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Article
Publication date: 16 June 2021

Saleh Abd Alhadi, Rosmila Senik, Jalila Johari, Ridzwana Mohd Said and Hairul Suhaimi Nahar

This study aims to investigate whether higher earnings quality is related to the existence of multiple directorships among corporate boards and whether this relationship…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate whether higher earnings quality is related to the existence of multiple directorships among corporate boards and whether this relationship varies with the quality of investor protection.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper used a dynamic panel data modelling on the sample of 2,090 firm-year observations over the period from 2007 to 2016 in Malaysia. The generalized method of moments estimators were used to deal with endogeneity and other econometric problems.

Findings

This study finds that the accumulation of several outside directorships is negatively associated with the firm's earnings quality, as measured by the magnitude of discretionary accruals. More importantly, the findings provide evidence that multiple directors are more efficient in improving earnings quality in healthy investor protection environment.

Practical implications

The appointment of directors should be based on market-based and not on a relationship (i.e. financial and industry professionals).

Originality/value

The results highlight the importance of interaction between internal and external governance mechanisms to improve the firm's financial performance, investment and market efficiency. High-quality investor protection and law enforcement are significant for enhancing the monitoring role of multiple directorships in improving earnings quality.

Details

Journal of Asia Business Studies, vol. 15 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1558-7894

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Article
Publication date: 26 October 2018

Hairul Suhaimi Nahar

This paper aims to fill the noticeably fragmented zakat literature repertoire by empirically exploring stakeholders’ views toward zakat management performance issues based…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to fill the noticeably fragmented zakat literature repertoire by empirically exploring stakeholders’ views toward zakat management performance issues based on a selected zakat institution (ZI) operating on a corporatized platform with corporate administrative style.

Design/methodology/approach

A quantitative approach using a questionnaire survey distributed to Muslims in the State which ZI is operating was adopted. A total of 448 usable responses are used in the analysis covering descriptive and mean difference.

Findings

The results indicate that managerial reform configuration in terms of corporatization has been viewed positively by stakeholders, translated into a comforting agreement score toward ZI’s improved management performance (collection, disbursement and reporting). Such perceptions are, however, observably sensitive to demographic factors of gender and employment type. The survey also document evidence that the corporatization exercise itself had improved respondents’ confidence toward ZI being the zakat administrator in the State.

Originality/value

The research contributes to the public policy debate with respect to corporatized ZI’s management performance from the stakeholders’ perspective. The results are arguably informative at various levels, forming a basis for reality check and policy inputs for various stakeholders, including (but not limited to) the ZI itself, zakat payers and asnafs, particularly in designing relevant and necessary administrative strategies and relevant policy formulation in addressing the performance and accountability issues in ZIs.

Details

International Journal of Ethics and Systems, vol. 34 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0828-8666

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Article
Publication date: 10 August 2015

Hisham Yaacob, Saerah Petra, Azimah Sumardi and Hairul Suhaimi Nahar

The purpose of this paper is to review, understand and document the contemporary waqf-S management, financial accounting and reporting practices and to understand relevant…

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1398

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to review, understand and document the contemporary waqf-S management, financial accounting and reporting practices and to understand relevant drivers behind the current accountability culture in waqf-S, aiming at exploring the intertwined nature of accounting, reporting and the religion of Islam. The accountability literature has been relatively scant on the role played by accounting and reporting in not-for-profit, religious-based organizations and its implications for accountability discourse. Three accountability drivers of regulatory, stakeholders and religious image are tested. It is interesting to research how management, accounting and reporting are being practiced in an Islamic organization setting in a non-Islamic country.

Design/methodology/approach

Consistent with the established research objectives, this study adopts the qualitative research approach of a single case study research involving semi-structured interviews and archival documentation review and analyses. Sample is chosen using purposive sampling to suit the research objectives.

Findings

The paper finds that waqf-S is a very successful awqaf manager. The administration and management are carried out in the most effective manner with comprehensive rules, guidelines and procedures. The awqaf financial reporting and management are impressive as annual financial reports are published on time and available for the public online. The paper proposes three lenses to examine the accountability drivers of waqf-S: Regulatory, Stakeholders and Religious image of Islamic organization and, it turns out that all three are equally important in driving the organization accountability practices.

Research limitations/implications

The sample is an Islamic organization in a non-Islamic country; therefore, the results are unique and may not be generalised to organizations in Islamic nations, as it will be a different setting with different variables. Secondly, the paper only focuses on awqaf financial accounting, awqaf reporting and investigating the driving factors for the institution’s accountability culture.

Practical implications

This paper is important as it shows that the management and administration of awqaf, which has been plague by mismanagement, embezzlements and lack of talents, can be improved and managed systematically, although there is a clear evidence of the lack of capable or talented human resources. It is compensated by the significant use of technology.

Originality/value

Focusing on a single awqaf institution (waqf-S) operating in a non-Islamic Southeast Asian country, our analysis allows us to observe the influence of multiple factors influencing its organizational wide accountability policy. We consider this as a contribution to the literature, as it generates knowledge on how management, accounting and reporting are being devised as strategic tools in the institution’s accountability policy framework, beyond the normal office management, financial data recording and disclosure per se. Multiple factors drive the structured and transparent reporting by waqf-S, transcending beyond the traditional financial accounting and reporting boundary of meeting regulatory requirements; it reaches the concerned while ensuring that the necessary accountability towards stakeholders is observed and upheld.

Details

Humanomics, vol. 31 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0828-8666

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Article
Publication date: 7 May 2019

Hairul Suhaimi Nahar

This paper aims to examine two specific research issues among future members of the Malaysian accountancy profession. First, it explores the extent of committed academic…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine two specific research issues among future members of the Malaysian accountancy profession. First, it explores the extent of committed academic dishonesty (AD) among accounting students in two institutions of higher learning in which Islamic orientation and emphasis are observably different. Second, it investigates whether pious accounting students are dishonesty-resistant, premising the investigation on the maintained assumption based on the Islamic religious scriptures that piety should be placed at the forefront of the crusade against academic malaise particularly AD.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a questionnaire survey to measure both AD and piety, the usable responses were analyzed using mean score and independent sample t-tests.

Findings

The results indicate that AD practices are within the safe and non-disturbing limit. The results on piety which form the crux of the research suggest that findings are sensitive to different piety measurement, indicating the need for a refine piety proxy in future Islamic piety research.

Originality/value

Notwithstanding the small sample based on only two universities, the results provide a critical basis for reality check and policy input on issues relating to AD and piety for all stakeholders, particularly in designing the relevant and necessary trainings and relevant policy formulation in addressing integrity issues in accounting education.

Details

Journal of Islamic Accounting and Business Research, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0817

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Article
Publication date: 5 February 2018

Hairul Suhaimi Nahar

The purpose of this paper is to explore the (in)tolerance level of accounting major students in Oman toward identified integrity destroying academic activities.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the (in)tolerance level of accounting major students in Oman toward identified integrity destroying academic activities.

Design/methodology/approach

A triangulation approach was adopted whereby a questionnaire survey on academic fraud (AF) was administered to a group of Omani major accounting students. The descriptive statistical results were further analyzed and validated using in-depth interviews in exploring further the students’ tolerance decisions.

Findings

A conceivably low and non-disturbing tolerance level toward the myriads of integrity destroying academic activities was documented. The tolerance is, however, observed to be dynamic in nature as it is sensitive to fraud “severity” and “seriousness”, i.e. it increases as AF activities become less severe and serious. Minor free-ride is tolerated the most, followed by minor plagiarism and seldom forgery. These AF activities were tolerated most by female and academically weak students. The varying results suggest that demographic factors do play a role in shaping Omani future accountants’ AF tolerance. The interview results further point to the intertwined factors of academic, family and peers, as well as religion that primarily influence their AF tolerance levels.

Originality/value

The research fills the extremely scarce accounting education literature in Oman by documenting fresh evidence of AF (in)tolerance among future members of the country’s accountancy profession. As academic is the primary source of accountants’ accountability and integrity knowledge and training base, investigating accounting students’ tolerance toward integrity in the acute context of AF would effectively provide a reflection of the profession’s future integrity environment.

Details

Journal of Accounting in Emerging Economies, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-1168

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Article
Publication date: 5 October 2015

Hairul Suhaimi Nahar

The purposes of this paper are threefold. First, it aims to argue normatively how Shari’ah precepts governing Takaful operations are translated into (rightfully) different…

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2584

Abstract

Purpose

The purposes of this paper are threefold. First, it aims to argue normatively how Shari’ah precepts governing Takaful operations are translated into (rightfully) different accounting and reporting of Takaful operators. Second, it provides a critical review of the available and applicable accounting and reporting standards and guidelines related to Takaful in the Malaysian context. The third objective which constitutes the empirical piece of this paper centred on the basic numerical evidence obtained from the survey of final-year accounting students with regards to their ability in identifying the basic (dis)similarities in accounting and reporting between Takaful and insurance based on the published financial statements.

Design/methodology/approach

A mixed-mode research approach was adopted covering archival document reviews and focused group survey.

Findings

Findings are arguably informative and relevant to diverse stakeholders. First, the missing jigsaw puzzle representing accounting and reporting in the Takaful literature is uncovered by extending the explanations of Takaful-insurance conceptual and operational differences to that of accounting and reporting. The essence primarily lies on the different operational set-up attributed to the elements of gharar, maisir and riba. Second, the comparative analysis of accounting and reporting rules indicates that AAOIFI standards are less detailed in terms of accounting treatment over certain areas of Takaful operations (e.g. Re-Takaful), but these are more holistic, focused and specific in some other relatively important reporting areas reflecting the unique nature of Takaful operations. Third, findings based on the Malaysian Takaful accounting and reporting guideline suggest that accounting and reporting between Takaful and insurance are perceived to be a coin having monographic characteristics on both sides.

Originality/value

The research explicitly extends and highlights the impact of Shari’ah precepts governing Takaful’s operational nature on its accounting and reporting. It also provides empirical evidence on the nature of Malaysian-based Takaful accounting and reporting guidelines which mirror its insurance counterpart.

Details

Journal of Financial Reporting and Accounting, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1985-2517

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Article
Publication date: 27 September 2011

Hairul Suhaimi Nahar and Hisham Yaacob

The concept of accountability has long been argued in the academic and public policy debate to have been contextually ingrained in the technical processes of accounting…

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3668

Abstract

Purpose

The concept of accountability has long been argued in the academic and public policy debate to have been contextually ingrained in the technical processes of accounting and reporting. Both processes provide lenses through which the extent of managerial accountability in the corporate context could be objectively examined. The sacred religion of Islam as a social order with a complete code of life classifies accountability as being dual; in line with the duality concept in life – in this temporal world and eternal hereafter, necessitating for accountability concept in accounting and reporting from the Islamic worldview to transcend beyond the point of worldly objectives. Parallel to this line of reasoning, the purpose of this paper is to undertake a preliminary empirical investigation with respect to accounting, reporting and accountability practices of a Malaysian cash awqaf (Islamic endowment) management institution over a six‐year period, from 2000 to 2005.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper uses triangulation research approach, consisting of case study method and archival documentation review and analysis.

Findings

The preliminary findings indicate that, while the root of accountability in the management, accounting and reporting practices seems to exist in the awqaf entity studied, significant improvements remain necessary to ensure accountability could be continuously enhanced and uphold.

Originality/value

Debating accountability concept in the context of management, accounting and reporting as practiced by faith‐based institution of awqaf from the Islamic perspective inevitably directs this study to highlight the notion of Islamic accounting and reporting commonly and extensively discussed in the realm of Islamic finance and banking. The study's conjecture is that, by debunking the myth of Islamic accounting and reporting as only serving the acute domain of transactions reflecting the Islamic financial products in banking environment, it helps to reshape, broaden and emphasize the all encompassing relevance of Islamic accounting and reporting to that of not‐for‐profits, religiously grounded entities such as awqaf institutions. The study further contributes to the accountability and financial reporting literature in Islamic not‐for‐profit organizations by studying the importance of sound accounting practices and reporting transparency in ensuring accountability.

Details

Journal of Islamic Accounting and Business Research, vol. 2 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0817

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 12 April 2013

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171

Abstract

Details

Journal of Islamic Accounting and Business Research, vol. 4 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0817

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