In the last four years health services in public sector prisons in England have undergone a period of rapid reform and modernisation. Before this, prisoners' health care was characterised by over‐medicalisation, isolation from the NHS, and lack of education and training for health care staff. As part of this process of reform, responsibility for funding and commissioning these services has moved from the Prison Service to the National Health Service (NHS). The results so far seem encouraging. Services are better funded, standards have improved and there is significant progress in developing a strong partnership between the key partners ‐ the Prison Service and the NHS ‐ at national and local levels. These reforms address human rights and the aim of the Prison Health Unit, that prisoners should be able to expect their health needs to be met adequately by services that are broadly equivalent to services on offer in the community. Some learning points for other countries are considered. An equivalent strategy for the modernisation of public sector prisons in Wales is being developed by the Welsh Assembly Government.
The first purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between principal self-efficacy and work experience. The second purpose of this paper is to re-study the…
The first purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between principal self-efficacy and work experience. The second purpose of this paper is to re-study the structure of a multidimensional and hierarchical Principal Self-Efficacy Scale (PSES).
PSES was measured using the Brama-Friedman scale (PSES) (Brama and Friedman, 2007). During the 2010 school year, 123 principals participated. Exploration of PSES was based on Facet Theory (Guttman, 1959).
The findings show that the highest levels of the PSES were found with principals that were at their first year of leading the school. The levels of PSES drop significantly during the second year and up to the fifth year of work experience. The levels of PSES start to rise after the fifth year, and stabilize after ten years. Furthermore, the findings show that PSES is comprised of organizational leadership, educational, and pedagogical leadership and external and communal relations.
The sample was relatively small and mostly from the center school district of Israel. The second limitation was that the sample included only Jewish principals. Since 20 percent of the population in Israel is Arabs, further studies should include all minorities in order to enlighten the issue.
Understanding the relations between PSES levels and work experience could assist policy makers with decisions concerning continuing professional development (in-service training) of principals.
Little is known about the relations between perceived self-efficacy of principals and their work experience.
This exploratory study adopts a stakeholder perspective on organisational effectiveness. The purpose of this paper is to examine the job embeddedness (JE)–life…
This exploratory study adopts a stakeholder perspective on organisational effectiveness. The purpose of this paper is to examine the job embeddedness (JE)–life satisfaction relationship, moderating roles of gender and community embeddedness and mediating role of innovative behaviour.
Using a snowballing approach, data were collected from 549 participants employed in organisations located in four major metropolitan centres in South Africa.
Analyses revealed a positive relationship between JE and life satisfaction. Gender moderated the JE–life satisfaction relationship, such that the relationship was stronger among females than males. Community embeddedness moderated the organisation embeddedness–life satisfaction relationship, such that the relationship was stronger when participants were highly embedded in their community. Finally, innovative behaviour mediated the relationship between organisation embeddedness and life satisfaction.
Managers could enhance employees’ life satisfaction through practices that increase on-the-job and off-the-job embeddedness. Furthermore, organisations could encourage employees’ innovative behaviours through workplace supervisors’ supportive responses to innovative employees.
JE researchers have yet to focus on the personal benefits of embeddedness for employees. Results of the study provide several contributions to this research direction. The study uses JE as a composite construct to confirm its relationship with life satisfaction. It also expands the JE–life satisfaction relationship by examining moderators of the relationship and a mediating variable in the relationship.