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Article
Publication date: 28 March 2019

Habiba Ibrahim

Guided by the institutional theory of savings, the purpose of this study is to assess the institutional elements of rotating, savings and credit associations (ROSCAs) that…

Abstract

Purpose

Guided by the institutional theory of savings, the purpose of this study is to assess the institutional elements of rotating, savings and credit associations (ROSCAs) that enable participants to save.

Design/methodology/approach

The study used data from in-depth qualitative interviews (N = 10) conducted among the ROSCA group leaders from African immigrant communities in the USA.

Findings

The primary goal for joining the ROSCA group among participants is to achieve economic stability. The results of the study postulate that, through institutional mechanisms and social networks, ROSCAs create an environment for families to save and invest. The emphasis on the concept of “you cannot save alone” underscores the importance of supportive structures to enable low-income households to save. Although “alternative savings programs” such as ROSCAs are imagined as something that less well-to-do persons use, the findings from this study demonstrate that such strategies also appeal to some people with higher socioeconomic status. This appeal and utility speaks to the importance of ROSCAs as an institutional response, rather than just an informal arrangement among persons known to each other.

Research limitations/implications

It is prudent to bear in mind that the study sample is not nationally representative, and therefore, the results presented cannot be generalized to immigrants across the country. However, as one of the few ROSCA studies in the USA, the findings from this study make generous contributions to the immigrants’ savings and ROSCA practices literature.

Practical implications

ROSCAs could be used as a bridge to the formal financial institutions. Non-profit agencies working with these communities could work with these groups to report ROSCA payments to the major credit bureaus, to help them build a credit line in their new country.

Originality/value

Previous studies of ROSCAs have assessed ROSCAs as community support systems and social networks. The current study has analyzed ROSCAs from an institutional perspective by examining the institutional characteristics of ROSCAs comparable to the institutional determinants of savings that enable savings among the participants.

Details

Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6204

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Article
Publication date: 11 July 2016

Pallavi Joshi and Kanika Varma

Soybean has great nutritional potential. Its high protein content makes it an alternative protein source to milk in situations where milk cannot be used due to allergic…

Abstract

Purpose

Soybean has great nutritional potential. Its high protein content makes it an alternative protein source to milk in situations where milk cannot be used due to allergic reactions or intolerance. However, the potential benefits of soybean might be limited by the presence of antinutritional factors, including trypsin inhibitor activity (TIA). The purpose of the study is to evaluate the effect of dehulling and germination on the nutritive value of the soy flour and on the factors that could negatively affect the nutritional potential of the bean.

Design/methodology/approach

Soybean seeds were soaked for 24 h and allowed to germinate for one to three days. Soaked soybeans were manually dehulled and the flours obtained were evaluated for nutritional and antinutritional factors.

Findings

Dehulling and germination produce significant increase in crude protein and crude fiber and ash content (p = 0.05). Crude fat and starch content decreased, but the reduction was insignificant. Trypsin inhibitor levels were significantly lower after germination and dehulling of the seeds (p = 0.05).

Originality/value

Dehulling and germination are cost-effective processing techniques to improve the nutritional quality of the legume.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 46 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 8 February 2008

V. Ramakrishna, P. Jhansi Rani and P. Ramakrishna Rao

This paper aims to study the changes in anti‐nutritional factors during the germination of the Indian bean and also to carryout an evaluation by subjecting it to different…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to study the changes in anti‐nutritional factors during the germination of the Indian bean and also to carryout an evaluation by subjecting it to different cooking treatments – boiling, roasting and pressure cooking.

Design/methodology/approach

The healthy Indian bean (Dolichos lablab L.) seeds were soaked for 12 h and allowed to germinate (sprout) at room temperature 27±2C for a period of 32 h. Seedlings were withdrawn at designated time intervals and used for analysis of anti‐nutritional factors like trypsin inhibitory activity (TIA), phytic acid, polyphenols and tannins of dried and germinated cotyledons. They were also evaluated regarding their changes by subjecting to different cooking treatments – boiling, roasting and pressure cooking.

Findings

The raw dry Indian bean had a very high TIA which decreases progressively to 17 per cent at 32 h germination period. An overall fall in polyphenols of 70 per cent, tannins 46 per cent, phytic acids 36 per cent and phytate phosphorus to 30 per cent was noticed during the 32 h germination period. Maximum reduction was observed in TIA and phytic acids with roasting, while the boiling and pressure cooking decreases the levels of polyphenols and tannins.

Originality/value

The paper proves that germination is a more effective method in reducing TIA, tannins, polyphenols and phytic acid than the various cooking treatments.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 38 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Book part
Publication date: 11 August 2014

Umma Habiba and Rajib Shaw

All over the world, Bangladesh is well known as a flood- and cyclone-affected country. But in the recent years the slow onset disaster of drought is more frequent in…

Abstract

All over the world, Bangladesh is well known as a flood- and cyclone-affected country. But in the recent years the slow onset disaster of drought is more frequent in Bangladesh due to climatic as well as nonclimatic variability. As a consequence, agriculture along with its dependent farmers’ livelihoods tremendously experience its adverse impacts. Therefore, the main focus of this chapter is to discuss about drought, its effects on different sectors, and how in different levels a number of drought risk management actions are carried out to cope with this insidious disaster in the context of Bangladesh.

Details

Water Insecurity: A Social Dilemma
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-882-2

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 18 May 2020

Hammed Agboola Yusuf, Waliu Olawale Shittu, Saad Babatunde Akanbi, Habiba MohammedBello Umar and Idris Abdulganiyu Abdulrahman

In this research, we examine the role of financial development, FDI, democracy and political instability on economic growth in West Africa.

Abstract

Purpose

In this research, we examine the role of financial development, FDI, democracy and political instability on economic growth in West Africa.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses the dynamic fixed effects technique on the secondary data obtained from 1996 to 2016.

Findings

Our empirical findings suggest that even though no significant relationship is established in the short run, the long-run coefficient of FDI is found to be significant and positive; a 1% increase in FDI inflow into the West African sub-region results in a 0.26% increase in economic growth. The coefficient of democracy is significant neither in the short run nor in the long run, but political instability is found to significantly and negatively impact the growth of the countries. Finally, the estimate of financial development–growth nexus follows the supply-leading hypothesis.

Research limitations/implications

This research affirms the proposition that FDI is a relevant means of technology and knowledge transfers, thus resulting in increasing returns to production as a result of productive spillovers, which drives the growth of the economy. Consequently, an efficient institution – where the rule of law, political stability and economic freedom are top priorities – is a key to accelerate the growth of the West African economy. Similarly, we confirm the validity of the supply-leading hypothesis in West Africa. As such, by deepening the financial system, the growth of the subregion is propelled because an efficient financial system is a basis for sustainable development.

Practical implication

The applicable policies are those that promote growth through FDI, financial development, democracy and political instability. The governments of West African countries are enjoined to promote policies that attract FDI into the subregion and promote financial sector credits so that economic performances may be enhanced. In addition, the governments of West African subregion should fully entrench democratic practices and enhance a stable and sustainable political environment. This will not only restore investor confidence but will also facilitate the inflow of FDI into the West African economy.

Originality/value

Our study is the first to jointly examine these important growth determinants, especially in the context of West Africa. This becomes necessary in order to open the eyes of policy makers to the need for entrenched full democracy and to proffer sustainable cures to the frequent unrests in the subregion. The use of Pesaran (2007) technique of unit root is also a deviation from several existing studies. One advantage of this technique over others is that being a second-generation test, it tests variable unit root in the presence of cross-sectional dependence.

Details

International Trade, Politics and Development, vol. 4 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2632-122X

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Article
Publication date: 25 June 2020

Umme Habiba and S.M. Zabed Ahmed

The main aim of this paper is to examine the role of demographics and self-reported computer skill levels as predictors of e-resources awareness and use by faculty members…

Abstract

Purpose

The main aim of this paper is to examine the role of demographics and self-reported computer skill levels as predictors of e-resources awareness and use by faculty members working at various public and private universities in Bangladesh.

Design/methodology/approach

An online survey was conducted at public and private universities in Bangladesh. A total of 757 faculty members from 48 universities across the country responded to the survey. The data were analyzed using various descriptive statistics, i.e. frequencies and percentages and non-parametric Mann–Whitney and Kruskal–Wallis tests were conducted to see the differences in levels of awareness among faculty members in terms of university type, gender, age, designation, specialization and computer proficiency levels. An ordinal regression model was used to predict the role of demographics and computer skill levels on faculty awareness levels. Finally, correlation coefficient was measured to see the relationships between faculty awareness and use of e-resources.

Findings

The findings revealed that faculty members working at different universities in Bangladesh are generally aware of most e-resources types. There were significant differences in faculty awareness in terms of demographics and self-reported computer skills levels. The results showed that computer proficiency level is a significant predictor of faculty awareness of e-resources. The findings also showed that awareness and use of e-resources are positively and significantly correlated.

Originality/value

This is the foremost attempt to assess the role of demographics and computer skill levels as predictors of awareness and use of e-resources by faculty members.

Details

Digital Library Perspectives, vol. 36 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-5816

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Book part
Publication date: 20 May 2019

Mohammad Abdullah and Mohammad Saif Sarwar

To meet the philosophical underpinnings of Islamic financial institutions (IFIs), a sound shari'ah governance framework (SGF) for each and every IFI is vital…

Abstract

To meet the philosophical underpinnings of Islamic financial institutions (IFIs), a sound shari'ah governance framework (SGF) for each and every IFI is vital. Establishment of a proper SGF is central for smooth and effective functioning of an IFI. In the periphery of shari'ah governance (SG), the role of Shari'ah Supervisory Boards (SSB) is considerably crucial. SSB constitutes one of the most important SG elements in a given IFI. One of the central objectives of SGF is to protect and boost the authenticity of IFIs among its stakeholders, which is instrumental for the resilience and growth of the industry. To achieve this, it is required that an end-to-end shari'ah assurance process is functionalised at IFIs. To this end, external shari'ah audit, which is a process of objectively evaluating the entire operations of an IFI from shari'ah perspective and ascertaining that all events are based on shari'ah principles, is of paramount significance.

Details

Research in Corporate and Shari’ah Governance in the Muslim World: Theory and Practice
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-007-4

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Book part
Publication date: 8 November 2011

Umma Habiba, Rajib Shaw and Yukiko Takeuchi

According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) special report on the regional impacts of Climate Change (IPCC, 2007a), a drastic change in rainfall…

Abstract

According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) special report on the regional impacts of Climate Change (IPCC, 2007a), a drastic change in rainfall patterns in the warmer climate would occur in Bangladesh, and it may experience a 5% to 6% increase of rainfall by 2030 due to glacier melting and more intense monsoons, which will create frequent large and prolonged floods as well as an increase in droughts outside the monsoon season. Furthermore, in the context of global warming, most of the climatic models project a decrease in precipitation in the dry season and an increase during the monsoon season in south Asia (Christensen et al., 2007). This will cause a combination of more extreme floods and droughts in this region. Therefore, the moderately drought-affected areas will be turned into severely drought-prone areas within next 20 to 30 years (IPCC, 2007b).

Details

Droughts in Asian Monsoon Region
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-863-3

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Book part
Publication date: 31 December 2010

Umma Habiba, Yukiko Takeuchi and Rajib Shaw

Many people as well as the government in Bangladesh perceive floods and cyclones as recurrent environmental hazards in the country. They also view that these two hazards…

Abstract

Many people as well as the government in Bangladesh perceive floods and cyclones as recurrent environmental hazards in the country. They also view that these two hazards are the main contributors to crop loss in the country. But, in reality, droughts afflict the country at least as frequently as do major floods and cyclones, averaging about once in 2.5 years (Adnan, 1993, p. 1; Erickson, 1993, p. 5; Hossain 1990, p. 33). In some years, droughts not only cause a greater damage to crops than floods or cyclones, but they also generally affect more farmers across a wider area (Paul, 1995). If not institutionally and economically tackled, the consequences tend to have a far-reaching effect on the given society, and the socioeconomic problems would assume a chronic pattern.

Details

Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Reduction: An Asian Perspective
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-485-7

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Book part
Publication date: 31 December 2010

Abstract

Details

Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Reduction: An Asian Perspective
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-485-7

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