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Article
Publication date: 24 December 2020

Hongya Niu, Zhaoce Liu, Wei Hu, Wenjing Cheng, Mengren Li, Fanli Xue, Zhenxiao Wu, Jinxi Wang and Jingsen Fan

Severe airborne particulate pollution frequently occurs over the North China Plain (NCP) region in recent years. To better understand the characteristics of carbonaceous…

Abstract

Purpose

Severe airborne particulate pollution frequently occurs over the North China Plain (NCP) region in recent years. To better understand the characteristics of carbonaceous components in particulate matter (PM) over the NCP region.

Design/methodology/approach

PM samples were collected at a typical area affected by industrial emissions in Handan, in January 2016. The concentrations of organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) in PM of different size ranges (i.e. PM2.5, PM10 and TSP) were measured. The concentrations of secondary organic carbon (SOC) were estimated by the EC tracer method.

Findings

The results show that the concentration of OC ranged from 14.9 μg m−3 to 108.4 μg m−3, and that of EC ranged from 4.0 μg m−3 to 19.4μg m−3, when PM2.5 changed from 58.0μg m−3 to 251.1μg m−3 during haze days, and the carbonaceous aerosols most distributed in PM2.5 rather than large fraction. The concentrations of OC and EC PM2.5 correlated better (r = 0.7) than in PM2.5−10 and PM>10, implying that primary emissions were dominant sources of OC and EC in PM2.5. The mean ratios of OC/EC in PM2.5, PM2.5–10 and PM>10 were 4.4 ± 2.1, 3.6 ± 0.9 and 1.9 ± 0.7, respectively. Based on estimation, SOC accounted for 16.3%, 22.0% and 9.1% in PM2.5, PM2.5–10 and PM>10 respectively.

Originality/value

The ratio of SOC/OC (48.2%) in PM2.5 was higher in Handan than those (28%–32%) in other megacities, e.g. Beijing, Tianjin and Shijiazhuang in the NCP, suggesting that the formation of SOC contributed significantly to OC. The mean mass absorption efficiencies of EC (MACEC) in PM10 and TSP were 3.4 m2 g−1 (1.9–6.6 m2 g−1) and 2.9 m2 g−1 (1.6–5.6 m2 g−1), respectively, both of which had similar variation patterns to those of OC/EC and SOC/OC.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. 18 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

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Article
Publication date: 3 June 2021

Hongya Niu, Zhenxiao Wu, Fanli Xue, Zhaoce Liu, Wei Hu, Jinxi Wang, Jingsen Fan and Yanqi Lu

This study aims to acquire a better understanding on the characteristics and risks of heavy metals (HMs) in PM2.5 from an industrial city – Handan, China.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to acquire a better understanding on the characteristics and risks of heavy metals (HMs) in PM2.5 from an industrial city – Handan, China.

Design/methodology/approach

PM2.5 samples were collected on the basis of daytime and nighttime at the state controlling air sampling site in Handan city. Ten metal elements (V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Rb, Sr, Cd and Ba) in PM2.5 were determined with an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The pollution levels of metals were characterized by enrichment factors, and the sources of metals were identified with principle component analysis and cluster analysis. The ecological and health risks of metals were assessed using ecological and health risk indexes.

Findings

Results showed that the highest and lowest PM2.5 concentration appeared in winter and summer, respectively. The concentration of PM2.5 at night was higher than in the daytime in winter, yet it is the opposite in other seasons. The total mass concentration of detected metals was the highest in winter, and the total mass concentration in the daytime was higher than at night in all four seasons. The elements V, Rb, Sr and Ba exhibited a deficient contamination level; Cr, Ni and Cu exhibited a moderate contamination level; while Fe and Cd were at an extreme contamination level. The metals in PM2.5 originated from a mixture source of fossil fuel combustion and manufacture and use of metallic substances (34.04%), natural source (26.01%) and construction and traffic-related road dust (17.58%). Results from the ecological risk model showed that the ecological risk of metals was very high, especially risks related to Cd. Health risk model presented that both the non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risk coefficients of metals were above the tolerance level of the human body.

Originality/value

The significance of the study is to further know the pollution characteristics of PM2.5 and related HMs in Handan city, and to provide references for ensuring local resident health and ecological environment.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 7 November 2016

Sifeng Liu, Handan Rui, Zhigeng Fang, Yingjie Yang and Jeffrey Forrest

The purpose of this paper is to present the terms of grey numbers and its operations.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present the terms of grey numbers and its operations.

Design/methodology/approach

The definitions of elementary terms about grey numbers and its operations are presented one by one.

Findings

The reader could know the basic explanation about the important terms about grey numbers and its operations from this paper.

Practical implications

Many of the colleagues thought that unified definitions of key terms would be beneficial for both the readers and the authors.

Originality/value

It is a fundamental work to standardise all the definitions of terms for a new discipline. It is also propitious to spread the universal principles of grey system theory.

Details

Grey Systems: Theory and Application, vol. 6 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2043-9377

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2006

Gülsün Saglamer, Selim Velioglu, Handan Dülger Türkoglu, Atilla Dikbas, Gülden Erkut and Özlem Berk

In the year 2000, a team from Istanbul Technical University (ITU) developed the “Urban m3 - Respect for Life Project”, which was aimed at providing shelter for those…

Abstract

In the year 2000, a team from Istanbul Technical University (ITU) developed the “Urban m3 - Respect for Life Project”, which was aimed at providing shelter for those people who were left homeless as a consequence of the earthquake in 1999, in the districts of Arizli-Kocaeli in Turkey. This earthquake had a catastrophic effect on one of the most densely populated and industrial regions of Turkey whose population accounts about 20 percent of Turkey's total population. In addition to providing shelter, the major objective of this project was to re-establish those humanistic and natural values that had been lost or obscured in respect of the traditional, Turkish life-style and culture, as a result of the rapid urban-isation which took place after the 1950s. In 2000, research was conducted to evaluate the prospective residents' preferences in respect of their future housing and its environment needs. For this purpose, 400 people, who had been living in temporary housing in the area affected by the earthquake, were the target group of an in-depth survey. The main objective of the study was to determine whether the prospective residents' perceptions and evaluations matched the project designed by the ITU's team. It was assumed within the project planning and design that people would prefer the socially, and physically rich environment offered by the project. Based on the research findings, the ideology, philosophy and concepts underlying the “Urban m3 - Respect for Life Project” could be evaluated as an altenative design approach, which provides not only environmental protection and disaster mitigation, but also a high level of socio-cultural satisfaction. Thus, the paper suggests strategies for improved post-disaster (re-)construction.

Details

Open House International, vol. 31 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0168-2601

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2001

Kaidi Liu, Yi Lin and Ligen Yao

Presents a unified information systems theory where stochastic information, fuzzy information, rough information, grey information, unascertained information and white and…

Abstract

Presents a unified information systems theory where stochastic information, fuzzy information, rough information, grey information, unascertained information and white and black information are all special cases. A unified concept of information, named blind information, is introduced. Also, relevant mathematical representations of various types of information are presented.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 30 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

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Article
Publication date: 23 February 2015

Jinxi Wang, Hongya Niu, Pei Ling, Jingsen Fan, Kunli Luo, Maxim Blokhin and Yuzhuang Sun

Numerous smog events have occurred in recent years in China. Their hazards in mining and industrial cities are more serious than clear days. The samples were collected in…

Abstract

Numerous smog events have occurred in recent years in China. Their hazards in mining and industrial cities are more serious than clear days. The samples were collected in the mining and industrial city of Handan. During the smog episode, PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations reach up to 980 μg/m3 and 660 μg/m3, respectively. Under SEM (scanning electron microscope) analysis, the particles consist of soot, fly ash and minerals, which could be from coal mines, power plants, steel mills and auto exhausts. Compared with the samples collected on a clear day, the increased PM10 particles are mainly composed of organic matter, especially aromatic compounds. The Pb content in PM10 of the smog day reaches 507.4 ng/m3 and could be caused by vehicle emissions.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. 11 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

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Article
Publication date: 21 May 2013

G. Wang, K. Guo and B. Zhang

The filling paste blending system is the core part in a paste backfill mining scheme. Its precision directly determines the flow properties and condensation curing…

Abstract

The filling paste blending system is the core part in a paste backfill mining scheme. Its precision directly determines the flow properties and condensation curing performance of the filling slurry, thus it affects the filling effect of the underground mining working face. The research fuzzy PID control algorithm is introduced into the filling paste blending automatic control system in order to achieve a better control effect (Geng, 2007). Detailed introduces fuzzy PID controller design process, through the simulation experiment shows that fuzzy PID controller improves the system of external disturbance, and adapt to the internal parameters change robustness, ensure the precision of the burden system.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

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Article
Publication date: 4 December 2014

Guoqiang Hao, Yifeng Yang and Chao Jin

The coal bed methane resources distribution of Handan - Fengfeng Mining area has the features of "richness in the midland and north while poorness in the south, and…

Abstract

The coal bed methane resources distribution of Handan - Fengfeng Mining area has the features of "richness in the midland and north while poorness in the south, and richness in the east while poorness in the west. Through the analysis of the geological factors causing the above phenomena, we get that: the coal metamorphism and hydrogeological condition are the major controlling factors, the former controls the north and south difference of coal bed methane resources distribution from the two aspects covering gas-generated quantity and adsorption capacity, while the latter controls the east and west difference of coal bed methane resources distribution; syncline and good cap rock conditions are necessary conditions for coal bed methane enrichment, but not the reason for causing the difference of coal bed methane resources distribution.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. 11 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

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Article
Publication date: 12 June 2017

Xiang Nie, Shanshan Zhao and Yanheng Li

This paper aims to take the four resin as adsorbent and coal ash alkaline solution as the material and use the single factor experimental method to study absorption…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to take the four resin as adsorbent and coal ash alkaline solution as the material and use the single factor experimental method to study absorption influence factors for each resin to absorb lithium. At the same time, the authors got the special properties of some kinds of resin and compared the test results of each resin at the optimum factors.

Design/methodology/approach

Because many factors affect the test, this study uses the method of comparison and control variables. This method study on the influencing factors of ion exchange resin adsorption Li+.

Findings

In these adsorption experiments, the basic resin adsorption effect is more obvious. The optimum adsorption conditions are as follows: resin quality is 0.1 g, the volume of fly ash solution is 100 ml, magnetic stirrer speed is 140 r/min and the adsorption time is 60 min. Under these conditions, the adsorption rate of Li+ could reach 25.17 per cent aluminum.

Originality/value

Li extracted from coal ash can not only relieve the lithium resources in short supply but can also provide a new mode to the field of coal resources in recycling economy and transition economy. At the same time, the extraction of Li resources will provide an important reserve of raw materials for the future of nuclear power plant.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. 14 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 23 October 2015

Shu Yi, Lin Xiao, Yong Zhang, Dujuan Duan and Maksim G. Blokhin

This paper describes the organic geochemical characteristics and their roles on barium enrichment in the No. 2 Coal from Huanglong Jurassic Coalfield, China. A total of 18…

Abstract

This paper describes the organic geochemical characteristics and their roles on barium enrichment in the No. 2 Coal from Huanglong Jurassic Coalfield, China. A total of 18 bench samples were taken from Huangling Mine 2. The average content of barium (3701 mg/kg) was about 23 times higher than that of common world coals. Terrestrial higher plants were the main coal-forming parent material. Relying on the parameters of OEP, Pr/Ph and so on, there is little correlation between organic geochemical characteristics and barium enrichment. Therefore, organic material has little influence on the process of coal-forming and the enrichment of barium.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. 12 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

Keywords

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