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Article
Publication date: 13 November 2017

Haritz Gorostidi-Martinez, Weimin Xu and Xiaokang Zhao

As part of a cross-cultural research, the purpose of this paper is to provide further insights into the existing product-country image (PCI) of the Chinese consumers…

Abstract

Purpose

As part of a cross-cultural research, the purpose of this paper is to provide further insights into the existing product-country image (PCI) of the Chinese consumers’ perceptions of Spain, its products, and its people, thereby providing an overall contemporary Spanish PCI within the Chinese market.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 215 valid structured questionnaires were gathered throughout China. Following a pre-investigation of 259 usable questionnaires, a 52-item construct was drawn from the existing widely used PCI item scales, designing a structured PCI construct, covering: “country image,” “personal image,” “product image,” “general knowledge about Spain,” and “personal data.”

Findings

The study provides: a PCI pre-investigation research results as well as a literature review on PCI topic; research results for the five hypotheses concerning Chinese citizens’ view of Spanish product price, quality, technicality, inventiveness, and known brands view; descriptive statistics as well as result graphs for each of the covered PCI sections; our PCI construct variable correlations with the tested five product image variables; and general implications.

Research limitations/implications

Standardizing PCI longitudinal studies, as well as focusing on how the Spanish Government and private sector should determine the long-term criteria to facilitate a clearer representation of the Spanish PCI evolution within the Chinese market, is advised.

Originality/value

The current study intends to capture insights for Spain and other country’s public and private sector decision makers to better integrate market and non-market strategies. The results would further assist delineating strategies to avoid the liability of foreignness of Spanish organizations within China.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 29 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 12 June 2017

Haritz Gorostidi-Martinez, Weimin Xu and Xiaokang Zhao

The purpose of this paper is to facilitate and clarify the perceptions of Spanish consumers towards China, its people, and its products, while outlining the overall…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to facilitate and clarify the perceptions of Spanish consumers towards China, its people, and its products, while outlining the overall contemporary Chinese product-country image (PCI) within the Spanish market.

Design/methodology/approach

A 52-item construct was adapted from former PCI scales from cross-cultural equivalence, including “country image”, “personal image”, “product image”, “general knowledge about China”, and “personal data”. Overall, 215 valid structured questionnaires were gathered.

Findings

The current study provides: a PCI literature review; hypotheses results concerning Spanish citizens’ views of Chinese products’ price, quality, technicality, inventiveness, and known brands concepts; descriptive statistics and results graphs for each of the PCI sections; and correlations of other variables with the five product image variables within the construct.

Research limitations/implications

Implementing standardized, longitudinal consumer studies that facilitate better comprehension of PCI evolution within a specific market emerged as a future research agenda.

Originality/value

The data informed both the Chinese public and private organizations’ managers of the importance of adapting to the market and non-market environments within Spain to avoid the liability of country of origin effect.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 29 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 6 February 2017

Haritz Gorostidi-Martinez and Xiaokang Zhao

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the liability of foreignness (LOF) concept when entering a new market. Drawing on the past literature, the current research…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the liability of foreignness (LOF) concept when entering a new market. Drawing on the past literature, the current research provides a summary of issues of the main LOF that companies face, as well as suggestions to help avoid such burdens. The research also attempts to provide a bibliographic analysis of the topic.

Design/methodology/approach

Articles were collected from All Database of ISI Web of Knowledge, using “all years,” “social science,” and “business economics” as search terms. Relevant papers on the LOF topic were retrieved and sorted to identify the main issues. Furthermore, a bibliographic analysis of the LOF concept was elaborated. HistCite software was used to create a table and a graph for the most relevant papers. A summary of issues on LOF strategies was created along with guidance for companies entering a new market.

Findings

The study sorts strategies to avoid LOF, including operational capabilities, entry modes, country of origin, legitimacy achievement, risk of politico-economic changes, and location selection. The study identified strategies for small- and medium-sized businesses (SMEs) entering emerging and transitional economies, as well as suggestions when entering sophisticated economies.

Practical implications

The current data summary informs managers from diverse organizations who attempt to enter a new market with particular sociopolitical contexts.

Originality/value

A summary of issues on LOF and suggestions for overcoming these problems to help companies enter new markets have not been available. The current study attempts to fill that void, providing suggestions to managers and business owners who have moved or expanded their businesses to a foreign country or contemplate an international move.

Details

Journal of Advances in Management Research, vol. 14 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0972-7981

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 7 August 2017

Haritz Gorostidi-Martinez and Xiaokang Zhao

By reviewing the overall concept of corporate political strategy (CPS), the purpose of this paper is to display a contemporary summary of issues of the diverse global…

Abstract

Purpose

By reviewing the overall concept of corporate political strategy (CPS), the purpose of this paper is to display a contemporary summary of issues of the diverse global CPSs. This study additionally aims to provide relevant corporate political behavioral concepts that surround a firm’s political actions when entering specific politico-economic markets as well as future work recommendations. This paper further provides a contemporary bibliographic analysis on CPS.

Design/methodology/approach

Through a systematic ISI Web of KnowledgeTM All Databases literature review on “CPS,” the research was refined in relation to articles from “all year time-span,” “social science,” and “business economic” areas. After relevant papers were retrieved, sorted, and analyzed, a final bibliographic analysis on CPS was performed using HistCite reference graph maker.

Findings

Results of this research provide a table with a conceptual summary of different CPS types, approaches to political strategy, participation levels, assessment of the political environments, research implications, as well as other related CPS factors.

Research limitations/implications

There is still a lack of empirical research on how specific firm CPSs can help overcome the effect of foreignness within different host countries. This study provides an overview and list of CPSs that companies use when entering a particular politico-economic context as well as inner CPS research streams.

Originality/value

This contemporary conceptual taxonomy on CPS provides researchers as well as practitioners with insights into the global CPS evolution, in addition to a current picture of CPS within different contexts.

Details

Journal of Advances in Management Research, vol. 14 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0972-7981

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 8 May 2017

This paper aims to review the latest management developments across the globe and pinpoint practical implications from cutting-edge research and case studies.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to review the latest management developments across the globe and pinpoint practical implications from cutting-edge research and case studies.

Design/methodology/approach

This briefing is prepared by an independent writer who adds their own impartial comments and places the articles in context.

Findings

The study sorts strategies to avoid liability of foreignness, including operational capabilities, entry modes, country of origin, legitimacy achievement, risk of politico-economic changes, and location selection. The study identified strategies for small- and medium-sized businesses entering emerging and transitional economies, as well as suggestions when entering sophisticated economies.

Practical implications

The paper provides strategic insights and practical thinking that have influenced some of the world’s leading organizations.

Originality/value

The briefing saves busy executives and researchers hours of reading time by selecting only the very best, most pertinent information and presenting it in a condensed and easy-to-digest format.

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Article
Publication date: 8 January 2018

This paper aims to review the latest management developments across the globe and pinpoint practical implications from cutting-edge research and case studies.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to review the latest management developments across the globe and pinpoint practical implications from cutting-edge research and case studies.

Design/methodology/approach

This briefing is prepared by an independent writer who adds their own impartial comments and places the articles in context.

Findings

There is a substantial body of research on corporate political strategy, but most is theoretical, lacking empirical evidence, and is widely geo specific. More research needs to be done in clarifying the field, and developing new ideas for emerging markets.

Originality/value

The briefing saves busy executives, strategists, and researchers hours of reading time by selecting only the very best, most pertinent information and presenting it in a condensed and easy-to-digest format.

Details

Strategic Direction, vol. 34 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0258-0543

Keywords

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