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Book part
Publication date: 15 February 2021

Fernando Barreiro-Pereira

This chapter analyses some internal territorial and economic conflicts in Spain among its autonomous communities. The Basque country has a very favourable tax system from…

Abstract

This chapter analyses some internal territorial and economic conflicts in Spain among its autonomous communities. The Basque country has a very favourable tax system from 1878, which historically is stipulated in the Spanish constitution as a special case. This generates an asymmetry with respect to the other 18 Spanish communities including Catalonia, which would like to have a fiscal regime similar to that of the Basque country. After the Spanish state has built the fiscal balances for all autonomous communities, the Catalans argue that Spain steals them and they demand independence for Catalonia, which would affect the political and economic stability of the European Union. Specifically, this chapter attempts to describe a way to resolve territorial conflicts that have been exacerbated by the results of the fiscal balances in a context of fiscal decentralisation, since capital stock balances are not considered in the fiscal balances or in the inter-regional balance of payments. In this chapter, a production function approach, where the public capital production factor is separated into internal and imported capital stock, is used to calculate how the capital stock of the transportation infrastructure actually used can affect the labour productivity in each province or region. This study takes into account the direct effects of the capital stock of the road transport infrastructure of a region and the indirect effects that it receives from the use of infrastructures in other regions. Both types of public capital have been calculated by a network analysis, which allows us to calculate the stock of public capital effectively used in commercial activities, across 47 Spanish provinces during the period 1980–2007. The author estimates the spillover effects using spatial panel data techniques including spatial auto-correlation models with auto-regressive disturbances. In terms of labour productivity, the results indicate that the stock of imported capital is highly significant in all estimates while internal capital is not significant for all Spanish provinces, which classifies the Spanish provinces into users and used. This indicates that capital stock balances should be considered in some way into the inter-regional compensation fund to balance local fiscal balances, minimising some conflicts among regions.

Details

New Frontiers in Conflict Management and Peace Economics: With a Focus on Human Security
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83982-426-5

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 19 July 2022

Nitin Thapar, Suresh Kumar Kaswan and Jyotsna Sharma

Purpose: This paper aims to reveal the impact of the pandemic Covid-19 on the banking and financial sector. Covid-19 is a pandemic disease that’s impacting all nations…

Abstract

Purpose: This paper aims to reveal the impact of the pandemic Covid-19 on the banking and financial sector. Covid-19 is a pandemic disease that’s impacting all nations. However, its amount varies from one country to another depending on the country’s social and economic infrastructure progress. The whole world is passing through great improbability. Indian economy is also facing equivalent issues from contraction in growth to rising inflation, unemployment and low demand. Covid-19 has impacted all industries worldwide, and the financial service sector is not any exception. Covid-19, which began as a health crisis, has now been appropriated as a financial one.

Methodology: This study intends to showcase various new developments in the banking sector. In the present scenario, banks are focusing on utilising new technological innovations to reinforce their risk management competence. Since the aim is to analyse various latest developments in the banking sector and its impact during Covid-19, the focus is to collect the relevant and supporting material from every possible secondary source. To attain the main aim of this paper, the data are collected using secondary sources, i.e. data from the annual reports of the Reserve Bank of India (RBI), Security Exchange Board of India, Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce & Industry, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), the International Monetary Fund (IMF), and the World Bank and various others sources. This is taken care of on the primary basis that the reliable and authentic sources are incorporated in this study. Since the study scope is limited to analysing the new developments in the banking sector due to Covid-19, the maximum literature available to attain the paper’s objective is from 2020 to 2021.

Findings: The banking sector is among the most crucial sectors of the Indian economy, which is accountable for almost every financial activity possibly happening within the country. It acts as a holding hand to the industry involved in credit, transactions, collection, etc. With the disruption of supply chains across the globe, numerous physical business places are closed. Banks are the backbone of the economy. Their stability is critical to continue the system up and to run.

Practical implications: The banking sector aims to supply funding to anyone, say corporate or individuals. The decelerate pace can guide prospective job losses, ground stress in banks’ retail loan books. The banks should design a plan to shield employees and their customers from its spread. It has hit the scope to individuals, small- and medium-sized enterprises, and large corporate. The only obvious thing is that every group has faced an income crunch that threatens economic and financial market permanence.

Significance: The relevance of this study stands on the fact that Covid-19 has begun as a health crisis, quickly extended into a business crisis. This is often not only a health crisis but also depression. The outbreak of Covid-19 has created a huge impact on nations. The nationwide lockdowns have almost faded social and economic life. The global economy was hit hard by the continued coronavirus. The whole world is passing through great uncertainty. As a result, various services sectors, banking sectors, and financial services have suffered through various ups and downs, resulting in economic stress. The uncertain and risky environment has had a severe impact on banks’ asset quality. The coronavirus outburst influenced financial markets and consumer emotions as well.

Details

Big Data: A Game Changer for Insurance Industry
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80262-606-3

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 31 May 2016

Mikio Takebayashi

This chapter examines the airline performance effect arising from collaboration between airlines and high speed railway (HSR). The analysis presents scenario simulations…

Abstract

This chapter examines the airline performance effect arising from collaboration between airlines and high speed railway (HSR). The analysis presents scenario simulations using a bi-level model, which takes into account the effect of competition among airlines and HSR. Using real data, we examine the Japanese domestic market and the Japan-based international market: the markets consist of Tokyo Metropolitan Area, Osaka Metropolitan Area, Seoul/Korea, Frankfurt/Germany, Paris/France, London/United Kingdom, and Los Angeles/United States. Analysis of the domestic market assumes airlines and HSR compete against each other, and analysis of the international market assumes airlines only compete with each other. Initially, we conduct performance analysis using a simulation that mimics the current relationship between airlines and HSR. Then we present three scenarios for different combinations of collaboration between airline and HSR based on airline alliances. The results from this exercise are then used to examine the impact of the collaboration on the profits of airlines and HSR, passenger’s utility, and the network design of airlines. Last, we show the potential benefit to airlines – profitability, market share, and demand growth – from the airline-HSR collaboration. Our model shows that in Japan: (1) Airlines can improve their profitability in international operations by the collaboration with HSR when airlines set their hubs so they can connect to HSR; (2) The airline which has a lower unit operating cost than rivals and sets its hubs to connect to HSR can improve its joint profit with HSR through collaboration; (3) Airlines that don’t operate domestic flights and don’t set their hubs to connect to HSR encourage increased fare competition by coordinating with HSR, but their profit decreases. Whether these results are generalizable to other regions should be the subject of future study.

Details

Airline Efficiency
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-940-4

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Article
Publication date: 11 March 2022

Sakshi Malik and Simrit Kaur

Despite being a global public–private partnerships (PPPs) leader, the Asian region is characterised by a wide PPP-divide, wherein select countries attract majority of PPP…

Abstract

Purpose

Despite being a global public–private partnerships (PPPs) leader, the Asian region is characterised by a wide PPP-divide, wherein select countries attract majority of PPP projects, while other countries fail to attract the requisite PPP investments. Against this background, the purpose of this study is to investigate the determinants of PPP projects in Asia.

Design/methodology/approach

Using quantitative methods on secondary data, this study analyses the macroeconomic determinants of value and number of PPPs in Asia for the period 2010–2019. The methodology relies on panel fixed effects, random effects, two-step system generalised method of moments and negative binomial regression.

Findings

Results underline the importance of the country’s experience with PPPs, physical infrastructure, financial sector development, market conditions, institutional quality and political stability in attracting PPP projects.

Practical implications

Identification of the determinants of PPPs will assist private investors in making informed decisions related to the selection of countries for PPP investments, thereby increasing the likelihood of a project’s success.

Social implications

The results are expected to enable countries to formulate policies aimed at attracting higher PPP investments, thereby propelling economic development and improvement in the quality of life.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first such study that comprehensively analyses the determinants of both value of PPP investments and number of PPP projects for Asian countries.

Details

Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy, vol. 16 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6166

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Article
Publication date: 9 August 2021

Bernard G. Hounmenou and Fabrice D. Degbedji

This paper aims to study the impact of municipalities’ own resources on their investments‘ expenditure.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to study the impact of municipalities’ own resources on their investments‘ expenditure.

Design/methodology/approach

Panel data analysis. A sample of 34 municipalities in Benin. Econometrics tests for the panel data models – estimation of the fixed-effect and random-effect models. Hausman test to identify the best model to explain the impact of the explanatory variables on local investments’ expenditures. Heteroskedasticity, normality and autocorrelation tests.

Findings

The results establish a positive and significant impact of own resources, state transfers and demographic variables on local investments’ expenses.

Research limitations/implications

As an implication, the results show the importance of local resources’ mobilization for the municipalities’ investment capacity building. They also show that the central government transfers continue to play a major place in local investments’ finance, even in a decentralization context. Limitation: Available data do not allow to well evaluate the impact of the electoral variable on municipalities’ investments’ expenditure. This situation does not allow to well analyze the public choice considerations in local authorities’ behaviors.

Practical implications

Local mobilization of financial resources must be encouraged to raise municipalities’ investments’ capacities. Strategies must be developed to reinforce local capacities in local resources mobilization.

Social implications

The results show the importance of local resources in local investments. They show the importance of citizens’ participation in their well-being construction, through local resource mobilization (ex: local fiscality).

Originality/value

Many authors assert in the literature that financial autonomy has a real impact on local development. However, empirically, it was not demonstrated. This paper contributes to correct this lack.

Details

International Journal of Development Issues, vol. 20 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1446-8956

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 July 2021

Chukwuebuka Bernard Azolibe

The purpose of this study is to analyze the two-way causal nexus between macroeconomic factors such as foreign aid, industrialization, economic growth, population growth…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to analyze the two-way causal nexus between macroeconomic factors such as foreign aid, industrialization, economic growth, population growth, urbanization, control of corruption and the infrastructure development index of the top-ranking African countries from 2003 to 2018.

Design/methodology/approach

The study adopts various econometric tools such as cross-sectional dependence test, panel unit root and cointegration test and Dumitrescu and Hurlin panel Granger causality test in ascertaining the relevant relationships between the variables under consideration.

Findings

The main findings of the Granger causality test result revealed a bidirectional causal relationship between foreign aid and infrastructure and between urbanization and infrastructure. The study also found unidirectional causality running from population growth to infrastructure while a zero causal relationship existed between industrialization and infrastructure, economic growth and infrastructure and lastly, between control of corruption and infrastructure. The study concludes that the major macroeconomic factors that influence infrastructure development in these selected African countries are foreign aid, population explosion and urbanization. Also, their high infrastructure development index has causal influence in only attracting more foreign aid and also promoting urban expansion.

Originality/value

To the best of the author's knowledge, the study is unique as it is the first to determine the two-way causal nexus between macroeconomic factors and infrastructure development using a sample of the top ten African countries in infrastructure ranking. The findings reflect the current situation in Africa.

Details

Journal of Economic and Administrative Sciences, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1026-4116

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Article
Publication date: 22 April 2020

Sasa Randjelovic

This paper evaluates the economic, political and institutional determinants of variation in public investment in emerging Europe.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper evaluates the economic, political and institutional determinants of variation in public investment in emerging Europe.

Design/methodology/approach

Panel econometrics (panel-corrected standard error, generalized least squares and the two-stage least squares) methods have been applied using annual data from 2000 to 2017 for 16 countries from Central and Eastern Europe (CEE).

Findings

Public investment was procyclical in relation to output and negatively associated with the level of public debt. Austerity episodes triggered a significant drop in public investment. Positive drifts in public investment during election periods and the negative impact of the number of cabinet seats held by left-wing parties have been captured. While no firm evidence on the impact of EU membership was found, the results show that arrangements with the IMF were strongly associated with lower public investment. Political factors were of greater importance in Central Europe and the Baltics, while institutional factors had a more significant impact in South Eastern Europe.

Practical implications

To foster public capital formation, it is necessary to: 1) strengthen the countercyclicality of public investment policy and to keep public debt at a low level; 2) adjust the fiscal criteria for EU membership in a manner that would enable countries to use the EU structural fund more effectively, while maintaining fiscal sustainability; 3) put a stronger emphasis on structural features of fiscal policy when designing country-level arrangements with the IMF.

Originality/value

The paper contributes to the literature on determinants of public investment policy by adding empirical evidence for emerging Europe countries.

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. 16 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

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Article
Publication date: 22 January 2020

Martin Grandes and Ariel Coremberg

The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate empirically that corruption causes significant and sizeable macroeconomic costs to countries in terms of economic activity and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate empirically that corruption causes significant and sizeable macroeconomic costs to countries in terms of economic activity and economic growth. The authors modeled corruption building on the endogenous growth literature and finally estimated the baseline (bribes paid to public officials) macroeconomic cost of corruption using Argentina 2004-2015 as a case study.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors laid the foundations of a new methodology to account corruption losses using data from the national accounts and judiciary investigations within the framework of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) non-observed economy (NOE) instead of subjective indicators as in the earlier literature. They also suggested a new method to compute public expenditures overruns, including but not limited to public works.

Findings

The authors found the costs stand at a minimum accumulated rate of 8 per cent of gross domestic product (GDP) or 0.8 per cent yearly. These findings provided a corruption cost floor and were consistent with earlier research on world corruption losses estimated at 5 per cent by the World Economic Forum and with the losses estimated at between a yearly rate of 1.3 and 4 per cent and 2 per cent of GDP by Brazil and Peru’s corruption, respectively.

Research limitations/implications

The authors would need to extend the application of their new suggested methodology to further countries. They are working on this. They would need to develop the methodology in full to compute the public works overruns input to future econometric work.

Originality/value

In this paper, the authors make a threefold contribution to the literature on corruption and growth: first, they laid the foundations toward a new methodology to make an accounting of the corruption costs in terms of GDP consistent with the national accounts and executed budgets; on the one hand, and the OECD NOE framework, on the other. The authors named those corruption costs as percentage of GDP the “corruption wedge.” Second, they developed an example taking corruption events and a component of their total costs, namely, the bribes paid to public officials, taking Argentina 2004-2015 as a case study. Finally, they plugged the estimated wedge back into an endogenous growth model and calibrated the growth–corruption path simulating two economies where the total factor productivity was different, at different levels of the corruption wedge.

Details

Journal of Financial Crime, vol. 27 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-0790

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Article
Publication date: 4 December 2017

Varun Chotia and N.V.M. Rao

India is a developing nation where the marginal benefit of infrastructure development is tremendous. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the relationship between…

Abstract

Purpose

India is a developing nation where the marginal benefit of infrastructure development is tremendous. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the relationship between infrastructure development and poverty reduction for India using the yearly data from 1991 to 2015.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use the principal component analysis to construct indices for four major sub-sectors, namely, transport, water and sanitation, telecommunications and energy, falling under the broad infrastructure sector and then using these sectorwise indices, the authors construct an overall index which represents infrastructure development. The authors provide evidence on the link between infrastructure development and poverty reduction by using the auto regressive distributed lag (ARDL) bound testing approach.

Findings

The ARDL test results suggest that infrastructure development and economic growth reduce poverty in both long run and short run. The causality test confirms that there is a positive and unidirectional causality running from infrastructure development to poverty reduction.

Research limitations/implications

The study confirms that India’s Infrastructure development plays a vital role in reducing poverty and calls for the Indian Government to adopt economic policies which are aimed at developing and strengthening the infrastructure levels and bringing in more investment in the infrastructure sector in order to help the poor population by making them exposed to better opportunities of employment and income growth, thereby achieving the goal of poverty reduction.

Originality/value

This paper is a fresh and unique attempt of its kind to empirically investigate the causal relationship between infrastructure development and poverty reduction in India using modern econometric techniques.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 44 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 November 2017

Stephanos Papadamou, Eleftherios Spyromitros and Panagiotis Tsintzos

The purpose of this paper is to investigate, both theoretically and empirically, the institutional setting of monetary policy making that mitigates the effects of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate, both theoretically and empirically, the institutional setting of monetary policy making that mitigates the effects of productive public investment on inflation persistence.

Design/methodology/approach

In the theoretical approach, the authors consider a simple monetary game model à la Barro-Gordon introducing, apart from stochastic output shocks, indexed wage contracts and public investment effects. Then, the authors empirically produce inflation persistence and public investment persistence by estimating a first-order autoregressive model in a fixed rolling window of 36 months for the UK and also use a dummy in order to incorporate the regime switch in monetary policy since 1997, giving a clear increase in the level of central bank independence.

Findings

The theoretical framework suggests that an independent central banker could better manage inflation expectations and therefore inflation persistence despite the occurrence of persistent public investment shocks. From the perspective of fiscal policy, the appointment of a conservative and independent central banker could absorb adverse effects on inflation dynamics resulting from persistent expansionary fiscal policies. Empirical evidence in the UK indicates that the creation of an independent monetary policy committee reduces the positive link between public investment and inflation persistence.

Practical implications

From a monetary policy perspective view, the best response to public investment policies is to increase the degree of independence to alleviate effects on inflation dynamics. From the perspective of fiscal policy, an independent central banker can provide the necessary conditions to undertake a long-run public investment plan, since long-run growth will not be undermined by adverse inflation inertia.

Originality/value

The authors introduce, in the debate of inflation persistence, both theoretically and empirically, the role of public investment and monetary policy design.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 44 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

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