggist who had sold the vermilion had assumed it would only be used as a pigment for house painting and had mixed it with red lead to increase his profit and without any suspicion that harm could come of it. The investigator says “Thus through the circuitous and diversified operations of commerce a portion of deadly poison may find admixture into the necessities of life in a way which can attach no criminality to the parties through whose hands it has successively passed.” Although it has been known for over 2,000 years that lead salts were violent poisons, it was for long assumed that metallic lead was insoluble in water and fruit juices. It was a common practice for proprietors of wells to instruct plumbers to use double the thickness of lead because it was known that the local water corroded the lead very quickly. No one had troubled to wonder what became of the corroded metal. A gentleman had 21 children of whom eight died in early infancy. Both parents and the remaining children were remarkably unhealthy, being particularly subject to stomach disorders. The father became paralytic and the mother was continuously subject to colic. When the parents died the house was sold and the children moved ; they immediately improved in health. The purchaser of the house found it necessary to repair the pump and found it so corroded that the cylinder was perforated in several places and the cistern was reduced in thickness to that of brown paper. Too late the cause of years of trouble was discovered. Accum's treatise aroused attention in scientific circles and several other workers investigated food, among whom may be mentioned Mitchell, Normandy, Chevalier, Garner and Harel. But the general public did not read their scientific books. Shortly afterwards there appeared anonymously a small brochure under a long title but generally referred to as “Death in the Pot.” This was written in popular style, had a large sale and a great influence on the public. The immediate result was a wide circulation of knowledge of adulteration and contamination of food and both were generally condemned. A writer expressed the opinion that the life of man would generally be extended to 100 years were it not for his excesses and the adulteration of his food. As regards adulteration the public could do little to prevent it; but the effects of contaminated food being rapid, the people could complain to the sellers and for their own sakes manufacturers were compelled to scrutinise the materials used and to discard colouring matters and metallic utensils which they knew to be dangerous. It has previously been mentioned that Excise Officers were concerned with adulteration in connexion with articles subject to a revenue duty. Tobacco was a source of considerable revenue and the Excise were ever on the watch against adulteration. An Act of 1840 had prohibited the mixing of tobacco with a number of substances but the effect was to increase adulteration with others. One of the Excise Officers, George Phillips, had in his spare time become proficient in chemistry and in the use of the microscope, and he offered his services to the Commissioners of Excise for the particular purpose of examining tobacco for purity. This was eventually agreed to and in 1842 Phillips was given a room for his purpose. His success was immediate and his activities were soon extended to other excisable materials including a variety of foods. This one man and one room eventually became the Inland Revenue Laboratory, Somerset House, which was subsequently constituted into a separate Department known as the Department of the Government Chemist. Its activities now extend to work for all Government Departments, but the original objects for which it was founded over 100 years ago still form an important part of its work. By 1850 the public had become hygiene‐conscious, largely due to the pioneer work of such men as Chadwick, who had been calling attention to unsound and unhealthy conditions in all forms of sanitary services. In that year the “Lancet” established “The Lancet Sanitary Commission” to institute an extensive series of investigations into the condition of various articles of diet supplied to the people. A leading spirit of the Commission was Dr. Hassall who did much experimental work in the examination of commercial foods sold to the public and reported his findings in the “Lancet.” In 1855 he published “Food and its Adulterations, comprising the reports of the Analytical Sanitary Commission of the Lancet for the years 1851–1854.” Hassall exploited the microscope in the detection of adulteration and recorded many pictures of the microscopic characteristics of vegetable foods and adulterants. Without the more refined methods of today he was able to detect adulteration in a very large proportion of the samples examined. For example:—
Mr. LEVENSTEIN, the President of the Society of Chemical Industry, in his address delivered at Liverpool recently, dealt very fully with the question of the commercial position of Great Britain as compared with other countries, more especially Germany, and emphasised the fact that if this country is to compete successfully with her contemporaries she must, to use the words of the Prince of Wales at the Gúildhall, “wake up.” After reviewing the chief factors making for Germany's advance in industry and commerce Mr. LEVENSTEIN says: “How are we to defend ourselves? Shall we rest content as we are or bestir ourselves and awake to the irresistible fact that continued apathy and indifference mean ruin to our national position?” This is strong language but not stronger than the occasion demands, for the statistics by which these observations are backed clearly indicate a marked decadence in the national prosperity notwithstanding the years of apparent “record” trade, which, however, cannot be regarded so favourably when subjected to detailed analysis and comparison. Mr. LEVENSTEIN'S suggestions to meet this situation are as follows: (1) The appointment of a competent and expert Minister of Commerce. (2) The nationalisation and extension of our canals and waterways. (3) A measure for greatly extending and improving our secondary education. (4) A sensible reform of our patent laws.