This chapter analyses the Norwegian Twitter-sphere during and in the aftermath of the terrorist attack in Norway on 22 July 2011. Based on a collection of 2.2 million…
This chapter analyses the Norwegian Twitter-sphere during and in the aftermath of the terrorist attack in Norway on 22 July 2011. Based on a collection of 2.2 million tweets representing the Twitter-sphere during the period 20 July–28 August 2011, the chapter seeks answers to how the micro-blogging services aided in creating situation awareness (SA) related to the emergency event, what role hashtags played in that process and who the dominant crisis communicators were. The chapter is framed by theories and previous research on SA and social media use in the context of emergency events. The findings reveal that Twitter was important in establishing SA both during and in the aftermath of the terrorist attack, that hashtags were of limited value in this process during the critical phase, and that unexpected actors became key communicators.
This chapter analyses the Norwegian authorities’ presence on Twitter during the 22 July 2011 terrorist attacks. Twitter activity by two official institutions is analysed…
This chapter analyses the Norwegian authorities’ presence on Twitter during the 22 July 2011 terrorist attacks. Twitter activity by two official institutions is analysed in particular, namely, the blood bank at Oslo University Hospital and the Norwegian Police Security Services (PST). Our findings show that the Norwegian authorities were almost completely absent on Twitter during the critical hours of the terrorist attack, and that there was no coordination and synchronisation of communication from the authorities. This official silence allowed the diffusion of speculation and misinformation to take place; these were neither corrected nor addressed, as the analysed PST case shows. In contrast, the blood bank used Twitter to mobilise blood donors to address an acute problem: a shortage of blood to treat casualties. The chapter concludes by offering recommendations to the authorities for future major incidents.
This chapter summarises the findings of a case study on social media activity during the 22 July 2011 terrorist attacks in Norway. Based on these findings and on theories…
This chapter summarises the findings of a case study on social media activity during the 22 July 2011 terrorist attacks in Norway. Based on these findings and on theories and previous research on the role of social media in situation awareness (SA) configuration during crisis situations, the chapter offers seven recommendations for key communicators in official crisis management and response institutions, journalistic institutions, NGOs and others: (1) acknowledge social media as important and master monitoring and management of features across social media; (2) synchronise communication and establish a standard operating procedure (SOP); (3) establish and make known a joint social media emergency account; (4) participate, interact and take the lead; (5) be aware of non-hashtagged content; (6) implement verification tools and practices and (7) engage with and learn from celebrities.
Den Veränderungen auf Tourismusmärkten unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Markteinbrüche der traditionellen Märkte der Alpenländer seit Beginn der 90er‐Jahre begegnen…
Den Veränderungen auf Tourismusmärkten unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Markteinbrüche der traditionellen Märkte der Alpenländer seit Beginn der 90er‐Jahre begegnen viele Unternehmungen mit massiven organisatorischen, aber auch marktpolitischen Umstellungen. Die Wettbewerbsituationen, denen sich Unternehmungen heute gegenübersehen, haben sich stark verschärft. In Zeiten turbulenter Veränderungen muß Altes konsequent auf seine Brauchbarkeit überprüft, müssen Barrieren zwischen Verantwortungsebenen aufgebrochen und Funktionsbereiche und regionale Einheiten abgebaut werden, um eine innere Dynamik entwickeln zu können. Gilt oben Genanntes ebenso für Landestourismusorganisationen? Wie wird in rezessiven Zeiten mit Marketingbudgets umgegangen? Eine Befragung von 8 Landestourismusorganisationen soll Aufschluß geben über das strategische Marktverhalten bei sich ändernden Wettbewerbsbedingungen. Bei den befragten Tourismusstrukturen handelt es sich um die Dachorganisationen von deutschen und österreichischen Bundesländern, schweizerischen Kantonen und italienischen Provinzen.
Works councils have the legal right to participate in a firm’s training process and, where necessary, call for a replacement of training instructors. The purpose of this…
Works councils have the legal right to participate in a firm’s training process and, where necessary, call for a replacement of training instructors. The purpose of this paper is to empirically test whether works councils are associated with a higher quality of apprenticeship training – or its inputs or outputs – in Germany.
The authors use two representative cross-sectional surveys of German workplaces in 2007 and 2012/2013 that were conducted by the Federal Institute for Vocational Education and Training in Germany. To account for selection on observables, the authors apply nearest neighbor matching models to estimate the extent to which works councils are associated with training quality.
The results shed light on the influence of works councils on the quality of apprenticeship training in Germany. Based on a quality model, the authors show that works councils are associated with a (moderately) higher output quality of apprenticeships, particularly with respect to the share of retained apprentices. However, the authors do not find empirical evidence for a positive association between works councils and input- and process-quality indicators.
Although the identification of causal effects due to the existence of works councils is difficult and cannot be fully addressed in the analysis, the authors can use a number of important control variables at the workplace level. The results suggest that a works council only plays a moderate role in enhancing the quality of the German apprenticeship system.
The authors provide the first direct empirical evidence of how the existence of a works council is associated with the input-, process- and outcome-quality measures of the German apprenticeship system.