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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2002

Hansruedi Müller

Our rapidly changing times call for constant renewal of competencies. The following competencies can be described as being of central importance in tourism…

Abstract

Our rapidly changing times call for constant renewal of competencies. The following competencies can be described as being of central importance in tourism: problem‐solving competencies, personality traits, communication competency, socio‐cultural competency and entrepreneurial competency. A written gap‐analyse involving all sorts of tourism exponents shows the biggest gaps between today's quality and tomorrow's importance as follows: social competency (1), personality competency (2) and leadership (3). For greater transparency in tourism vocational training an attempt was made to subdivide it into the following four fields: hospitality industry with hotels, gastronomy etc., transport with tourist mo‐bility, public transport, boat travel etc., new professional fields such as sports and cultural activity manage‐ment, wellness, MICE etc. and the tourism sector in the narrower sense with tourism organizations, tourist offices, tour operators etc. The article makes clear, that specialized colleges of higher education and expert examinations, tourism should be interpreted as a comprehensive phenomenon with modular specializations. No further subdivisions should be attempted. The central challenge for tourism actors lies in managing the ongoing radical change and and adjust vocational training programms. On the basis of the findings of the empirical survey and the discussions with experts, the article submitts twelve recommendations for the tourism and educati‐on policy.

Details

Tourism Review, vol. 57 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1660-5373

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2007

Hansruedi Müller and Ursula Wyss

The study questions how spreading working hours through the day (night) and week might affect how people use their time and participate in leisure and social activities…

Abstract

The study questions how spreading working hours through the day (night) and week might affect how people use their time and participate in leisure and social activities. We make use of closed two‐daystime‐use‐diaries and questionnaires asked employees of the Swiss railway (sample size of 1,400 diarydays), to access the implications of atypical forms of working hours on the workers’ leisure time as well as the time arrangements of the employees’ partners and children. The empirical investigation revealed that people who work shifts are less likely to live in households made up of several persons (an average of 13.6 per cent compared, with 18.8 per cent among people who do not work shifts). Shift workers who live together with others in a household are more likely to share a household with a partner who also works shifts: 30.6 per cent of partners/spouses also work shifts, compared with 14.4 per cent of partners/spouses of non‐shift workers. Subdividing households according to single‐ or multiple‐person households shows that shift workers achieve a slightly longer period of social time than non‐shift workers. On the one hand, this points to a social environment which adapts to the irregular and asynchronous working hours of the person concerned. On the other hand, comparison with sociological theory literature and other time‐budget studies brings out that the social framework conditions and the extent to which working hours can be planned exert a definite influence on a functioning social environment. The Swiss Federal Railways (SBB) tries – and manages – to take this into account, as the survey results clearly show. Thus, it is not possible to draw the conclusion that shift workers are in principle at greater risk from social isolation. In fact, it should be pointed out that the negative consequences of asynchronous working hours can be compensated for by individual adjustments. However, in this regard, certain operational and social framework conditions are a prerequisite for the success of these individual efforts.

Details

Tourism Review, vol. 62 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1660-5373

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2001

Hansruedi Müller and Jürg Michel

In recent years, the “experience” theme has increased in significance for tourism. For aerial cableways, the mountains provide natural experience zones, and hence a good…

Abstract

In recent years, the “experience” theme has increased in significance for tourism. For aerial cableways, the mountains provide natural experience zones, and hence a good foundation for satisfying differing guest requirements. Thus, appropriate expansion ofcableway services and carefully staged activities can reduce dependence on the weather and tap this growing potential. This article is based on a recently completed study (Michel 2001) on the “mountain experience” and conduct an in‐depth analysis of the topic of quality in aerial cableways. The study has been done in the alpine regions of Switzerland and considers the special situation of the small and medium structure of the branch with lack of management know how. Also the vertical integration of the service chain is rather poor. Using a factor analysis, an attempt was made to highlight groups and identify various themes among the 117 survey variables in the “mountain experience” service chain. Twelve factors in all were identified: 1. safety and maintenance of ski runs and facilities, 2. accessibility and suitability for private transport and 3. friendliness and atmosphere. Fun and entertainment has become last of the twelve factors in the overall view. But special groups like snowboarders and younger people are more likely to attach importance to fun, entertainment and special ski‐run amenities. This difference in evaluation of the entertainment and events aspect by the various groups could conceivably lead to conflicts in ski regions, showing that quality is heavily dependent on the expectations of the target groups.

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Tourism Review, vol. 56 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1660-5373

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1993

Hansruedi Müller and Claudio Luigi Ferrarrte

Unüberhörbar ist der Ruf nach Ethik in allen Lebensbereichen, auch in der Wirtschaft “Ethik kommt als Krisenreflexion auf den Weg”, meinte einmal M. Riedel (1979, S. 8)…

Abstract

Unüberhörbar ist der Ruf nach Ethik in allen Lebensbereichen, auch in der Wirtschaft “Ethik kommt als Krisenreflexion auf den Weg”, meinte einmal M. Riedel (1979, S. 8). Als Krisen können wir die zunehmend komplexer werdenden Probleme touristisch bedingter ökologischer, sozialer und individueller Belastungen bezeichnen. Diese Belastungen genen bei einem Teil der betroffenen Bevölkerung über das Mass hinaus, das aufgrund persönlicher Wertvorstellungen verantwortbar sind.

Details

The Tourist Review, vol. 48 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0251-3102

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1995

Hansruedi Müller and Marion Thiem

This article risks the attempt to move the discussion of culture and tourism onto a broader basis. It replaces a rigid conception of culture with a dynamic model and…

Abstract

This article risks the attempt to move the discussion of culture and tourism onto a broader basis. It replaces a rigid conception of culture with a dynamic model and starts from a framing premise of empathy rather than cultural pessimism. It uses an extended explanatory model of tourism to seek answers to two central questions: what functions does travel fulfill for the travelers' culture and what effects can tourism have on hosts culture? The report demonstrates that the ritual, utopian and mythical character of travel makes a significant contribution to satisfying the basic human needs for security, activity and pluralism. In this way the holiday culture that has developed in the western countries has come to assume a vital role in strengthening cultural identity.

Details

The Tourist Review, vol. 50 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0251-3102

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Article
Publication date: 4 June 2018

Monika Bandi Tanner, Adrian Künzi, Therese Lehmann Friedli and Hansruedi Müller

The subsidization of events by public authorities at different administrative levels has become increasingly important in recent years. Event portfolios are an important…

Abstract

Purpose

The subsidization of events by public authorities at different administrative levels has become increasingly important in recent years. Event portfolios are an important supply component of tourism destinations. The development of a valuation tool with an event performance index (EPI) as the key output should enable public authorities to develop transparent, systematic and fair subsidization practices in the future. The paper aims discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a theoretical impact model and event evaluation practices, this work develops a new holistic valuation tool for events with key indicators along the dimensions of sustainable development. Basic cost-benefit analysis ideas enrich the approach conceptually. Indicator development was based on a process of elaboration that considered the scientific literature, event stakeholders and municipal representatives.

Findings

The EPI consists of seven core indicators: size, economic value, touristic value and image, innovative strength, value of networking, value of participation and social exchange and relative ecological burden. The application of this tool to a case study revealed that it generates comprehensive and robust indicators of multifaceted and destination-unspecific event values and supports the process of allocating event subsidies using different remuneration schemes. Straightforward and destination-unspecific indicators assure the transferability and adaptability of the valuation tool to different complex and multifaceted contexts of event subsidization.

Originality/value

The EPI seeks to reduce complexity and incentivize event organizers to meet future sustainable development goals. Additionally, this work contributes to future discussions of both the form and process of event subsidization.

Details

International Journal of Event and Festival Management, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1758-2954

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2003

Hansruedi Mueller and Fabian Schmid

Tourism is an area with poor statistical coverage. In most countries, only frequency for the hotel trade are monthly published, while results for self‐catering…

Abstract

Tourism is an area with poor statistical coverage. In most countries, only frequency for the hotel trade are monthly published, while results for self‐catering accommodation, camping etc., as well as for branches of economic activity which are mainly dependent on day visitors, are lacking. No statistics are compiled about demand for special tourist transport, sport/culture/entertainment or gastronomy. Furthermore, there are no data on developments in monetary terms. In some countries and tourist areas, new instruments have therefore been introduced to document tourism developments faster, more comprehensively and taking a broader view. This article is based on a recently concluded study on instruments used in monitoring the tourism market (Schmid 2003). A reporting system was set up using a panel in which businesses in branches of economic activity of relevance to tourism can participate. These businesses report some key indicators each month and can, in return, compare their results anonymously with the average for the corresponding branch. Their data are then used to make projections. In the test phase, monthly physical and monetary indicators were calculated for accommodation, restaurants/catering transport and sport/culture/entertainment. It was proved that a voluntary reporting system can work and provide a positive cost‐benefit ratio for participants. The stock of tourist data can be supplemented and made easily accessible. However, difficulties remain in the holiday home sector. Moreover, the results are approximate projections and not exact, full‐scale surveys.

Details

Tourism Review, vol. 58 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1660-5373

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2005

Hansruedi Müller and Brigitte Zaugg

The shortcomings of lobbying in respect of tourism policy are a frequent topic of discussion in tourism circles which lament that there is virtually no voice — and…

Abstract

The shortcomings of lobbying in respect of tourism policy are a frequent topic of discussion in tourism circles which lament that there is virtually no voice — and therefore no ear — for tourism policy matters in the Swiss Parliament. Is this really the case, or is it merely the customary reaction of a branch that is undergoing major structural change? A review of the achievement record on tourism policy affairs in recent years comes to the conclusion that the successes — at federal level, at least — are actually quite creditable: Innotour has been rejigged and a qualification offensive launched, the special VAT rate — that controversial regulatory policy issue — has been extended, the Schweizerische Cesellschaft für Hotelkredit (Swiss Society for Hotel Credits) was given a new credit, despite considerable opposition, and Switzerland Tourism's federal subsidy looks set to be higher than ever before. And all this at a juncture when savings and cuts are being made on all sides. So there is every indication that tourism lobbying in Switzerland is better than its reputation. It was in this context that tourism lobbying was investigated. The corresponding study, conducted by Brigitte Zaugg (2004), took its lead from the principles of the New Political Economy (Public Choice Theory), which uses as its essential point of departure that the ever‐more‐complex relations between politics and industry generate higher information requirements in all political bodies. Lobbyingprovides a tool for reducing information deficits. Here, information is understood as a swap commodity, because well informed circles can intensify their influence. What is more, with the help of lobbying, it is possible to develop viable legislation characterized by a high degree of acceptance and a broad consensus. Thus, despite certain image problems, lobbying is increasingly perceived as an indispensable form of basic democracy and a legitimate factor in shaping political will. If the influencing of tourism policy decision‐making processes in order to push through specific interests is further increased, the question arises of how lobbying could be modified to make it even more successful. In this connection, the study identifies four focal approaches: 1) the development and nurture of a sustainable network of contacts, 2) the permanent readying of sound information geared to public welfare and a regular exchange of information, 3) the preparation of suggested improvements that are as practical as possible and include own inputs, and 4) the creation of strategic partnerships and the grouping of tasks.

Details

Tourism Review, vol. 60 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1660-5373

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1999

Hansruedi Müller

Although tourism is based on growing mobility, traffic currently represents the biggest problem for many tourist resorts. The high volume of traffic in holiday resorts is…

Abstract

Although tourism is based on growing mobility, traffic currently represents the biggest problem for many tourist resorts. The high volume of traffic in holiday resorts is steadily undermining their attractiveness for tourists. People are becoming increasingly aware of this issue, and various efforts are being made to get local traffic problems under control. The technical aspects are widely known, but the measures taken and the implementation procedures used lack consistency and the success achieved varies considerably. This research project has focused on concrete implementation processes for traffic measures and their impact on the environment. In particular, questions about the acceptance of measures and how these relate to the implementation process have been of great interest.

Details

The Tourist Review, vol. 54 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0251-3102

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Article
Publication date: 29 August 2008

Hansruedi Müller and Fabian Weber

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate possible impacts of climate change on tourism on a regional level and therefore to provide a basis for discussion for tourism destinations.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate possible impacts of climate change on tourism on a regional level and therefore to provide a basis for discussion for tourism destinations.

Design/methodology/approach

By means of a statistical analysis of data and a comprehensive desk research, the ecological consequences of climate change on regional level were outlined. In expert workshops, the effects on tourism were discussed and the main challenges for tourism enterprises and destinations were derived.

Findings

The ecological consequences of climate change are shown for the different destinations in the Bernese Oberland. The economic effects on tourism under changed conditions are estimated. The changes in tourism revenue, including adaptation measures, would result in annual losses of approximately 70 million CHF, or about −4 per cent.

Research limitations/implications

There are many uncertainties regarding climatic development, effects on tourism and adaptability of the industry. In addition, the impacts depend heavily on local conditions and the structure of tourism.

Practical implications

The paper provides a useful basis for discussion for alpine tourist destinations planning to set climate change and its consequences on the agenda and develop strategies to face these new challenges.

Originality/value

This paper presents an analysis of ecological consequences of climate change and possible implications on tourism on a regional level and points out the challenges as well as possible mitigation and adaptation strategies.

Details

Tourism Review, vol. 63 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1660-5373

Keywords

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