This chapter explains and discusses the role and potential of psychophysiological tools of research in tourism and hospitality. As tourism and hospitality services are in general…
This chapter explains and discusses the role and potential of psychophysiological tools of research in tourism and hospitality. As tourism and hospitality services are in general inseparable, i.e. the delivery and the consumption of the service mostly take place at the same time, they tend to involve service encounters which intense and frequent contact and social interactions between the customers and the service providers. These intense and frequent contact and social interactions during service encounters may determine the satisfaction and dissatisfaction of the customers. Hence, the measurement of actual emotions to understand the reactions of customers to various aspects of the service is of paramount importance. Psychophysiological tools, often referred to as neuromarketing tools, allow the collection of realistic data regarding the emotions of the customers. Based on the above background, this chapter explains and discusses the use of tools such as the EEG, Eye Tracker, Galvanic Skin Response, and Facial Expression Recognition in understanding tourism and hospitality customers' reactions and emotions to various aspects of the service.
Consumers are faced with many new products. In almost every product category it is seen that there are more alternatives than provided in previous years. This situation may cause…
Consumers are faced with many new products. In almost every product category it is seen that there are more alternatives than provided in previous years. This situation may cause consumers to feel uncomfortable/uncertain, especially about new products. Therefore, since they perceive this uncertainty, customers want to be in control. Control is one of the ways to help customers to decide on perceived risky situations.
The main purpose of the study is to explain the effects of the risk and control drive on consumer behavior and determine how businesses reduce the risk that consumers feel.
It is critical for enterprises to increase their brand awareness in order to reduce consumers’ risk perceptions and increase their controls (cognitive, behavioral, and decision) during purchasing decisions. Also, it will be useful for them to focus on activities increasing brand loyalty. They can especially carry out marketing activities allowing consumers to try new products or providing money back guarantees. Moreover, in order to reduce the risk perception and increase control by the customers, making the promotional contents of the product understandable and simple without hidden factors will contribute in a positive way.
This chapter explains the role and potential of colour and lighting as two important elements of the service atmosphere in tourism and hospitality service encounters. The chapter…
This chapter explains the role and potential of colour and lighting as two important elements of the service atmosphere in tourism and hospitality service encounters. The chapter first explains the importance of colour and lighting in services from the perspective of customers’ sensory perceptions. Then, the chapter provides examples to demonstrate how psychological/neuro-marketing tools of Eye Tracker and Facial Recognition, Galvanic Skin Response (GSR) and Heart Rate (HR) can be used to understand the role of colour and lighting in customer satisfaction in tourism and hospitality service encounters. Based on this perspective, the study offers recommendations to design service environments in terms of colour and lighting.
Introduction: On November 17, 2019, in the city of Wuhan in the province of Hubei in China, the first COVID-19 case was determined. In the process since the first news of the…
Introduction: On November 17, 2019, in the city of Wuhan in the province of Hubei in China, the first COVID-19 case was determined. In the process since the first news of the epidemic up to now, substantial changes have been experienced in our living conditions. Due to the coronavirus epidemic that has shaken the entire world and had highly severe effects, the World Health Organization declared a global pandemic on March 11, 2020. The COVID-19 pandemic has led to several changes in our lives from the economy to politics and from education to consumption. Significant changes have been experienced especially in consumer behaviors. Purpose: With this study, it is aimed to investigate the changes experienced in the uncertainty and risk perceptions of consumers with the spread of the COVID-19 virus in the entire world and reveal the changes observed in consumer behaviors. Methodology: Within the scope of the research, research results measuring the effects of COVID-19 pandemic on consumer behavior were examined. Findings: – Uncertanity, risk and fear, which are generated by COVID-19, and the precautions of the New Normal led to some changes on both consumer behaviors and tourism sector. Based on this, within the scope of this research, the changing decisions and behaviors of consumers from COVID-19 and after, and the changes in some sectors and especially in the tourism sector were examined and predictions were determined for the future.