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– The purpose of this paper is to study the influence of entrepreneurial attributes, subjective norms and perceived desirability on entrepreneurial intentions.
The purpose of this paper is to study the influence of entrepreneurial attributes, subjective norms and perceived desirability on entrepreneurial intentions.
The data were collected from the business students of the Quaid-i-Azam School of Management Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan. In total, 200 questionnaires were circulated among students of which, 185 were returned, representing 92.5 per cent response rate. After discarding incomplete and biased questionnaires, 170 were left for further analysis. The SPSS 20.0 was used to perform statistical analysis.
The research finds that students’ entrepreneurial attitude, perceived desirability and subjective norms significantly lead to the development of students’ intentions to become entrepreneurs. Interestingly, the student’s existing skills and capabilities do not prove to be a significant predictor of their intentions to become entrepreneurs. The study concludes that the students can become successful entrepreneurs even without existing entrepreneurial skills and capabilities, provided that they have the entrepreneurial attitude, desirability and support by the community.
Limited sample size is one of the main limitations which confines its generalizability. Nonetheless, this research can create a ripple effect to further explore the factors on a large-scale sample in different cities, universities and countries.
In the existing economic crises in the country, developing entrepreneurs is one of the important ways to boost-up financial growth. Students are one of the best potential segments, in this regard, to be developed as potential future entrepreneurs. Research on student’s intentions to become entrepreneurs in Pakistan is limited. This research had added value in both theory and practice by identifying the factors that can develop students’ intentions to become entrepreneurs.
Pakistan suffered with the menace of terrorism for long and become a front line state in the “War on Terror”. Terrorism shattered Pakistan economy and rendered her…
Pakistan suffered with the menace of terrorism for long and become a front line state in the “War on Terror”. Terrorism shattered Pakistan economy and rendered her external sector vulnerable to instability and uncertainties.
Therefore, using system generalized method of moment (GMM), this paper investigates the impact of foreign direct investment (FDI) on exports, imports and trade deficit in the face of unabated terrorism in Pakistan.
The findings of the paper suggest that as terrorism in Pakistan increased, FDI contribution to Pakistan exports decreased while FDI contribution to Pakistan imports significantly increased. Terrorism also disrupted the chain of local production and increased Pakistan reliance on imports. Thus terrorism widened Pakistan trade deficit of Pakistan and expose Pakistan to external imbalances.
Despite rise in organized acts of terrorism and its adverse impact on various departments of economy, hardly any study bothers to check its impact on trade and investment nexus. This is the first study of its nature that looks deep down to understand how terrorism affects the relation of major economic variables.
The risk of ISG-linked activity in Pakistan.
This paper aims to contribute an Islamic critique of various competing economic system’s theories of interest, which have evolved within the distinct ideological…
This paper aims to contribute an Islamic critique of various competing economic system’s theories of interest, which have evolved within the distinct ideological frameworks of distinct rival economic systems and religions from the point of view of discovering potential effective Islamic economic solutions of the interest-driven modern economic, financial and banking and debt crises and the related problems of inflation, extreme, wealth inequalities and extreme poverty.
This historical research paper portrays the chronological evolution of competing narratives and theories of interest in realms of religions, philosophies and rival economic systems for contributing their comparative review and critique from an Islamic point of view in light of the pertinent literature of multidisciplinary history of religions, philosophies and economic thought. It develops an Islamic critique of theories of interest in light of interactions among history of religious thought on interest, history of economic thought on interest and economic theories of interest and the interest-driven economic crises for highlighting potential Islamic interest-free solutions of the modern economic crises in the framework of the Islamic political economy. In light of an Islamic critique of various competing theories of interest, the paper presents pertinent economic policy recommendations for the governments of the countries of the contemporary Muslim world.
The interest-free Islamic economic, as well as banking theories and models, offer the potential practical exploitation-free and injustice-free humanitarian solutions of the contemporary persisting macroeconomic crises (national, regional and global economic crises, financial crises, debt crises and banking crisis). Current Islamic discourses on interest and interest-free Islamic banking have effectively promoted the popularity and growth of global Islamic banking industry in the Muslim world in the 21st century.
Keeping in view a general universal consensus of the Islamic jurists on the elimination of interest of all types from the economy, it is recommended for the Governments of the Muslim countries to implement a consensus-based Islamic banking model, which uses only the Islamic juristic consensus-based Islamic modes of banking and finance – Musharikah, Mudharabah and Al-Qardh Al-Hassan (interest-free loan) – for precluding the possibilities of emergence of controversies about the prospective Riba-free Islamic economic and banking system. Litmus test of the practical success of the interest-free Islamic universal economic and banking system is the successful elimination of all forms of Riba (interest) and all possibilities of its involvement in extractive and exploitative activities in letter and spirit.
This research paper contributes a comprehensive logical and objective critique of various competing prominent theories of interest from an Islamic economic point of view and highlights their pertinent practical macroeconomic problems-cum-consequences as well as the potential Islamic macroeconomic policy responses in the form of interest-free Islamic banking/monetary/fiscal policies.