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Book part
Publication date: 10 August 2010

Gordon Burt

The Wikipedia (2008) entry for mathematical sociology cites four books with ‘mathematical sociology’ in the title: Coleman (1964), Fararo (1973), Leik and Meeker (1975)

Abstract

The Wikipedia (2008) entry for mathematical sociology cites four books with ‘mathematical sociology’ in the title: Coleman (1964), Fararo (1973), Leik and Meeker (1975) and Bonacich (2008). Fararo (1973, pp. 764–766) provides a guide to the literature in mathematical sociology covering journals, bibliographies, reviews and expository essays, readers, texts, original monographs and research papers. Many of the references are either broader than mathematical sociology, for example, concerning the behavioural sciences in general, or narrower, dealing with a particular topic within sociology, or concerning a related field such as social psychology. Three classical original monographs are identified: Dodd (1942), Zipf (1949) and Rashevsky (1951). Included in a second generation of monographs is Coleman's (1964)An Introduction to Mathematical Sociology’. Could it be that this is the first use of the phrase ‘mathematical sociology’?

Details

Conflict, Complexity and Mathematical Social Science
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-973-2

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Article
Publication date: 22 June 2012

Juha Munnukka and Pentti Järvi

This study aims to explore: first, the formation of the customer value of high‐tech consumer products through application of intrinsic and extrinsic cues of product…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to explore: first, the formation of the customer value of high‐tech consumer products through application of intrinsic and extrinsic cues of product quality; and second, the effect of the mental price category of the product on the construction of customer value.

Design/methodology/approach

The study was conducted in the Finnish consumer market in 2008. In total, 453 completed interview forms were collected through the structured interview method. The factor model was constructed through explorative factor analysis and hypothesis testing was conducted through linear multiple‐regression analysis.

Findings

The high‐tech product's price category was found to have a significant effect on the construction of the customer value. The mental price category in which consumers located the product was found to dictate how the perceived value was constructed through the intrinsic and extrinsic dimensions of product quality. The customer value of high‐tech consumer products was composed of visual appeal, excellence, and price satisfaction. Intrinsic cues of product quality were emphasised.

Originality/value

The study provides new insights into how the formation of customer value is dictated by the mental price category perceived by consumers. Also, new information on how intrinsic and extrinsic cues of product quality affect the customer value of high‐tech consumer products was provided.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 29 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 3 June 2021

Liping Ding, Jiangshan Li, Yuqing Wang, Jing Shuai and Xinxin Xu

Under the pressure of environment degradation and energy consumption rises, solar photovoltaic power generation (SPPG) has been seen as a strategic emerging industry in…

Abstract

Purpose

Under the pressure of environment degradation and energy consumption rises, solar photovoltaic power generation (SPPG) has been seen as a strategic emerging industry in China. However, the SPPG projects have many uncertain factors in the process of the life cycle. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the investment risk comprehensively.

Design/methodology/approach

Specifically, this paper firstly identified the risk factors and consequences of SPPG project investment and constructed the investment risk factor evaluation index system. Secondly, the factor analysis method was used to reveal the key investment risk factors and risk consequences. Then, the research hypotheses and conceptual model were proposed, and the empirical analysis was conducted based on the structural equation model (SEM).

Findings

The results showed that the six key risk factors (political, economic, technological, management, market and natural) have a significant impact on the risks during the whole period. The influence degree of risk factors in the operational period is such that market factor > political factor > economic factor > management factor > natural factor > technical factor. In addition, the risk of constructional period has a significant impact during the risk of operational period. Except for natural factors, all risk factors are correlated among the mutual influence relationship of risk factors. Finally, this paper puts forward management implications based on the above conclusions: effectively identify investment risk factors and comprehensively improve risk management ability; (refine the risk factors of SPPG project investment and develop targeted risk prevention and control strategies; define risk management objectives and make relevant strategic plans.

Research limitations/implications

Because of the chosen research approach, the research results may lack generalisability. Therefore, researchers are encouraged to test the proposed propositions further.

Practical implications

It can also help stakeholders propose risk prevention strategies throughout the entire process, to promote the sustainable development of SPPG projects.

Originality/value

This study focuses on the investment risk of SPPG projects, by building an evaluation index system to identify key risk factors, and then establishes a SEM covering constructional period risks and operational period risks to better explore SPPG project risks, in an effort to reveal the mutual influence relationship and influence path of investment risk factors of the projects.

Details

International Journal of Energy Sector Management, vol. 15 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6220

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 20 January 2021

Jacques Nel and Christo Boshoff

Digital-only banks are emerging as challenger banks to the traditional-bank business model in South Africa. However, traditional-bank customers could resist the use of…

Abstract

Purpose

Digital-only banks are emerging as challenger banks to the traditional-bank business model in South Africa. However, traditional-bank customers could resist the use of digital-only banks, theoretically due to their satisfaction with the status quo. Consequently, inertia arising from bias to traditional banks based on status quo satisfaction could engender their resistance to become customers of digital-only banks. The objective of the study, therefore, is to investigate how traditional-bank customers' inertia influences digital-only bank resistance.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on a literature review, digital-only bank adoption barriers and cognitive-based initial distrusting beliefs were identified as mediators of the influence of inertia on digital-only bank resistance. To test the mediation model empirically, data was collected from 610 traditional-bank-only customers.

Findings

The five adoption barriers fully mediate the influence of inertia on cognitive-based initial distrusting beliefs. The five barriers in serial with cognitive-based initial distrusting beliefs partially mediate the influence of traditional-bank customers' inertia on digital-only bank resistance. Cognitive-based initial distrusting belief is an essential factor in the mechanism underlying the influence of traditional-bank customers' inertia on digital-only bank resistance.

Originality/value

Digital-only banks are relatively new. Research is therefore lacking in consumer behavior explaining the use of digital-only banks by traditional-bank customers in the South African context. A further novelty of the study is the empirical assessment of mechanisms that explain the influence of inertia on cognitive-based initial distrusting beliefs, and the influence of inertia on resistance behavior.

Details

International Journal of Bank Marketing, vol. 39 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-2323

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2020

Pedro Gomes Vasconcelos and Nelson Leitão Paes

In an attempt to reduce tax distortions and increase economic efficiency, in 2002 and 2003 Brazil promoted changes in the PIS/COFINS tax, the main federal tax on…

Abstract

Purpose

In an attempt to reduce tax distortions and increase economic efficiency, in 2002 and 2003 Brazil promoted changes in the PIS/COFINS tax, the main federal tax on consumption. Thus, in addition to the old cumulative regime calculated on company revenues, the noncumulative regime was created with higher rates and the added value as a tax basis.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper analyzes the effects of the PIS/COFINS reform in a context of deindustrialization in the Brazilian economy, using a neoclassical model with two sectors.

Findings

The results suggest that after a small improvement in the aggregate economy in the short term, in the long term there was a worsening of the macroeconomic indicators. From the sector perspective, the PIS/COFINS reform may have contributed to the loss of industry participation in the Brazilian economy.

Originality/value

The study of the impact of the PIS/COFINS reform on industry through a neoclassical model is unprecedented in the national literature and contributes to the investigation of changes in the tax regime that occurred in the country.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 48 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 4 November 2014

Michael Keen

The purpose of this paper is to address two fundamental issues in indirect tax design. It first revisits the case for reduced rates on items especially important to the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to address two fundamental issues in indirect tax design. It first revisits the case for reduced rates on items especially important to the poor, and then explores the welfare costs from cascading taxes.

Design/methodology/approach

Applied theory was used in this paper.

Findings

On the first issue, the paper establishes conditions under which even very crudely targeted spending measures better serve the interests of the poor than does the reduced taxation of particular commodities looming large in their consumption. On the second, it shows that these may actually be lower the wider the set of inputs that are taxed but, more to the point, may plausibly be large even at a low nominal tax rate and with relatively few stages of production: contrary to a common mantra, “a low rate on a broad base” is not always good policy.

Originality/value

Both issues addressed in the paper are recurrent and central concerns in the design of indirect taxes in general, and the value-added tax (VAT)/general sales tax (GST) in particular. The author is unaware of other treatments that are at all comparable in perspective or results. The author hopes the analysis will prove useful in many contexts where these issues arise – not least in India, where these issues are central to discussions of VAT/GST reform.

Details

Indian Growth and Development Review, vol. 7 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8254

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2000

DAVID J. EDWARDS and GARY D. HOLT

Hydraulic excavator cycle time and associated unit costs of excavation for given input estimating data, for machines operating in the UK construction industry, are…

Abstract

Hydraulic excavator cycle time and associated unit costs of excavation for given input estimating data, for machines operating in the UK construction industry, are predicted. Using multiple regression analysis, three variables are identified as accurate predictors of cycle time: machine weight, digging depth and machine swing angle. With a coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.88, a mean percentage error (MPE) of −5.49, and a mean absolute error (MAPE) of 3.67, the cycle time model is robust; this is further validated using chi‐square analysis and Pearson's correlation coefficient (on predicted and actual values of machine cycle time). An illustrative example of the model's application to determine machine productivity is given. The paper concludes with a spreadsheet model for calculating excavation costs (m3 and cost per h) which is able to deal with any combination of the three independent cycle time predictor variables and other estimator's input data.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

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Article
Publication date: 13 March 2017

Edda Tandi Lwoga, Tumaini Nagu and Alfred Said Sife

This paper aims to determine factors that influence people living with HIV (PLHIV) to engage in internet-based HIV information seeking behaviour in selected Tanzanian…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to determine factors that influence people living with HIV (PLHIV) to engage in internet-based HIV information seeking behaviour in selected Tanzanian public regional hospitals.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors conducted a questionnaire-based survey to 221 PLHIV in two regional public hospitals in Mwanza and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. They assessed the validity and reliability of the measurement model by using exploratory factor analysis and also used hierarchical regressions to examine the research hypotheses by using Statistical Package for Social Science.

Findings

The study found that there is low usage of internet (24.3 per cent) to search online HIV information. Factors related to attitude and information source accessibility predicted usage intentions of internet, while facilitating conditions, information source accessibility and usage intention of internet determined actual use of internet among PLHIV. Age moderated the effects of information source quality and social influence on usage intention of internet, and the effects of the information source accessibility and social influence on actual use of internet. The findings imply that younger PLHIV were more likely to use internet to access HIV information than the older respondents due to perceived ease of accessing information and quality of the online content. Further, older PLHIV were more influenced by the views of others when making decisions to use internet.

Practical implications

Health-care providers and libraries need to conduct regular studies on health needs of patients, and promote benefits of accessing online information; website designers need to design user-friendly databases; public libraries need to include a section on health information; hospital and public librarians need to provide catalogues of health information resources on their websites; and health-care providers need to improve technological infrastructure.

Originality/value

This is a comprehensive study that provides empirical findings to better understand the HIV information seeking behaviour from actual internet users, particularly factors that may influence PLHIV to seek online information in Tanzania.

Details

Journal of Systems and Information Technology, vol. 19 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1328-7265

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Article
Publication date: 29 November 2018

Aradhana Vikas Gandhi and Dipasha Sharma

The purpose of this paper is to ascertain the performance of Indian hospitals in recent past and derive meaningful insights for policy makers and practicing managers in this area.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to ascertain the performance of Indian hospitals in recent past and derive meaningful insights for policy makers and practicing managers in this area.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper analyses the technical efficiency of select Indian private hospitals using three related methodologies: data envelopment analysis (DEA), Malmquist Productivity Index (MPI) and Tobit regression. Two output variables (i.e. total income and profit after tax) and four input variables (i.e. cost of labour, net fixed assets, current assets and other operating expenses) were selected for the purpose of the study.

Findings

DEA analysis has shown that 14 out of 37 hospitals are found to be efficient under the Cooper and Rhodes model of DEA and 20 out of 37 hospitals are efficient under the Banker, Charles and Cooper model of DEA. The empirical results pertaining to MPI indicate an overall productivity progress in the private Indian hospital industry during the study period, which is largely due to technological advancement in the industry. Tobit regression demonstrates that chain affiliated, specialized and multi-city located hospitals exhibit a higher technical efficiency.

Research limitations/implications

This study has a limitation with reference to the unavailability of data on the input and output parameters of the model. The data related to the number of beds, number of doctors, number of nurses, etc., were not available for the period under consideration.

Originality/value

This study seems to be one of the few studies applying productivity and performance analysis using DEA, MPI and Tobit regression for the Indian private hospital industry.

Details

Benchmarking: An International Journal, vol. 25 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-5771

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 6 November 2017

Ying-Wei Shih, Ya-Ling Wu, Yi-Shun Wang and Chiung-Liang Chen

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the post-adoption stage of Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) telephony diffusion, examining usage behavior based on Shih and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the post-adoption stage of Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) telephony diffusion, examining usage behavior based on Shih and Venkatesh’s use-diffusion (UD) model.

Design/methodology/approach

The research model incorporates technology sophistication, complementary technologies, personal innovativeness, self-efficacy, trust propensity, media exposure, subjective norms, and word-of-mouth (WOM) referrals as UD determinants; rate of use and variety of use as usage variables; intense use, specialized use, nonspecialized use, and limited use as UD patterns; and satisfaction and intention to use future-related technologies as UD outcomes. Data used to test the research model were collected using a web-based online questionnaire form; 360 valid responses were obtained. Partial least squares, multinomial logistic regression, and analysis of variance were used to analyze data.

Findings

The results reveal that variety of use, self-efficacy, propensity to trust, media exposure, subjective norms, and WOM referrals increase rate of use, while complementary technologies, personal innovativeness, self-efficacy, media exposure, and subjective norms widen variety of use; variety of use is essential in predicting UD outcomes; when choosing limited use as the reference category, more than half of the UD determinants are capable of predicting UD patterns; and generally, intense users are more satisfied with VoIP telephony, while limited users have less intention to use future-related technologies.

Originality/value

The present study focuses on the post-adoption stage, thereby extending the frontiers of research on the diffusion of VoIP telephony. Academics can obtain some evidence of the explanatory power of the UD model in the context of VoIP telephony use, and practitioners can obtain fresh insights into the dynamics of VoIP telephony usage behavior.

Details

Information Technology & People, vol. 30 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-3845

Keywords

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