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Book part
Publication date: 18 September 2006

David P. Lepak, Hui Liao, Yunhyung Chung and Erika E. Harden

A distinguishing feature of strategic human resource management research is an emphasis on human resource (HR) systems, rather than individual HR practices as a driver of…

Abstract

A distinguishing feature of strategic human resource management research is an emphasis on human resource (HR) systems, rather than individual HR practices as a driver of individual and organizational performance. Yet, there remains a lack of agreement regarding what these systems are, which practices comprise these systems, how these systems operate, and how they should be studied. Our goal in this paper is to take a step toward identifying and addressing several conceptual and methodological issues regarding HR systems. Conceptually, we argue that HR systems should be targeted toward some strategic objective and operate by influencing (1) employee knowledge, skills, and abilities, (2) employee motivation and effort, and (3) opportunities for employees to contribute. Methodologically, we explore issues related to the relationships among policies and practices, sampling issues, identifying the appropriate referent group(s), and who should serve as key informants for HR system studies.

Details

Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-426-3

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Book part
Publication date: 9 August 2017

Richard D. Johnson and Kristina Diman

The purpose of this study was to develop and empirically examine a model of cloud-based human resource information systems (HRIS) adoption by small businesses based on the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to develop and empirically examine a model of cloud-based human resource information systems (HRIS) adoption by small businesses based on the technology–organization–environment model (Tornatzky & Fleischer, 1990).

Methodology/approach

This study utilized a survey of 41 small- to medium-sized enterprises in the northeastern United States to examine what HR functions were being supported by cloud-based HRIS and the relationship between three technology factors, three organizational factors, and three environmental factors, and their relationship with the adoption of cloud-based HRIS.

Findings

Findings indicated that small businesses are most likely to implement cloud-based HRIS to support day-to-day HR operations. In addition, the findings indicated that top management support (positive), vendor support (positive), and anticipated growth (negative) were each related to organizational adoption of cloud-based HRIS.

Implications

The study illustrates how the adoption of a cloud-based HRIS is motivated by different factors than those underlying the adoption of other types of information systems. Executives and small business owners will need to adapt their strategy when considering cloud-based HRIS compared to other types of systems.

Social implications

Given that small- to medium-sized organizations are the backbone of most global economies, findings from this study can help support society by helping these businesses better understand how to best consider the factors that will support the implementation of cloud-based HRIS.

Originality/value of the chapter

This chapter represents one of the first to empirically validate a model of the factors affecting adoption of cloud-based HRIS by small businesses.

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Book part
Publication date: 16 July 2018

Gary W. Florkowski

Three decades of academic and professional discourse on HR technologies (HRTs) have produced continued disagreement over construct definitions and research streams that…

Abstract

Three decades of academic and professional discourse on HR technologies (HRTs) have produced continued disagreement over construct definitions and research streams that are highly fragmented. These realities suggest that greater consistency in meanings is sorely needed if we are to integrate and upgrade knowledge in this area. This chapter draws on the findings of a systematic research review to properly define the content domains of human resource information systems (HRIS), virtual human resources (virtual HR), electronic human resource management (e-HRM), and business-to-employee (B2E) systems. An integrative synthesis was performed on 242 system-level writings that appeared in the literature from 1983 to 2017. The weight of the evidence strongly supports treating HRIS, virtual HR, e-HRM, and B2E systems as independent, complimentary constructs. While the first three comprise a firm’s HRT system, the fourth construct is more appropriately positioned in the business-collaborative system. The sample was further evaluated with an analytic framework to detect patterns of practice in research designs. This revealed that much more attention has been focused on system actions and outcomes than on attitudes and system characteristics. Different units of analysis were well represented aside from trans-organizational studies. Finally, a case is made for better contextualizing HRT research by recognizing differences in assimilation stage, functional penetration, and collective proficiency. These factors are rarely mentioned, let alone studied, raising additional concerns about measurement error. Detailed suggestions are offered on ways to incorporate them. Together, these materials should promote more sophisticated and generalizable assessments of technology, improving our ability to understand its impacts.

Details

Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-322-3

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Article
Publication date: 6 March 2017

Alvaro Lopez-Cabrales, Mar Bornay-Barrachina and Mirta Diaz-Fernandez

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the antecedents of the development of dynamic capabilities from an HRM perspective, considering the leading role of leadership…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the antecedents of the development of dynamic capabilities from an HRM perspective, considering the leading role of leadership styles and their potential impact on the orientation of HR systems and a firm’s capabilities.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors designed an empirical study of a sample of 107 Spanish industrial firms, asking HR, production and marketing managers to assess the CEO’s leadership styles, the system of HRM practices applied in their organizations and dynamic capabilities. They applied multiple regressions and mediation analysis.

Findings

The authors’ results suggest that both transactional and transformational leadership styles are positively associated with dynamic capabilities (sensing, seizing and reconfiguration), directly and indirectly, through their effects on HR systems.

Research limitations/implications

This paper approaches dynamic capabilities by using cross-sectional data. A longitudinal analysis would enrich this study. Also, the data aggregation in this paper does not allow to check different HR orientations from different departments. Finally, other HRM practices and strategic orientations could be assessed.

Practical implications

This paper highlights the need to develop CEOs who are able to combine leadership behaviors in such a way that they promote HR systems (skill-based development vs job-based development) and to use them as mediating mechanisms and in order to generate greater dynamic capabilities in the organization.

Originality/value

The authors are proposing that HRM can be applied to leverage a firm’s competitive advantage, as HR systems mediate for obtaining different dynamic capabilities. Second, it could be concluded that any CEO should combine or display traits of both forms of leadership styles (transformational and transactional) in order to develop the full range of dynamic capabilities. Finally, this paper can provide some insights into the way dynamic capabilities can be measured and approached, through HRM microfoundations.

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Book part
Publication date: 8 July 2008

Shyh-jer Chen

The traditional Confucian management system is considered distinctly different from Western-based management. This study draws data from indigenous Taiwanese firms listed…

Abstract

The traditional Confucian management system is considered distinctly different from Western-based management. This study draws data from indigenous Taiwanese firms listed on its public stock market and examines the associations among various human resource (HR) systems and organizational performance. First, factor analysis is used to explore a wide range of HR practices. Then, cluster analysis is used to classify indigenous Taiwanese firms with regard to their HR practices. Indigenous Taiwanese firms were found to use various HR systems, ranging from traditional Confucian HR to high-involvement HR practices. Companies that used high-involvement HR systems were found to perform better than those using a traditional Confucian HR system.

Details

The Global Diffusion of Human Resource Practices: Institutional and Cultural Limits
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-7623-1401-0

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Book part
Publication date: 25 July 2008

Rebecca R. Kehoe and Christopher J. Collins

This chapter develops a theoretical model using the equifinality perspective to connect multiple systems of HR practices to alternative organizational structure types. We…

Abstract

This chapter develops a theoretical model using the equifinality perspective to connect multiple systems of HR practices to alternative organizational structure types. We argue that firms following an exploitation strategy maintain competitive advantage through high levels of efficiency and reliability in production and delivery of existing products or services. Firms following an exploration strategy maintain a competitive advantage through continuous innovation and knowledge exchange and combination. Hence, organizations are more likely to successfully execute either strategy by implementing an HR system that would create the organizational structural characteristics that support the workforce requirements of the chosen strategy.

Details

Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-004-9

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Article
Publication date: 7 November 2019

Kohinur Akter, Muhammad Ali and Artemis Chang

Empirical findings on the link between work–life programmes and organisational performance have been inconsistent, demanding further investigation of contextual factors…

Abstract

Purpose

Empirical findings on the link between work–life programmes and organisational performance have been inconsistent, demanding further investigation of contextual factors. The paper aims to discuss this issue.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses social exchange theory, strategic human resource (HR) management theory and stakeholder theory to examine the relationship between work–life programmes and organisational outcomes, using three performance measures: perceived organisational performance, financial performance and corporate social responsibility (CSR). It also investigates the moderating effect of HR systems on the work–life programmes–performance relationship. The hypotheses were tested in 192 organisations in Australia, using data from an HR manager survey and archival databases.

Findings

The findings support the hypotheses that work–life programmes are positively associated with all three measures of performance. The results partially support the moderating effect of HR systems on the relationship between work–life programmes and perceived organisational performance.

Originality/value

This study provides pioneering evidence for the moderating effect of HR system on the work–life programme–performance relationship. It also includes the rarely studied CSR as an outcome of work–life programmes.

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Article
Publication date: 27 November 2019

Chaturong Napathorn

The purpose of this paper primarily contributes to the social enterprises and human resource management (HRM) literature by examining the roles of founders in shaping how…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper primarily contributes to the social enterprises and human resource management (HRM) literature by examining the roles of founders in shaping how workers in social enterprises are managed.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper uses a cross-case analysis of three social enterprises in the food and agricultural products and food and beverage industries in Thailand. The case study evidence in this paper draws on semi-structured interviews with each social enterprise’s founders, managers and employees; field visits to each social enterprise in Bangkok and other provinces in Thailand; and a review of archival documents and web-based reports and resources. This paper uses thematic analysis to pinpoint, examine and record the patterns or themes found in the data.

Findings

This paper proposes that the founders of social enterprises play a variety of roles in shaping the human resource (HR) systems and practices used in these enterprises. First, founders serve as role models for managers and employees of social enterprises. Second, founders serve as succession planners for social enterprises. Third, the founders serve as builders and enforcers of corporate culture in social enterprises. Finally, founders serve as builders and enforcers of the HR systems and practices used in these enterprises. Put simply, without the roles of founders, the corporate culture and HR systems and practices of social enterprises might not be sustainable over time.

Research limitations/implications

Because this research is based on case studies of three social enterprises located in Thailand, the findings may not be generalizable to all other social enterprises across countries. Rather, the aim of this paper is to further the discussion regarding the roles of founders in shaping the HR systems and practices used in social enterprises. Another limitation of this research is that it does not include social enterprises in several other industries, including the entertainment and media, printing and publishing and hotel and restaurant industries. Future research may explore how the founders of social enterprises in other industries shape the HR systems and practices used in those enterprises. Moreover, quantitative studies using large samples of social enterprises across industries might also be useful in deepening the understanding of a topic that is important from the perspectives of both social enterprises and HRM.

Practical implications

This paper has practical implications for founders and/or top managers of social enterprises is not only Thailand but also other countries. It also has social/policy implications for the government and/or relevant public agencies in Thailand and for several other developing countries/emerging market economies.

Originality/value

Very little research has examined the various roles of founders in shaping how workers in social enterprises are managed. In addition, there has been relatively little research focusing on the characteristics of social enterprises’ founders in developing countries, including Thailand. This paper aims to fill this gap in the literature on social enterprises and HRM regarding how the founders of small, hybrid organizations such as social enterprises in Thailand play their roles as builders and enforcers of HR systems and practices and other roles relevant to the management of workers.

Details

International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. 28 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1934-8835

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Article
Publication date: 11 May 2015

Natalia Garcia-Carbonell, Fernando Martin-Alcazar and Gonzalo Sanchez-Gardey

This paper aims to discuss the association between human resource management and performance from a process perspective, differentiating intended and implemented vertical…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to discuss the association between human resource management and performance from a process perspective, differentiating intended and implemented vertical and horizontal fit. Although researchers have examined deeply the relationship between these constructs, extant literature demonstrates inconclusive results. Previous studies have stressed the strategic importance of vertical and horizontal fit from a prescriptive view. Nevertheless, a deeper understanding, focused on management processes, is needed.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper reviews and integrates two streams of strategic human resources management (SHRM) literature: the fit perspective, drawing on Martín-Alcázar et al.’s (2005) model, and the system strength approach, proposed by Bowen and Ostroff (2004).

Findings

The conceptual analysis developed in this paper concludes that HRM system strength mediates the effects of an aligned strategy on performance. In this sense, the paper argues that success in implementation of the HRM strategy depends on employees’ perceptions about the system of policies and practices through which it is carried out. Additionally, organizational communication is considered as the mechanism to create a shared HRM meaning to translate to employees.

Practical implications

Drawing on the theoretical discussions in the paper, the following implications for HRM practice are identified: the usefulness of the system strength construct as a tool to measure employees’ perceptions and anticipate potential problems at the implementation stage, the importance of organizational communication mechanisms, the relevance of formal and informal connections between HR managers and top executives and the need for specific training to promote HR managers’ communicational skills.

Originality/value

This study examines the relationship between HRM and organizational performance by presenting a new model that integrates HRM strategy formulation and implementation, proposes employee perceptions concerning HRM are mediators of HRM strategy and firm performance, highlights the role of organizational communication in creating and managing shared HR messages and introduces system strength as an instrument to assess vertical and horizontal fit during implementation.

Details

International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. 23 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1934-8835

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 11 November 2014

Natalia García-Carbonell, Fernando Martin-Alcazar and Gonzalo Sanchez-Gardey

This paper aims to go a step further in the analysis of double fit in the human resource management (HRM) strategy context, exploring how its effect on performance is…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to go a step further in the analysis of double fit in the human resource management (HRM) strategy context, exploring how its effect on performance is influenced by employees’ perceptions about the HRM strategy. Traditionally, the literature has considered the need for a double fit (horizontal and vertical) in the design of HRM strategies. However, as recent critical reviews have argued, a deeper theoretical analysis seems to be needed to understand fully how they affect organisational performance, and why firms with similar levels of alignment have different human resource outcomes.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on the literature review, the paper proposes a new theoretical model combining two fields of the strategic HRM literature which had been traditionally disconnected: the double fit approach and the literature on employee satisfaction and involvement. The design of the HRM strategy is reviewed considering the classical distinction between universalistic, contingent, contextual and configurational perspectives.

Findings

The findings of this paper provide an alternative model to examine the double fit in the HRM strategy context.

Originality/value

Drawing on these approaches, the paper proposes the introduction of the “system strength” construct, which measures the perceived robustness of the HRM system, as a moderator of the effects of double fit on organisational performance.

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