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Abstract

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Transport Survey Methods
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84-855844-1

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Article
Publication date: 27 January 2012

Fabiola Baltar and Ignasi Brunet

The aim of this paper is to present a sampling method using virtual networks to study “hardtoreach” populations. In the ambit of social research, the use of new…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to present a sampling method using virtual networks to study “hardtoreach” populations. In the ambit of social research, the use of new technologies is still questioned because the selection bias is an obstacle to carry on scientific research on the Internet. In this regard, the authors' hypothesis is that the use of social networking sites (Web 2.0) can be effective for the study of “hardtoreach” populations. The main advantages of this technique are that it can expand the geographical scope and facilitates the identification of individuals with barriers to access. Therefore, the use of virtual networks in non‐probabilistic samples can increase the sample size and its representativeness.

Design/methodology/approach

To test this hypothesis, a virtual method was designed using Facebook to identify Argentinean immigrant entrepreneurs in Spain (214 cases). A characteristic of this population is that some individuals are administratively invisible in national statistics because they have double nationality (non‐EU and EU). The use of virtual sampling was combined with an online questionnaire as a complementary tool for Web 2.0 research in behavioural sciences.

Findings

The number of cases detected by Facebook and the virtual response rate is higher than traditional snowball technique. The explanation is that people increase their level of confidence because the researcher shows his personal information (Facebook's profile) and also participates in their groups of interest (Facebook's groups). Moreover, the online questionnaires administration allows the quality of the information to be controlled and avoids duplication of cases.

Originality/value

The present article is the first that uses Facebook as an instrument to study immigrants. Therefore its adoption represents a great challenge in the social research field because there are many barriers of access and search. It also proposes a novel mix of traditional methodologies updated with the use of new virtual possibilities of studying hard to reach populations, especially in areas of social research where the contributions of these methods are less developed.

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Internet Research, vol. 22 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1066-2243

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Book part
Publication date: 19 January 2005

Roy Bahl

Abstract

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Taxing the Hard-to-tax: Lessons from Theory and Practice
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-828-5

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Article
Publication date: 19 December 2016

Laura Davies

This paper explores service provision for young fathers through analysis of data from the three-year ESRC funded project Following Young Fathers. The purpose of this paper…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper explores service provision for young fathers through analysis of data from the three-year ESRC funded project Following Young Fathers. The purpose of this paper is to explore the idea that young fathers are a “hard to reach” group. It begins with a discussion of literature and research evidence on this theme. The empirical discussion draws on data collected in interviews and focus groups with practitioners, service managers and those working to develop and deliver family support services.

Design/methodology/approach

The ESRC Following Young Fathers study used qualitative longitudinal methods to research the perspectives of fathers under the age of 25, mapping the availability of services to support them and investigating professional and policy responses to their needs. The strand reported on here focussed on the perspectives of a range of practitioners, service managers and those involved in developing and commissioning services.

Findings

The research findings, and those of other projects discussed in the paper, challenge the idea that young fathers are “hard to reach”, suggesting that we should, conversely, consider that many services are actually hard to access. Thus, increasing young fathers’ engagement requires better understanding of their often complex needs and a reshaping of service design and delivery to account for them. The paper highlights how the configuration, funding and delivery of services can inhibit young fathers’ use of them, and identifies ways in which they could be made more accessible.

Originality/value

The ESRC Following Young Fathers Study filled an important gap in knowledge about the lives of young fathers, developing understandings of their experiences and support needs. The strand reported on here draws on research with practitioners to provide an in-depth discussion of how services currently support young fathers, and how they could be better configured to address their often complex and diverse needs.

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Journal of Children's Services, vol. 11 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-6660

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Article
Publication date: 15 March 2013

Anita Devi and Andy McGarry

The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how an online virtual academy utilises a different approach to learning in order to engage hardtoreach learners; for whom…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how an online virtual academy utilises a different approach to learning in order to engage hardtoreach learners; for whom traditional methods of learning are not effective.

Design/methodology/approach

Small scale research using case studies of the students, phenomenographic professional development research for the tutors and academic results to demonstrate impact.

Findings

The findings appear to support the “community of inquiry model” proposed by Garrison, Anderson and Archer as well as the recommendations from the Framework for the National Curriculum (DfE), i.e. this interactive and experiential process between what is taught (subject knowledge) and the learner (individual development).

Research limitations/implications

The learning circle proved to be an excellent tool for visually representing the phenomena and it was observed that this tool could also prove beneficial to learners in future application of this pedagogy.

Practical implications

The research enables educators to consider: what constitutes effective learning online and what tools can be utilised to enhance this pedagogical approach? What are the barriers to learning for these hardtoreach learners? How can the online environment and a range of technological tools be used to overcome the barriers for these learners?

Social implications

For many hardtoreach learners social interaction can be a challenge. The feedback from case studies demonstrated how learners felt a greater sense of security by using an online environment and therefore were able to form stronger and sustainable social relationships, thus enhancing the learning process.

Originality/value

This research aims to add to the body of knowledge defining “effective online pedagogy”. In this instance phenomenology was used as an approach to engage the tutor and learner in a co‐constructive process of development and learning.

Details

Journal of Assistive Technologies, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-9450

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Article
Publication date: 4 June 2019

David Stevenson

The existence of so-called non-participants is a cultural policy problem in the UK and beyond. Yet, the very notion of a cultural non-participant seems nonsensical against…

Abstract

Purpose

The existence of so-called non-participants is a cultural policy problem in the UK and beyond. Yet, the very notion of a cultural non-participant seems nonsensical against the palpable evidence of lived experience. The purpose of this paper is to understand “who” a cultural non-participant is by first comprehending “what” the cultural non-participant is and why it exists.

Design/methodology/approach

Drawing on primary data generated in the form of 40 in-depth qualitative interviews, this paper employs a discursive methodology to explore the critical logics (Howarth, 2010) that underlie the problem representation (Bacchi, 2009) of cultural non-participation and in particular the discursive subject identity of the cultural non-participant.

Findings

Beginning with a discussion about how cultural non-participants are represented as socially deprived and hard to reach, the paper moves on to highlight how they are also presumed to lack knowledge and understanding about what they are rejecting. Their supposed flawed subjectivity is then contrasted with the desirable model of agency claimed by the cultural professionals who seek to change the cultural participation patterns of others. The paper concludes with a consideration of how the existence of the cultural non-participant subject identity limits the extent to which those labelled as such can meaningfully contribute to the field of cultural policy and obscures the extent to which such individuals are culturally disenfranchised.

Research limitations/implications

Because of the chosen research approach and the geographical limitations to the data generation, the research makes no claim to generalisability. Therefore, researchers are encouraged to test the discursive logics identified at alternative discursive sites.

Practical implications

This paper proposes a change in the language used by cultural professionals accompanied by changes in practice that abandoning the identity of the cultural non-participant would demand.

Originality/value

This paper challenges a taken for granted assumption that cultural non-participants exist “in the real”.

Details

Arts and the Market, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4945

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Article
Publication date: 10 July 2017

Maria Hepi, Jeff Foote, Jörg Finsterwalder, Moana-o-Hinerangi Moana-o-Hinerangi, Sue Carswell and Virginia Baker

This study aims to understand the engagement between an indigenous social service provider and marginalised clients deemed “hard-to-reachto gain an insight into how to

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to understand the engagement between an indigenous social service provider and marginalised clients deemed “hard-to-reachto gain an insight into how to improve the client’s engagement and well-being through transformative value co-creation.

Design/methodology/approach

The exploratory study’s findings draw on primary data employing a qualitative research approach through document analysis and in-depth interviews with clients, social workers and stakeholders of the focal social service provider in New Zealand.

Findings

The findings indicate that there are inhibitors and enablers of value or well-being co-creation. The lack of client resources and a mismatch between client and social worker are primary barriers. Other actors as well as cultural practices are identified as enablers of well-being improvement.

Research limitations/implications

This research reports on a single social service provider and its clients. These findings may not be readily transferrable to other contexts.

Practical implications

Findings indicate that social service providers require a heightened awareness of the inhibitors and enablers of social service co-creation.

Social implications

Both the integrative framework and the findings provide a sound critique of the prevailing policy discourse surrounding the stigmatisation of members of society deemed “hard-to-reach” and the usefulness of such an approach when aiming at resolving social issues.

Originality/value

This is the first exploratory study that reports on the engagement between a social service provider and its clients in a dedicated Māori (indigenous) context by employing an integrative research approach combining transformative service research, activity theory and engagement theory.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 31 no. 4/5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

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Article
Publication date: 23 November 2010

Diana Quinn

The purpose of this paper is to examine current approaches to teaching used in academic development services and consider the diversity of their learners (academic…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine current approaches to teaching used in academic development services and consider the diversity of their learners (academic faculty). Faculty engagement with teaching issues and innovations remains a concern for the higher education sector. The academic population contains large numbers of “hard to get at” people, struggling with workload and access issues.

Design/methodology/approach

An additional online resource for academic development, called In a nutshell, has been developed and trialed for three years in a variety of contexts. These resources incorporate voices into concise online presentations with links to further resources. Academic viewers can, in private, participate and make informed decisions about whether they need to learn more about a topic, or not.

Findings

A measurable improvement in faculty engagement with teaching issues and innovations has been detected that can be directly and indirectly attributed to this change in academic development approach. Usage data and user feedback supports the hypothesis that In a nutshells have had an impact on adult learners. Requests by faculty to collaborate on the production of new In a nutshells also indicate engagement. Positive changes in teaching and learning performance indicators are supportive.

Research limitations/implications

The study provides evidence to support the use of concise, flexible and asynchronous online approaches as components of a structured academic development program that provides mandated and non‐mandated learning opportunities for university faculty. The addition of this approach can increase the reach of academic development to include those who can be traditionally hard to reach such as sessional faculty, workplace supervisors and time‐poor, full‐time academics. The concept has recently been extended to create concise learning support that engages and empowers new students to develop new skills.

Practical implications

A streaming server and software is required. Multiple versions of the material are created to ensure accessibility. The time commitment required to invest in initial production of high‐quality product is high; however, this is counter‐balanced by the re‐usability and outreach of the approach.

Originality/value

Partial alignment of learning design and user feedback to an inclusive adult motivation framework indicates that although In a nutshells do meet most requirements of the framework, complementary activities that build the competence of faculty are needed to be linked to In a nutshells to ensure that all targeted adults are motivated to learn.

Details

Interactive Technology and Smart Education, vol. 7 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-5659

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Article
Publication date: 23 October 2020

Jordan Dawson, Alys Einion-Waller and Deborah Jones

As society becomes ever more reliant on Internet technology for everyday communications, this paper explores the use of instant messaging (IM) in qualitative research…

Abstract

Purpose

As society becomes ever more reliant on Internet technology for everyday communications, this paper explores the use of instant messaging (IM) in qualitative research. Discussed within the context of sensitive topic research with potentially hidden and hard-to-reach groups, the purpose of this paper is to discuss the value of adaptive and contemporary research approaches which facilitate participation on the terms of the participant.

Design/methodology/approach

Reflecting on the data collection process from the primary authors’ PhD research, this paper critically considers some of the issues raised by IM-facilitated at semi-structured interviews.

Findings

This paper raises a number of issues, including how the perceived depth of participant response is influenced by their brevity, resultant of the space between parties which allows for considered and concise communication. This disconnect, created by the use of technology, also has implications for the power relations between researcher and participant and the ability to identify the non-verbal cues which communicate emotion and sentiment.

Originality/value

This paper highlights that whilst limited in some respects, an IM-facilitated interview provides a unique platform through which hidden and hard-to-reach groups may be empowered to participate in research, which they may usually avoid.

Details

Qualitative Research Journal, vol. 21 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1443-9883

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Article
Publication date: 14 March 2016

Peter Fuggle, Dickon Bevington, Fiona Duffy and Liz Cracknell

MBIT is a manualised mentalization-based approach to working with hard to reach young people at risk of a wide range of life adversities including severe mental illness…

Abstract

Purpose

MBIT is a manualised mentalization-based approach to working with hard to reach young people at risk of a wide range of life adversities including severe mental illness, substance misuse, family breakdown, school exclusion, offending and homelessness. The on-line manual (www.tiddlymanuals.com) describes how Adolescent Mentalization-Based Integrative Therapy (AMBIT) is a systemic intervention requiring attention to four different domains of intervention simultaneously; much emphasis is placed on the support systems for workers to maintain this balance in what are often chaotic working conditions. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate how these four main components of the AMBIT approach link together in actual clinical practice.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors illustrate the core techniques of the AMBIT approach, namely, “working with your client”, “working with your team”, “ working with your network” and “learning as a team” with a series of case vignettes, demonstrating the inter-relationship of these components rather than seeing them as separate strands.

Findings

A range of mentalization-based techniques such as “thinking together”, mentalized formulation, “disintegration grids” and web-based manualising are described and illustrated in relation to a series of case vignettes in order to address barriers to effective practice. The vignettes emphasise how these components must be linked together and held in balance, and how easily they become disconnected in working with young people’s ambivalent or even hostile relationships to help.

Practical implications

First, developing a shared, mentalized formulation of a young person’s difficulties is an important aspect of working with highly troubled young people. Second, mentalizing is a relational process and is easily disrupted, for both workers and young people, by raised anxiety and affect, a common feature of working with this client group. AMBIT provides specific methods, for example, “thinking together” for supporting the mentalizing of individual workers in their team in an explicit way. Third, workers from different agencies may often find it difficult to make sense of each other’s behaviour and decision making. AMBIT proposes the use of a mentalizing approach to this difficulty using a technique called a disintegration grid. Finally, AMBIT proposes a new practitioner focused approach to manualising as a method by which a team can become more explicit about its methods of working in order to support systematic practice and evaluate outcomes.

Originality/value

The innovative AMBIT approach proposes that clinicians need to attend to team and network relationships at least as much as their relationship with the client, in addition to adopting a stance of learning as a team from their casework. A high level of clinical skill is needed to support a team to achieve this balanced approach to casework. This work is of interest to all multi-disciplinary teams working with hard to reach young people.

Details

Mental Health Review Journal, vol. 21 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1361-9322

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