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Article
Publication date: 22 June 2012

Han Zao Li

The goal of the special issue is to review current cigarette smoking trends in China; this article aims to provide an overview of the main themes of the special issue.

Abstract

Purpose

The goal of the special issue is to review current cigarette smoking trends in China; this article aims to provide an overview of the main themes of the special issue.

Design/methodology/approach

The instruments for data collection of the five studies in this special issue are surveys. One study used a random sampling method, one used an intercept survey method, and three used a convenience sampling method.

Findings

Highlights of the findings include: among the 677 physicians surveyed, 31.6 percent of the men and 0.9 percent of the women were current smokers; 79.2 percent of the cigarette users reported smoking on duty; 15 percent of the cigarette users smoked in front of patients. Sixty‐one percent of the physicians often advised patients to quit smoking. Two factors significantly influenced a physician's anti‐smoking frequencies: whether they were smokers themselves and whether they had received training on helping patients to quit smoking. About half of the 269 patients surveyed reported seeing someone smoking inside the hospital, and 22.3 percent had seen physicians and/or nurses smoking. Among the 758 medical students surveyed, 26.5 percent of males and 1.6 percent of females had smoked in the previous 30 days.

Practical implications

The exclusive coverage of a western journal on cigarette smoking in China can draw the attention of Chinese and western scholars in the field, as well as the attention of the Chinese Ministry of Health, to this major national problem. This attention should help to advance anti‐smoking educational campaigns in China.

Originality/value

This is the first special issue by a western academic journal on cigarette smoking in China, where rates are far higher than in most other parts of the world, and are a major health concern. Two studies have large sample sizes and all five studies have high response rates.

Details

Health Education, vol. 112 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-4283

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 22 June 2012

Han Zao Li, Yu Zhang, Karen MacDonell, Xiao Ping Li and Xinguang Chen

The main purpose of this study is to determine the cigarette smoking rate and smoking cessation counseling frequency in a sample of Chinese nurses.

Abstract

Purpose

The main purpose of this study is to determine the cigarette smoking rate and smoking cessation counseling frequency in a sample of Chinese nurses.

Design/methodology/approach

At the time of data collection, the hospital had 260 nurses, 255 females and five males. The 200 nurses working on the two daytime shifts were given the questionnaires; none refused to participate, reaching a response rate of 100 percent. All the participants were females as the five male nurses were working in the operation rooms at the time of data collection, are were thus not accessible.

Findings

Some key findings include: only two nurses, out of 200, identified themselves as current cigarette smokers; all provided anti‐smoking counseling to patients, the majority of them did not think their efforts were successful; cigarette smoking is a problem in China: the nurses estimated that 80 percent of male and 10 percent of female patients were current smokers; in the opinions of the nurses, Chinese smokers used smoking as a stress reliever and a social lubricant; two methods may help smokers to quit or reduce smoking: using aids such as patches, acupuncture and nicotine gum, and counseling by health professionals; the nurses think that cigarette smoking is well accepted in the Chinese culture.

Practical implications

Findings of this research suggest that the Chinese Ministry of Health should take measures to change the cultural norms and values regarding cigarette smoking including strict rules be imposed on not passing/sharing cigarettes in the workplace.

Originality/value

In a collectivistic culture such as China where opinions of authorities are respected, the part of nurses, who represent health authority to their patients, in assisting patients to quit or reduce smoking cannot be overemphasized. This study adds to the scarce research on Chinese nurses' role in helping patients' smoking cessation efforts.

Details

Health Education, vol. 112 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-4283

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 22 June 2012

Jie Gong, Zhifeng Zhang, Zhaoyang Zhu, Jun Wan, Niannian Yang, Fang Li, Huiling Sun, Weiping Li, Jiang Xia, Dunjin Zhou and Xinguang Chen

The paper seeks to report data on cigarette smoking, anti‐smoking practices, physicians' receipt of anti‐smoking training, and the association between receipt of the…

Abstract

Purpose

The paper seeks to report data on cigarette smoking, anti‐smoking practices, physicians' receipt of anti‐smoking training, and the association between receipt of the training and anti‐smoking practice among physicians in Wuhan, China.

Design/methodology/approach

Participants were selected through the stratified random sampling method. The questionnaires were completed by the sampled physicians and the response rate of the survey was 98.1 percent.

Findings

Among the total sample, 11 percent were current smokers. Significantly more male physicians than female physicians were current smokers (31.6 vs 0.9 percent, p<0.001). In total, 41 percent of physicians always or often asked patients about smoking habits, and 61 percent of them often advised patients to quit. Receiving anti‐tobacco training significantly increased the likelihood for physicians to ask patients about smoking (odd ratio=2.55, p<0.001) and to advise patients against smoking (odd ratio=4.05, p<0.001) with and without controlling gender, age, education, type of hospital and medical services specialty.

Practical implications

More effort should be devoted to training for physicians with focus on anti‐smoking practice and smoking cessation counseling in addition to assist physicians themselves to quit smoking.

Originality/value

The findings of this study update the data regarding cigarette smoking among physicians in Wuhan, China, and their practice of anti‐tobacco counseling. It indicates that it is very important to provide the training regarding anti‐smoking counseling among physicians.

Details

Health Education, vol. 112 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-4283

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 22 June 2012

Yanping Cui, Mao Ying and Hongqi Fan

This paper aims to investigate the average daily consumption of cigarettes and its correlates, attitudes toward smoking, and suggestions for anti‐smoking measures in a…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the average daily consumption of cigarettes and its correlates, attitudes toward smoking, and suggestions for anti‐smoking measures in a sample of Chinese college student smokers.

Design/methodology/approach

A sample of 150 college student cigarette smokers in Baoding, a city near Beijing, filled out a questionnaire asking about their average daily consumption of cigarettes, attitude toward smoking and their opinions on how they might control their smoking behavior.

Findings

In total, 85.3 percent of the smoking students were males and 14.7 percent females, and males had started smoking earlier. However, and surprisingly, the average daily consumption among females was greater than among males (9.6 vs 5.6 cigarettes a day, p<0.01). Average daily cigarette consumption was significantly associated with perceived health condition (students who thought themselves in poorer health consumed more), perceived risk of cigarette smoking (but with those who thought it harmful actually consuming more than those who did not), frequency of offering cigarettes as gifts, and perceived enjoyment from smoking. The three most commonly reported measures which curbed smoking were friends' or classmates' suggestions, the urging of a boyfriend/girlfriend, and the urging of parents.

Practical implications

Findings in this paper underscore the importance of developing effective smoking cessation programs through gender‐specific approaches at post‐secondary educational institutions as well as coordinating anti‐smoking efforts at multiple levels of educational administration in China.

Originality/value

This paper adds to the few studies on Chinese college students' cigarette smoking practices and student smokers' attitudes toward cigarette smoking. It also reports for the first time possible effective anti‐smoking measures as suggested by the students themselves. The value of this study lies in the finding that cigarette smoking among highly educated individuals in China is on the rise and vigorous research on the smoking behavior of this group should be a high priority.

Details

Health Education, vol. 112 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-4283

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 22 June 2012

Dunjin Zhou, Yaqiong Yan, Huihong Yu, Qinghua Xia, Niannian Yang, Zhifeng Zhang, Zhaoyang Zhu, Fang Li and Jie Gong

This study aims to examine whether, in the opinion of patients selected in 13 hospitals of Hubei province, China, hospitals are smoke free. Patients were also asked…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine whether, in the opinion of patients selected in 13 hospitals of Hubei province, China, hospitals are smoke free. Patients were also asked whether their physicians had inquired about their smoking status.

Design/methodology/approach

Patients were recruited through an intercept method (i.e. stopped by the interviewer while in the hospital); data were collected through interviews, with a response rate of 96.1 percent.

Findings

Among the intercepted patients, 48.3 percent reported having seen people smoking in hospitals; 22.3 percent had seen a doctor and/or nurse smoking; 23.8 percent had smelled tobacco in hospitals; 68.4 percent reported having seen “no‐smoking” signs in hospital settings; 42.6 percent reported having been asked about smoking status in their latest visit to a doctor and 23.8 percent reported receiving tobacco cessation counseling. Compared to hospitals in large cities, patients from medium/small city hospitals reported significantly higher levels of cigarette smoking among physicians, and poorer implementation of regulations for a smoking‐free hospital, and less smoking cessation counseling by physicians.

Originality/value

Findings of this study point to the need for greater efforts to be made in promoting a smoke free environment in hospitals, as well as encouraging physicians to provide more smoking cessation counseling to smoking patients, particularly physicians in small and medium hospitals.

Details

Health Education, vol. 112 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-4283

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 22 June 2012

Xinguang Chen, Xiaolan Tang, Bonita Stanton, Hanwu Li and Weiqing Chen

The reduction of tobacco use among medical students is a potentially powerful strategy to reduce tobacco use among future health professionals, who in turn, can have…

Abstract

Purpose

The reduction of tobacco use among medical students is a potentially powerful strategy to reduce tobacco use among future health professionals, who in turn, can have significant impact on tobacco use among patients as well as the general population in China. The goal of this study is to update information on the prevalence of cigarette smoking among Chinese medical students and to assess modifiable factors for smoking reduction.

Design/methodology/approach

Presented in the paper are descriptive, associative and path model analyses of survey data collected among 758 medical students in year one through year three from Hainan Medical College, Hainan, China.

Findings

Among the total 758 participants, 66.9 percent of males and 26 percent of females smoked and 26.5 percent of males and 1.6 percent of females had smoked in the past 30 days. The median monthly expenditure on cigarettes was 30 Chinese Yuan (approximately US$4.25). The likelihood of smoking increased with male gender, more advanced year group, poor academic performance, perceived peer smoking, and depressive symptoms, after controlling for covariates.

Originality/value

Findings reported in this study provide further insight into the smoking prevalence among medical students in China as well as adding to knowledge about several potentially modifiable factors that are related to smoking. Data collected in this study are likely to prove valuable in prioritizing tobacco control among Chinese medical students, as they are future medical doctors, and their smoking behaviors will have strong influence on their patients as well as the general public.

Details

Health Education, vol. 112 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-4283

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2011

Jia Beisi and Jiang Yingying

Although an important facet of modernist architecture in which function plays a prominent role, building flexibility is not entirely a new concept. Its relevance…

Abstract

Although an important facet of modernist architecture in which function plays a prominent role, building flexibility is not entirely a new concept. Its relevance transcends generations, allowing space and structure to evolve through time. This paper investigates the relationship among main building structures, infill elements, and space by studying examples in ancient Chinese architecture. It reveals the role of building owners, users, and craftsmen from a survey of historical documentation. In studying these examples, it is concluded that craftsmen in ancient China were involved not only during the construction phase but throughout the period of use as well. Thus, in select cases, the relationship between craftsmen and owners or users had been preserved for generations. Finally, this paper suggests potential strategies for the building industry and technology in the move towards sustainable development.

Details

Open House International, vol. 36 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0168-2601

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 1996

Lauren A. Swanson

Investigates the various major sociolinguistic subcultures of China with specific attention to their distinctive food preferences, coupled with a tradition of food symbols…

Abstract

Investigates the various major sociolinguistic subcultures of China with specific attention to their distinctive food preferences, coupled with a tradition of food symbols which interweave Chinese subcultures. Points out that, contrary to popular belief among foreign business people, there is no “China market”; rather, there are many diverse markets within China. Notes that there are many languages and, hence, cultures in the country, and the people do not all eat the same foods; yet, at the same time, there is a rich unity of symbolic tradition associated with the foods the Chinese eat ‐ indeed there is an elaborate food linguistic the semantics of which need to be understood by outsiders. Presents an introduction and overview of the diversity and unity of China as it relates to food, and its findings should be of value to those working in various aspects of the food and agriculture industries who may have an interest in China markets, those interested in either importing or exporting Chinese food products, exporting food processing equipment or farming and agricultural technology, and those in the food business serving Chinese populations of significant size around the world.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 98 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 12 November 2018

Melissa M. Yang

Guided by Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological System’s model, this study documented acculturation and parental involvement in low-income Chinese immigrant homes that serve as…

Abstract

Guided by Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological System’s model, this study documented acculturation and parental involvement in low-income Chinese immigrant homes that serve as predictors of parental mediation. By surveying 165 parents of 3–13-year-old immigrant children, this study found that low-income Chinese parents enacted restrictive mediation the most and exhibited a slow acculturation process even after an average of seven years of emigration. Higher parental acculturation was related to a higher use of active and restrictive mediation. Additionally, different aspects of parental involvement also served as predictors of the three mediation strategies. Chinese cultural emphasis on academic excellence and success was used to help interpret the findings. Future research should consider implementing research-based adult media literacy programs for immigrant parents to help them practice their parental mediation skills in the host culture.

Details

Media and Power in International Contexts: Perspectives on Agency and Identity
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-455-2

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 20 April 2010

Yong Han and Yochanan Altman

The purpose of this paper is to examine the extent to which Confucian moral standards may serve as a moral root of employees' organisational citizenship behaviour (OCB) in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the extent to which Confucian moral standards may serve as a moral root of employees' organisational citizenship behaviour (OCB) in the People's Republic of China (PRC).

Design/methodology/approach

The approach is conceptual, based on research within the field.

Findings

This paper suggests that the moral characteristics of Confucianism (based on a strong body of empirical studies): harmony, group orientation, guanxi (relationships), diligence, self‐learning and thrift, are the great virtues of the indigenous forms of OCB in the PRC, including helping co‐worker; individual initiative and/or functional participation; group activity participation; self‐development; social welfare participation; promoting company image; voice; protecting and saving company resources; interpersonal harmony and keeping the workplace clean; and keeping departmental harmony and coexistence in adversity.

Originality/value

First, this paper contributes to the extant knowledge as to the ways in which Confucian moral standards may affect Chinese exhibition of OCB. Second, this paper contributes to discerning Chinese economic success on employees' OCB performance with recourse to its traditional cultural heritage of Confucian moral standards. Finally, it highlights the presence of voice as a type of OCB which may be attributed to China's opening up to the West.

Details

Asia-Pacific Journal of Business Administration, vol. 2 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-4323

Keywords

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