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1 – 10 of over 1000
Article
Publication date: 2 August 2022

Regina Ngozi Ugbaja, Beno Okechukwu Onunkwor, Emmanuel Ifeanyichukwu Ugwor, Kunle Ogungbemi, Anuoluwapo Adewole, Michael Ayobami Olowoyeye, David Arowojolu, Olamide Yewande Adeleke and Victory Chukwudalu Ugbaja

This study aims to scrutinize the efficacy of chitosan (CT) on cardio-lipotoxic responses elicited by a high-fat diet (HF).

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to scrutinize the efficacy of chitosan (CT) on cardio-lipotoxic responses elicited by a high-fat diet (HF).

Design/methodology/approach

Thirty-six male Wistar rats were distributed across six groups (n = 6): normal diet (ND), HF, ND-5%CT, HF-1%CT, HF-3%CT and HF-5%CT, for seven weeks. Blood and cardiac tissues were processed for biochemical, immunohistochemical and histopathological analyses.

Findings

Ingestion of HF induced hyperlipidaemia and lipid accumulation, leading to increased body and heart weight by 70.5% (p < 0.0001) and 124% (p = 0.0021), respectively, compared to ND-groups. Cardiac damage markers (creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase and malondialdehyde) were higher in the HF-group compared to control rats. Also, atherogenic and coronary risk indices were significantly elevated by 155% (p = 0.0044) and 174% (p = 0.0008), respectively, compared to control rats. Rats fed HF had significantly reduced cardiac antioxidants (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase) and elevated expression of NF-κB-p65 and p53 (p < 0.0001) in the cardiac tissues. Histology revealed lipid inclusions in the cardiac tissues of HF-groups. CT (1%–5%) prevented hyperlipidaemia, lipid accumulation, oxidative stress and cardiac damage in HF-fed rats, while greatly improving the histology of the cardiac tissues in HF-fed rats in a dose-dependent manner.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report of the effects of CT against cardio-lipotoxicity elicited by HF diet ingestion. The findings suggest that CT may present a safe therapeutic alternative for managing complications arising from cardio-lipotoxicity.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 May 2022

Chengshan Li and Huachao Dong

Variable-fidelity optimization (VFO) frameworks generally aim at taking full advantage of high-fidelity (HF) and low-fidelity (LF) models to solve computationally…

Abstract

Purpose

Variable-fidelity optimization (VFO) frameworks generally aim at taking full advantage of high-fidelity (HF) and low-fidelity (LF) models to solve computationally expensive problems. The purpose of this paper is to develop a novel modified trust-region assisted variable-fidelity optimization (MTR-VFO) framework that can improve the optimization efficiency for computationally expensive engineering design problems.

Design/methodology/approach

Though the LF model is rough and inaccurate, it probably contains the gradient information and trend of the computationally expensive HF model. In the proposed framework, the extreme locations of the LF kriging model are firstly utilized to enhance the HF kriging model, and then a modified trust-region (MTR) method is presented for efficient local search. The proposed MTR-VFO framework is verified through comparison with three typical methods on some benchmark problems, and it is also applied to optimize the configuration of underwater tandem wings.

Findings

The results indicate that the proposed MTR-VFO framework is more effective than some existing typical methods and it has the potential of solving computationally expensive problems more efficiently.

Originality/value

The extreme locations of LF models are utilized to improve the accuracy of HF models and a MTR method is first proposed for local search without utilizing HF gradient. Besides, a novel MTR-VFO framework is presented which is verified to be more effective than some existing typical methods and shows great potential of solving computationally expensive problems effectively.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 39 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 May 2022

Abderahman Rejeb, Karim Rejeb, Suhaiza Zailani and Yasanur Kayikci

Halal food (HF) has received significant attention from scholars and practitioners. However, no studies have explored the distinct role played by HF literature as part of…

Abstract

Purpose

Halal food (HF) has received significant attention from scholars and practitioners. However, no studies have explored the distinct role played by HF literature as part of knowledge diffusion. Given the increasing number of scholarly outputs, this study aims to examine the HF development over the past decades comprehensively, including emerging topics and knowledge transmission paths and structure.

Design/methodology/approach

This study conducted a keyword co-occurrence network analysis and main path analysis (MPA). The MPA included four types of main paths to trace the historical formation of HF based on 253 articles extracted from the Web of Science database.

Findings

The findings show that: HF research revolves around several dimensions, including HF safety and trust, halal certification, HF supply chain management and attitudes towards HF purchasing, and the focus of HF research has shifted from the business perspective to the consumer perspective. In recent years, there has been a trend to explore how blockchains can benefit HF supply chains by improving traceability, transparency and consumer trust in HF.

Originality/value

This study addresses the need to examine the knowledge diffusion paths in the HF domain. This study offers a framework to investigate the knowledge dissemination and structure, helping researchers deal with hundreds of articles effectively and increasing their understanding of the past, present and future research trends in the HF domain.

Details

Journal of Islamic Marketing, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0833

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 September 2021

Geraldina Silveyra, Lucía Rodríguez-Aceves, Humberto Charles-Leija and José Manuel Saiz-Álvarez

This study aims to propose a causal relationship between the level of students’ human flourishing (HF) and their entrepreneurial intention (EI) and the mediation role of…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to propose a causal relationship between the level of students’ human flourishing (HF) and their entrepreneurial intention (EI) and the mediation role of entrepreneurial self-efficacy (ESE).

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses a sample of 5,035 first-year university students who graduated from 950 different upper secondary schools in Mexico and abroad. Data were analysed using structural equation modelling.

Findings

The results reveal that HF increases EI and ESE; ESE positively impacts EI; and the student’s ESE partially mediates the HF-EI relationship.

Practical implications

These findings may improve educational strategies in upper secondary schools and higher education institutions’ management programmes to impact graduates’ HF and EI. To the knowledge, the authors are the first to measure how HF in upper secondary school graduates contributes to increasing their EI.

Social implications

Recommendations are made to increase Latin American students’ HF and EI.

Originality/value

The authors propose an inverse relationship between HF and EI, as HF can be enhanced in upper secondary education to boost EI later in students’ lives.

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 9 April 2021

Tengiz Verulava, Revaz Jorbenadze, Ana Lordkipanidze, Ana Gongadze, Michael Tsverava and Manana Donjashvili

Heart Failure (HF) is one of the leading mortality causes in elderly people. The purpose of this study is to assess readmission rates and reasons in elderly patients with HF.

Abstract

Purpose

Heart Failure (HF) is one of the leading mortality causes in elderly people. The purpose of this study is to assess readmission rates and reasons in elderly patients with HF.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors explored medical records of elderly patients with HF (75 years and more) at Chapidze Emergency Cardiology Center (Georgia) from 2015 to 2019. The authors analyzed the structure of the cardiovascular diseases and readmission rates of hospitalized patients with HF (I50, I50.0 I50.1). A multivariate logistic regression model was used to identify factors, associated with readmission for any reason during 6–9 months after the initial hospitalization for HF.

Findings

The major complication of cardiovascular diseases in elderly patients is HF (68.6%). Hospitalization rates due to HF in elderly patients have increased in recent years, which is associated with the population aging process. This trend will be most likely continue. Despite significant improvements in HF treatment, readmission rates are still high. HF is the most commonly revealed cause of readmission (48% of all readmissions). About 6–9 months after the primary hospitalization due to HF, readmission for any reason was 60%. Patients had concomitant diseases, including hypertension (43%), myocardial infarction (14%), diabetes (36%) and stroke (8%), affecting the readmission rate.

Originality/value

HF remains an important problem in public health. During HF-associated hospitalizations, both cardiac and non-cardiac conditions should be addressed, which has the potential for health problems and disease progression. Some readmissions may be prevented by the proper selection of medicines and monitoring.

Details

Journal of Health Research, vol. 36 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0857-4421

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 15 June 2015

Daniel K. Malone, Susan E. Collins and Seema L. Clifasefi

Chronic homelessness is a serious public health issue that places a strain on health-care and criminal justice systems. Typical housing models place requirements on…

Abstract

Purpose

Chronic homelessness is a serious public health issue that places a strain on health-care and criminal justice systems. Typical housing models place requirements on chronically homeless individuals that are often experienced as insurmountable barriers to housing. Housing First (HF) models attempt to more effectively reach this population, and an emerging version of this is the single-site HF approach introduced by Seattle’s DESC. Single-site HF entails the provision of immediate, permanent, low-barrier supportive housing to chronically homeless individuals within a single building. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

In this case report, the authors use DESC’s 1811 Eastlake, a well-known and well-researched application of the single-site HF approach, as an example to describe single-site HF, enumerate its underlying principles, and provide a strong evidence base for its replication.

Findings

The paper provides information and insight into elements of a successful single-site HF program and what it looks like in practice.

Research limitations/implications

1811 Eastlake is one specific application of the single-site HF approach focused specifically on chronically homeless individuals with severe alcohol problems who are the highest utilizers of publicly funded services. Due to the specific nature of the population, the findings presented may lack generalizability. Therefore, researchers are encouraged to continue evaluating the outcomes of single-site HF programs on alcohol use, mental health and quality of life outcomes for all populations receiving single-site HF.

Practical implications

The accumulating research and clinical evidence have indicated that HF is key to engaging and housing chronically homeless individuals.

Social implications

These ongoing efforts stand to decrease the burden of chronic homelessness for affected individuals, their families, communities and society-at-large.

Originality/value

Many housing providers look to DESC’s 1811 as a model program. This paper fulfills an identified need to describe a successful model of single-site HF for purposes of replication.

Details

Housing, Care and Support, vol. 18 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1460-8790

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 February 2001

Gene Fliedner

In order to provide the appropriate demand forecast information given various managerial levels and functional disciplines within organizations, reliance on family‐based…

3020

Abstract

In order to provide the appropriate demand forecast information given various managerial levels and functional disciplines within organizations, reliance on family‐based forecasting is increasing. The family‐based approach, sometimes referred to as hierarchical forecasting (HF), is based on a strategy of aggregating items into families. HF systems are capable of providing forecasts for items and their respective families. The objectives of HF systems, include improved forecast performance and a reduction in the overall forecasting burden. To date, several studies have offered practical guidelines for the structural design of HF systems. The primary purpose of this paper is to summarize these guidelines. First, an explanation of the HF process is provided. In this explanation, important system parameters and strategic choices, which allow for the custom configuration of HF systems are identified. Second, the relevant family‐based forecast research is reviewed. The important issues addressed and the conclusions presented in this research are identified. Third, practical guidelines regarding the use of a HF approach that have been reported in the research literature are clearly delineated. With much still unknown regarding the performance impact of various system parameter and strategic process choices, the paper concludes with suggestions for future research.

Details

Industrial Management & Data Systems, vol. 101 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-5577

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 August 2019

Tao Wang, Zhanli Liu, Yue Gao, Xuan Ye and Zhuo Zhuang

The interaction between hydraulic fracture (HF) and natural fracture (NF) in naturally fractured rocks is critical for hydraulic fracturing. This paper aims to focus on…

140

Abstract

Purpose

The interaction between hydraulic fracture (HF) and natural fracture (NF) in naturally fractured rocks is critical for hydraulic fracturing. This paper aims to focus on investigating the development of tensile and shear debonding zone on the NF caused by the stresses produced by HF, and the influence of NF’s debonding behavior on the interaction between HF and NF.

Design/methodology/approach

Theoretically, tensile and shear debonding modes of NF are considered, two dimensionless parameters are proposed to characterize the difficulty of tensile and shear failure of NF, respectively. Numerically, a finite element model combining the extended finite element method and cohesive zone method (CZM) is proposed to study NF’s debonding behavior and its influence on the interaction between HF and NF.

Findings

Both theoretical analysis and numerical simulation show the existence of two debonding modes. The numerical results also show that the HF can cross, offset or propagate along the NFs depending on the parameters’ value, resulting in different fracture network and stimulated reservoir volume. When they are large, the NF’s debonding area is small, HF tends to cross the NF and the fracture network is simple; when they are small, the NF’s debonding area is large, HF will propagate along the NF. In addition, HF is easier to propagate along with NF under tensile debonding mode while it is easier to pass through NF under shear debonding mode.

Originality/value

The theoretical and numerical considerations are taken into account in the influence of the debonding of NFs on the interaction between HFs and NFs and the influence on the formation of the fracture network.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 36 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 June 1994

Shu‐Hao Chuang and Zuu‐Chang Hong

Solutions of the twin plane jets HF chemical laser flow based on aturbulent kinetic theory, due to a modified Green’s function method, arepresented. The calculated results…

Abstract

Solutions of the twin plane jets HF chemical laser flow based on a turbulent kinetic theory, due to a modified Green’s function method, are presented. The calculated results of probability density function (PDF) of various chemical species in velocity space, and mass fraction concentration distributions of various reactants and products in the flow field, are revealed and discussed in this analysis. The transport phenomena of different pumping rate, collisional deactivation rate, and radiative deactivation rate in the interaction between the twin plane jets HF chemical laser show that the properties of species mass fraction concentrations, collisional reaction rate, and radiative incident intensity are the dominant factors. The present study provides the fundamentals for theoretical understanding of twin plane jets HF chemical laser and further application to multiple‐jet HF chemical laser analysis.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 4 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 August 2016

Thomas A. Hanson

An agent-based market simulation is utilized to examine the impact of high frequency trading (HFT) on various aspects of the stock market. This study aims to provide a…

2273

Abstract

Purpose

An agent-based market simulation is utilized to examine the impact of high frequency trading (HFT) on various aspects of the stock market. This study aims to provide a baseline understanding of the effect of HFT on markets by using a paradigm of zero-intelligence traders and examining the resulting structural changes.

Design/methodology/approach

A continuous double auction setting with zero-intelligence traders is used by adapting the model of Gode and Sunder (1993) to include algorithmic high frequency (HF) traders who retrade by marking up their shares by a fixed percentage. The simulation examines the effects of two independent factors, the number of HF traders and their markup percentage, on several dependent variables, principally volume, market efficiency, trader surplus and volatility. Results of the simulations are tested with two-way ANOVA and Tukey’s post hoc tests.

Findings

In the simulation results, trading volume, efficiency and total surplus vary directly with the number of traders employing HFT. Results also reveal that market volatility increased with the number of HF traders.

Research limitations/implications

Increases in volume, efficiency and total surplus represent market improvements due to the trading activities of HF traders. However, the increase in volatility is worrisome, and some of the surplus increase appears to come at the expense of long-term-oriented investors. However, the relatively recent development of HFT and dearth of appropriate data make direct calibration of any model difficult.

Originality/value

The simulation study focuses on the structural impact of HF traders on several aspects of the simulated market, with the effects isolated from other noise and problems with empirical data. A baseline for comparison and suggestions for future research are established.

Details

Review of Accounting and Finance, vol. 15 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1475-7702

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 1000