The purpose of the study is to evaluate the impact of China's current coal‐to‐liquids (CTL) activities on its coal and oil markets from 2005 to 2025.
A partial equilibrium multi‐equation model of China's oil and coal markets is developed based on data obtained from the existing literature. The impact of CTL technologies on China's oil and coal markets is evaluated using computer simulations by solving the model under scenarios with and without CTL production.
The simulation results show that on average, the planned CTL activities will decrease crude oil prices by 5.73 percent and China's oil imports by 6.09 percent and increase China's domestic oil supply by 9.26 percent over the 20 year period. Also, China's demand for oil will increase by 0.35 percent on average, suggesting that CTL production will slightly stimulate China's demand for oil because of the drop in oil prices. China's demand for coal will also increase by 1.02 percent because of the additional demand for coal created by CTL production. Surprisingly, both coal prices and China's coal supply will decline by 0.51 percent while the demand for coal and coal supply of the rest of the world will be reduced by 1.63 percent and 0.28 percent, respectively.
The paper is the first study on the implication of CTL conversion from an economist's point of view. It applies an economic model to quantify the impacts of such technology on overall energy prices and supplies.
Purpose – This chapter reviews the provision for freight transport in Shanghai, and makes recommendations for the development of road freight including the aspects of…
Purpose – This chapter reviews the provision for freight transport in Shanghai, and makes recommendations for the development of road freight including the aspects of optimizing the port transportation system, strengthening the planning and construction of freight terminals, promoting the formation of a city distribution system, adjusting downtown traffic policies, and promoting the provision of road freight information systems.
Methodology – Based on primary data and observation, this chapter describes the status of road freight in Shanghai and details existing problems. Based on experience elsewhere it then proposes changes in policy.
Findings – This chapter proposes some recommendations as follows: optimizing the collection and distribution system of the Shanghai port, planning, and construction of road freight terminals, adjusting the freight traffic policy in the central area and improving the performance of freight firms.
Implications – These recommendations, based on good practice elsewhere, should both enhance the efficiency of road freight in Shanghai and reduce its environmental impacts.
Value of chapter – The study will help the sound and orderly development of Shanghai's road freight transportation, better satisfy the needs of the people, and promote the development of Shanghai economy.
Research on mentorship has been dominated by the West and little is known about the cultural variations of the mentoring phenomenon in Asian countries. A richer understanding of the cultural context that is more attuned to mentoring experience in Asia can help to improve workplace experience, in general, for those working in and for those who intend to work in the region. This chapter captures the important theoretical lenses in the mentoring literature, and also provides a clear demarcation between negative mentoring and dysfunctional mentoring. This is followed by contextualizing mentoring as per four of Hofstede's six cultural dimensions by dwelling on mentoring experience in countries such as China, India, Pakistan, Japan, South Korea and Taiwan. It is hoped that this chapter will pave the way for further research, which may be a precursor for theory development.