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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2019

Saslina Kamaruddin and Zaiton Hamin

The purpose of this paper is to provide some empirical findings on the predicaments of lawyers’ anti-money laundering (AML) compliance in Malaysia and the rationales for…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide some empirical findings on the predicaments of lawyers’ anti-money laundering (AML) compliance in Malaysia and the rationales for such predicaments.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper adopts a qualitative research in which the primary data are obtained from seven case studies involving legal firms within the Klang Valley, Selangor, Malaysia, which is triangulated with the data from the Central Bank and the Malaysian Bar Council.

Findings

The authors contend that despite the vulnerability of their profession to money laundering, the level of awareness of the AML obligations amongst Malaysian legal practitioners is rather minimal. Also, the imposition of obligations upon them in policing their clients and regulating money laundering is not only onerous but also contrary to the ethics of their profession.

Originality/value

This paper fills the gap in providing the empirical evidence on lawyers’ compliance to their statutory AML obligations in Malaysia. Also, this paper could be a useful source of information for practitioners, academicians and students. It could also be a beneficial guide for policymakers for any possible future amendments to the law.

Details

Journal of Financial Crime, vol. 26 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-0790

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Article
Publication date: 2 October 2017

Zaiton Hamin, Normah Omar and Muhammad Muaz Abdul Hakim

The purpose of this paper is to examine the broad concept of forfeiture, its legal positions in the UK and Malaysia, and to highlight the implications of such forfeiture…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the broad concept of forfeiture, its legal positions in the UK and Malaysia, and to highlight the implications of such forfeiture systems and legislations.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper uses a doctrinal legal analysis and secondary data, which analyses primary sources, the POCA (2002) and the AMLATFA 2001, and secondary sources including case law, articles in academic journals, books and online databases.

Findings

The authors contend that the civil forfeiture system and law have far-reaching implications, affecting not only law enforcement agencies, but also on property owners, the courts and bona fide third parties. Also, civil forfeiture law as contained in AMLATFA 2001 represents one of the most serious encroachments on private property rights. Not only that, such a legal rule has made property, and not the owner, guilty until proven innocent.

Originality/value

This paper could be a useful source of information for practitioners, academicians and students. It could also be a beneficial guide for policymakers for any possible future amendments to the law.

Details

Journal of Money Laundering Control, vol. 20 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1368-5201

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 10 October 2016

Chris Baumann, Hamin Hamin, Rosalie L. Tung and Susan Hoadley

The purpose of this eight-country study is to examine what drives performance at the individual worker’s level and compare the explanatory power of such drivers between…

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1287

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this eight-country study is to examine what drives performance at the individual worker’s level and compare the explanatory power of such drivers between emerging, newly developed and developed markets around the globe.

Design/methodology/approach

The study combines established behavioural theory developed in a Western context with three factors anticipated to be most relevant in Asia (competitive attitude, willingness to serve and speed) as drivers of workforce performance. Four thousand working and middle-class respondents from eight countries were sampled. The associations were tested using structural equation modelling, and workforce performance was measured using univariate analysis.

Findings

Three country clusters emerged from the research: emerging economies in Asia (Indonesia, India), where the three factors powerfully explain performance; “Confucian orbit countries” (China, Japan, Korea), where the factors explain 81-93 per cent; and highly developed Western countries (the USA, the UK, Germany), where the factors account for only 20-29 per cent.

Practical implications

As well as providing a framework for modelling workforce performance, particularly in Asian countries, the findings indicate that workforce performance should be incorporated in performance indexes. The findings as to which drivers best explain workforce performance in each country can inform workforce recruitment and management, as well as the location of businesses and outsourcing.

Originality/value

For the first time, the study addresses the anomaly between economic growth and development experienced by Asian countries and their relatively low rankings in global competitiveness indexes by making the link between workforce performance and country performance.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 28 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

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Article
Publication date: 3 January 2017

Zaiton Hamin

The aim of this paper is to examine some of the recent changes to the old anti-money laundering and anti-terrorism financing law, which is now known as the Anti-Money…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to examine some of the recent changes to the old anti-money laundering and anti-terrorism financing law, which is now known as the Anti-Money Laundering, Anti-Terrorism Financing and Proceeds of Unlawful Activities Act 2001. The paper will highlight the newly consolidated money laundering offences and the newly created offences including structuring of transactions or “smurfing”. Also, the transgression of cross-border movement of cash and negotiable instruments and tipping off about a money laundering disclosure will be assessed.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper uses a doctrinal legal research and secondary data, with the new AML/CFT legislation as the primary source. For comparative analysis, legislations in the UK, Australia and New Zealand are also examined. Secondary sources include case law, articles in academic journals, books and online databases.

Findings

The review of the AML/CFT law is timely and indicates the Malaysian government’s efforts to adhere to international standards set by the financial action task force. However, it is imperative that the Malaysian government addresses the remaining instrumental and normative deficiencies in the AML/CFT law to ensure that the recent legal changes are sufficiently comprehensive to prevent and regulate money laundering and terrorist financing within Malaysia.

Originality/value

This paper is a useful source of information for legal practitioners, academicians, law enforcement, policymakers, legislators, researchers and students.

Details

Journal of Money Laundering Control, vol. 20 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1368-5201

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 3 October 2016

Zaiton Hamin, Rohana Othman, Normah Omar and Hayyum Suleikha Selamat

The purpose of this paper is to conceptualize the concept of terrorism, terrorism financing, the relationship between money laundering and terrorism financing and the…

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1524

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to conceptualize the concept of terrorism, terrorism financing, the relationship between money laundering and terrorism financing and the governance of terrorism financing.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper adopts a doctrinal, content analysis and secondary data, of which the Anti-Money Laundering and Anti-Terrorism Financing Act 2001 and the Penal Code are the primary sources. The secondary sources for this paper include articles in academic journals, books and online databases.

Findings

Several methods are involved in the commission of terrorism financing such as raising, moving and using of funds. The activities relating to terrorism financing under the Penal Code are broader than such activities. Despite the adherence by Malaysia to international policies established by the Financial Action Task Force, terrorism financing has remained a threat that must be addressed by the relevant authorities.

Practical implications

This paper could be a useful source of information for the practitioners, academicians, policymakers and students studying this particular area of crime.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to a discourse on terrorism financing in the Malaysian context.

Details

Journal of Money Laundering Control, vol. 19 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1368-5201

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 6 September 2013

Chris Baumann and Hamin Hamin

Downloads
603

Abstract

Details

International Journal of Bank Marketing, vol. 31 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-2323

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 3 May 2011

Subir Bandyopadhyay, Nittaya Wongtada and Gillian Rice

Most consumers can buy products from various countries, including their own. Some prefer local products; others prefer the superior quality, price, or image of foreign…

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2777

Abstract

Purpose

Most consumers can buy products from various countries, including their own. Some prefer local products; others prefer the superior quality, price, or image of foreign products. This study aims to investigate the strength of these preferences and their effects on consumers' evaluations of, and intentions to buy, foreign products.

Design/methodology/approach

With a sample of 571 Thai consumers, this study measures consumer ethnocentrism (CET), a general attitude, and country‐specific attitudes toward three product categories (cars, radios, and pens) with American brand associations.

Findings

Thai consumers' evaluations of US products vary at different levels of consumer ethnocentrism and country‐specific attitudes.

Research limitations/implications

Although it extends existing research into a less developed country setting, this study still relies on data from a single country.

Practical implications

Managers of both local and foreign brands can make use of these findings to position their offerings appropriately in Thailand.

Originality/value

This study extends the use of the CET concept to a less developed country and confirms prior results obtained in developed nations. In addition, it considers the joint effects of country‐specific and general attitudes in combination.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 28 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

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Article
Publication date: 7 January 2014

Hamin Hamin, Chris Baumann and Rosalie L. Tung

The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of ethnocentrism in attenuating the negative country of origin effect and latecomer brands. The literature has established…

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2056

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of ethnocentrism in attenuating the negative country of origin effect and latecomer brands. The literature has established the importance of the “country of origin” effect, and this study compares consumers in the Asian emerging markets to developed consumers' response to cars from China, India and Russia.

Design/methodology/approach

Data on consumers' willingness to purchase cars from emerging markets such as China, India and Russia were collected from 3,201 respondents in those three emerging markets and in the three most important Western car markets, the USA, the UK and Germany. The study employed a choice-based conjoint analysis.

Findings

The results of this study confirmed the hypothesised ethnocentrism in the emerging markets with a strong preference for their own latecomer brands (Great Wall, Tata and AvtoVAZ, respectively). Developed markets in contrast are more sceptical of the Chinese, Indian and Russian car brands, but there is nonetheless substantial potential, especially with consumers who have previously bought latecomer brands from Asia. Utility values per brand, price, brand-partnership, product features, warranties and also place of manufacturing/assembly have been calculated in the study.

Originality/value

This paper should prove valuable to academic researchers in establishing strong consumer preferences in emerging markets for their own products, and in establishing the potential of latecomer brands in developed markets.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 26 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

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Article
Publication date: 20 March 2018

Doris Viengkham, Chris Baumann and Hume Winzar

This paper reconsiders the approaches to measuring Confucian values, and tests their association with workforce performance. The purpose of this paper is to examine how…

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1104

Abstract

Purpose

This paper reconsiders the approaches to measuring Confucian values, and tests their association with workforce performance. The purpose of this paper is to examine how such values and performances are prioritized across three East Asian societies, but more importantly, identifies how variations across societies might result from the way in which Confucianism has been transformed/appropriated differently across history.

Design/methodology/approach

A Best-Worst experimental design is used to measure three aspects of Confucianism (relational, pedagogical, and transformative), and three aspects of workforce performance (mindset, organization, and process) to capture the trade-offs by respondents from three East Asian societies: China (n=274), Taiwan (n=264), and South Korea (n=254). The study employs analysis of variance with post-hoc tests to examine differences between societies. A hierarchical cluster analysis using Ward’s method is utilized to identify clusters based on similarities within the data. And last, multiple regression analysis is applied to determine the explanatory power of Confucian values on workforce performance.

Findings

Findings confirm the prioritization of three aspects of Confucianism (relational, pedagogical, and transformative) to differ between Mainland Chinese, Taiwan Chinese, and Korean respondents – producing five distinct clusters based on similarities across three societies. Overall, between 7 and 27 percent of the variance in workforce performance could be explained by the Confucian values included in this study.

Originality/value

This study highlights the “different shades of Confucianism” across East Asian societies, which we coin as Confucian Origin, Preservation, and Pragmatism, and demonstrates the need to take a multifaceted perspective in the measurement of Confucian culture. The study provides empirical support for the link between Confucianism and performance at the micro-level, as originally proposed by Baumann and Winzar (2017), and identifies specific antecedents of behavior for research moving forward.

Details

Cross Cultural & Strategic Management, vol. 25 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-5794

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Article
Publication date: 6 September 2013

Petra Bouvain, Chris Baumann and Erik Lundmark

This study compares the associations between Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and brand value in the financial services industry in East Asia and the USA.

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3136

Abstract

Purpose

This study compares the associations between Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and brand value in the financial services industry in East Asia and the USA.

Design/methodology/approach

A sample of 84 major banks in East Asia (China, Hong Kong, Japan, South Korea and Taiwan) and the USA is used to test the links between CSR and brand value using ANOVA and multiple regressions.

Findings

Brand value is positively related to CSR for the entire sample, but is associated with distinctively different CSR factors depending on the geographic markets. In Japan and South Korea brand value is associated with a bank's appreciation for its employees, while in China, brand value is linked to a focus on the community. East Asia's culture is rooted in Confucianism, a philosophy that emphasises caring for the “greater good” (i.e. for the community) and for one's subordinates. In contrast, Americans are more concerned with “green” issues, and subsequently caring for the environment is associated with brand value. In addition, corporate governance, or regulatory compliance, has a strong relationship with brand value for American banks.

Research limitations/implications

The study emphasises the complexity of global brand management given that eastern and western companies exhibit distinct patterns regarding brand value. Specifically, our study shows that the links between CSR and brand value vary substantially between different countries and regions.

Originality/value

This study investigates the association between CSR and brand value and establishes that different CSR aspects are linked to brand value for banks in East Asia and the USA. The study also establishes that CSR is not a universal concept, given that such distinct brand value‐CSR links have been found for the different geographic markets under investigation.

Details

International Journal of Bank Marketing, vol. 31 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-2323

Keywords

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