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Article
Publication date: 13 August 2018

Claudio Cruz-Cázares, Cristina Bayona-Sáez, Teresa García-Marco, Hans Berends, Armand Smits and Isabelle Reymen

The purpose of this paper is to analyse a firm’s internal and external drivers of formal and informal open innovation (OI) practices. To enrich the analysis and to obtain…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyse a firm’s internal and external drivers of formal and informal open innovation (OI) practices. To enrich the analysis and to obtain more robust results, the authors checked the study’s hypotheses using samples from two European regions, Navarre (Spain), classified an innovator follower, and Noord-Brabant (Netherlands), an innovator leader.

Design/methodology/approach

The sample selected includes manufacturing and service firms that completed the Community Innovation Survey for the year 2008 in both regions. The final sample had 1,288 observations from Navarre and 623 observations from Noord-Brabant. The authors consider two OI dimensions, breadth of information sources for informal OI practices and breadth of cooperation agreement for formal OI practices. Finally, the estimates were performed by means of a negative binomial regression.

Findings

Results indicate that for the internal drivers, product-related motives to innovate and in-house R&D intensity are strong drivers for both formal and informal OI engagement in general, while the influence of process- and environmental-related motives are context dependence.

Originality/value

This study distinguishes between formal (i.e. cooperation activities) and informal (i.e. external sources of information used for new ideas) inbound OI practices, while most of the literature has focussed on one single type of OI practice. The use of two samples coming from two different European regions allows observe whether the adoption motives of the OI practices are robust independently from the firms’ location or if they vary across regions owing to context dependence.

Objetivo

La innovación abierta (IA) ha demostrado ser crucial para aumentar la innovación y el desempeño económico de las empresas. Sin embargo todavía existe una comprensión limitada de los factores que impulsan realizar esta IA. El principal objetivo de este artículo es arrojar luz en esta dirección al analizar simultáneamente los determinantes internos y externos que llevan a las empresas a realizar prácticas formales e informales de IA.

Diseño

Las hipótesis son contratadas con muestras de dos regiones europeas, Navarra (España), calificada como región seguidora en innovación, y Noord Brabant (Países Bajos), líder innovador. La muestra seleccionada incluye empresas manufactureras y de servicios que completaron la Community Innovation Survey (CIS) 2008.

Resultados

Los resultados indican que, para los determinantes internos, los motivos relacionados con la búsqueda de innovaciones en producto y la intensidad interna de I + D son fuertes impulsores para todas las prácticas de IA, mientras que la importancia de los motivos relacionados con la obtención de innovaciones en proceso y medioambientales dependen del contexto regional. En cuanto a los factores externos, la política pública influye en la adopción de IA tanto formal como informal, pero estos resultados varían entre las regiones dependiendo del origen de los fondos.

Originalidad/valor

El estudio presenta importantes implicaciones para la literatura en IA. En primer lugar, mientras la mayoría de la literatura analiza un único tipo de prácticas de IA, este estudio distingue prácticas formales e informales de IA y estudia sus determinantes internos y externos simultáneamente. Segundo, las hipótesis son contrastadas en dos regiones europeas diferentes. Esto permite observar si los resultados obtenidos son robustos independientemente de la localización de las empresas o si varían dependiendo del contexto de ambas regiones.

Objetivo

A inovação aberta (IA) provou ser crucial para aumentar a inovação e o desempenho económico das empresas. No entanto, ainda há uma compreensão limitada dos fatores que conduzem essa IA. O principal objetivo deste artigo é lançar luz nessa direção, analisando simultaneamente os determinantes internos e externos que levam as empresas a realizar práticas de IA formais e informais.

Desenho

As hipóteses são contratadas com amostras de duas regiões européias, Navarra (Espanha), classificada como uma região de inovação, e Noord Brabant (Holanda), um líder inovador. A amostra selecionada inclui empresas de fabricação e serviços que completaram o Community Innovation Survey (CIS) 2008.

Resultados

Os resultados indicam que, para os determinantes internos, os motivos relacionados à busca de inovações no produto e na intensidade interna de P & D são fortes impulsionadores para todas as práticas de IA, enquanto a importância dos motivos relacionados à obtenção Inovações em processo e ambientes dependem do contexto regional. Em relação aos fatores externos, observamos que a política pública influencia a adoção de IA formal e informal, mas esses resultados variam de acordo com as origens dos fundos.

Originalidade/valor

O estudo apresenta implicações importantes para a literatura em IA. Primeiro, enquanto a maioria da literatura analisa um único tipo de práticas de IA, este estudo distingue práticas formais e informais de IA e simultaneamente estuda seus determinantes internos e externos. Em segundo lugar, as hipóteses são contrastadas em duas regiões européias diferentes. Isso permite verificar se os resultados obtidos são robustos independentemente da localização das empresas ou se variam de acordo com o contexto de ambas as regiões.

Abstract

Details

Managing Inter-organizational Collaborations: Process Views
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-592-0

Book part
Publication date: 4 October 2019

Kristina Lauche

While inter-organizational collaboration concerns processes of organizing between firms, it is always initiated and enacted by individual people who perceive a need for…

Abstract

While inter-organizational collaboration concerns processes of organizing between firms, it is always initiated and enacted by individual people who perceive a need for collaboration. This chapter takes the perspective of these actors and their efforts to seek collaboration as they pursue an agenda for change. Collaboration processes are thus conceptualized as path creation and internal strategizing. The chapter focuses specifically on how actors sell the need for collaboration internally and how they draw on their external network to promote change. It illustrates this process of issue selling and collaboration with six case studies in the area of new product development, new forms of network governance, and network-wide change of business practices. Comparing these more or less successful trajectories highlights the relevance of the relational context in issue selling, the role of intentionality within emerging processes, and interplay between external collaboration and internal strategizing.

Details

Managing Inter-organizational Collaborations: Process Views
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-592-0

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 4 October 2019

Harry Sminia, Anup Nair, Aylin Ates, Steve Paton and Marisa Smith

This chapter addresses the dynamics in inter-organizational relations. The authors probe the value networks so prevalent within contemporary ­manufacturing to put forward…

Abstract

This chapter addresses the dynamics in inter-organizational relations. The authors probe the value networks so prevalent within contemporary ­manufacturing to put forward that their basic cooperation/competition duality manifests itself in practical terms as capability, appropriation, and governance paradoxes. The authors conducted a longitudinal ethnographic study aimed at capturing the process by which inter-organizational collabor­ation in ­manufacturing value networks is enacted. Our study finds that inter-organizational relations are “nested” in that a relationship plays out over an interpersonal network where the inter-organizational relationships are a framework for action, while simultaneously interpersonal interactions affect how the inter-organizational relationships take shape and evolve. Furthermore, we found that inter-organizational dynamics is essentially a stratified process. Solving particular and concrete problems at the surface level, with regard to specific collaboration issues between organizations, simultaneously shapes truces with regard to the underlying capability, appropriation, and governance paradoxes.

Details

Managing Inter-organizational Collaborations: Process Views
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-592-0

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 4 October 2019

Stephan Manning

This chapter examines key drivers of variation in adaptive capacity of project network organizations (PNOs). PNOs are defined as strategically coordinated sets of…

Abstract

This chapter examines key drivers of variation in adaptive capacity of project network organizations (PNOs). PNOs are defined as strategically coordinated sets of longer-term, yet project-based relationships, which provide for both stability and change in volatile project businesses. While prior research has emphasized the adaptive role of flexible structures and agency, the author focuses on the role of project variety and contextual embedding and disembedding in building adaptive capacity. Comparing two PNOs in TV movie production, the author argues that differences in adaptive capacity are a function of inter-context connectivity, that is, the level of task and team linkages among diverse project contexts, and the degree to which network ties and relational practices have “dual quality” in being valuable both within and beyond specific project contexts. Findings have important implications for project, network, and organization research.

Details

Managing Inter-organizational Collaborations: Process Views
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-592-0

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 4 October 2019

Katharina Cepa and Henri Schildt

Advanced information technologies, and particularly big data, provide new affordances to facilitate inter-organizational collaboration. Rich flows of real-time data…

Abstract

Advanced information technologies, and particularly big data, provide new affordances to facilitate inter-organizational collaboration. Rich flows of real-time data provide transparency across organizational boundaries and enable greater automation of inter-organizational routines. Taking stock of the literature and building on observations from the research in an industrial setting, the authors introduce the concept of technological embeddedness as an important characteristic of inter-organizational relationships, denoting the degree of monitoring, control, and optimization of intra- and inter-organizational tasks accomplished through technology at the interface of the inter-organizational relationship. The authors theorize how increasing technological embeddedness created by big data technologies affects the development of inter-organizational trust, mutual adaptation, and temporal structuring of collaboration. The propositions elaborate how greater technological embeddedness enables collaboration, and warn about the potential limiting effects of technological embeddedness on the development of interpersonal trust, strategic learning, and long-term orientation.

Details

Managing Inter-organizational Collaborations: Process Views
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-592-0

Keywords

Content available
Book part
Publication date: 4 October 2019

Abstract

Details

Managing Inter-organizational Collaborations: Process Views
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-592-0

Book part
Publication date: 4 October 2019

Luca Giustiniano, Terri L. Griffith and Ann Majchrzak

For at least three decades, inter-organizational collaboration (IOC) has attracted scholarly attention and many studies have unveiled its inner dynamics. More recently…

Abstract

For at least three decades, inter-organizational collaboration (IOC) has attracted scholarly attention and many studies have unveiled its inner dynamics. More recently, new phenomena have appeared in the changing landscape of IOC, affecting the way in which organizations are open to interact with, and rely upon, other actors that may be standalone entities as well as representatives of other organizations. These actors operate “betwixt and between” the organizational core and its external environment(s), populating a liminal space located at the organization’s boundary in which activities take place according to non-proprietary and non-employment logics. The authors focus on the forms of collaboration, which blur the lines between organizations, calling into question the fundamental label of crowd-focused IOCs. The authors consider two forms: crowd-open and crowd-based organizations. The authors show the organizational design impact of openness spans from the mere scalability associated with organizational growth to the phenomena of reshaping formalization and standardization of roles and processes, and self-organizing over time.

Details

Managing Inter-organizational Collaborations: Process Views
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-592-0

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 4 October 2019

Linus Dahlander, Lars Bo Jeppesen and Henning Piezunka

Crowdsourcing – a form of collaboration across organizational boundaries – provides access to knowledge beyond an organization’s local knowledge base. Integrating work on…

Abstract

Crowdsourcing – a form of collaboration across organizational boundaries – provides access to knowledge beyond an organization’s local knowledge base. Integrating work on organization theory and innovation, the authors first develop a framework that characterizes crowdsourcing into a main sequential process, through which organizations (1) define the task they wish to have completed; (2) broadcast to a pool of potential contributors; (3) attract a crowd of contributors; and (4) select among the inputs they receive. For each of these phases, the authors identify the key decisions organizations make, provide a basic explanation for each decision, discuss the trade-offs organizations face when choosing among decision alternatives, and explore how organizations may resolve these trade-offs. Using this decision-centric approach, the authors continue by showing that there are fundamental interdependencies in the process that makes the coordination of crowdsourcing challenging.

Details

Managing Inter-organizational Collaborations: Process Views
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-592-0

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 4 October 2019

Karl-Emanuel Dionne and Paul Carlile

Innovation challenges are increasingly complex, cutting across distributed actors from different disciplines, organizations, and fields. Solving such challenges requires…

Abstract

Innovation challenges are increasingly complex, cutting across distributed actors from different disciplines, organizations, and fields. Solving such challenges requires creating the capacities of opening up for innovation to access and develop a greater amount and variety of knowledge and resources. Perspectives on open source, open innovation, and interorganizational collaboration have explored such capacities, but from different origins and scopes of analysis. Our practice-based integrative framework of “opening innovation” helps highlight these differences and connect their relative strengths. Through a critical literature review paired with an analysis of different empirical cases from Hacking Health, a non-profit organization helping drive digital health innovation, the authors reveal the user-centric, firm-centric, and field-centric approaches to opening innovation that progressively connect a greater variety of actors and resources. The authors show how specific new relational practices they produce address the new relational dynamics these connections bring to accumulate more resources for innovation to keep progressing.

Details

Managing Inter-organizational Collaborations: Process Views
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-592-0

Keywords

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