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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2003

H.S. Emira and F.F. Abdel‐Mohsen

Magnesium ferrite pigments were evaluated as active pigments in anticorrosive water‐borne paints. The study includes the use of two different anticorrosive pigment volume…

Abstract

Magnesium ferrite pigments were evaluated as active pigments in anticorrosive water‐borne paints. The study includes the use of two different anticorrosive pigment volume concentration (APVC), 15 and 25 per cent and fixed the Q value (the pigment volume concentration/critical pigment volume concentration ratio) in both paint formulations. Epoxy and acrylated alkyd resins were used as binders. The paints were evaluated by accelerated salt spray tests, corrosion tests in condensed water and sulphur dioxide chambers and electrochemical evaluations. The results obtained were compared with reference paints containing zinc ferrite and zinc phosphate pigments. Ferrite pigments passivate the carbon steel directly in the case of neutral epoxy resin binder or indirectly due to the soaps produced as a result of reaction with the acidic acrylated alkyd resin binder. A lower per cent, i.e. 15 per cent of APVC was found to be sufficient to provide satisfactory anticorrosion protection.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 32 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 4 September 2017

Petr Benda and Andréa Kalendová

The aim of the work is to develop an anticorrosion pigment based on an oxide mixture with lamellar particles. The pigments are prepared from lamellar zinc, zinc oxide and…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of the work is to develop an anticorrosion pigment based on an oxide mixture with lamellar particles. The pigments are prepared from lamellar zinc, zinc oxide and magnetite by calcination. An alkaline earth carbonate is added when embedding a third cation in the lattice of the ferrite that forms the envelope of the lamellar zinc. The properties of the pigments are tested both in the powdered state and when embedded in an epoxy-ester system using different pigment volume concentrations (PVC).

Design/methodology/approach

The properties of paints containing synthesised oxide mixture-based pigments at various volume concentrations and with the Q factor – Q = PVC/CPVC = 0.65 – were examined (where CPVC is critical pigment volume concentration). A series of isometric ferrite pigments were also synthesised for a comparison. Paints of both types with PVC = 10, 15 and 20 per cent were formulated. Steel panels coated with the paints were subjected to corrosion and mechanical tests.

Findings

The oxide mixtures with lamellar particles were subjected to particle size analysis and found to make up a broad distribution curve. Electron microscopy photographs confirmed that the oxide mixture pigments contained lamellar particles with a surface layer. A high anticorrosion effect was achieved owing to the combination of different oxide types.

Research limitations/implications

The properties of the oxide mixtures with lamellar particles are described. Their particle distribution curves can be obtained by particle size analysis methods with a view to obtaining additional information on the status and properties of the pigment particles that may be useful in the development of better paints/coating materials.

Practical implications

Oxide mixtures with lamellar particles can be used in paints protecting construction steel.

Originality/value

The composition of the prepared oxide mixture-based pigments is novel. Each oxide acts by its own anticorrosion mechanism and the final beneficial effect is due to their concerted action.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 46 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 27 June 2008

A. Kalendová and D. Veselý

The purpose of this paper is to synthesize anticorrosion pigments ZnFe2O4 from diverse raw materials of various shapes and size of primary particles.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to synthesize anticorrosion pigments ZnFe2O4 from diverse raw materials of various shapes and size of primary particles.

Design/methodology/approach

Anticorrosion pigments were synthesized through a high‐temperature process during a solid phase. Zinc ferrites were prepared from hematite (α‐Fe2O3), goethite (α‐FeO.OH), magnetite (Fe3O4), and specularite (Fe2O3) entering into reaction with zinc oxide at temperatures ranging from 600 up to 1,100°C. The nature of the initial raw material, primarily the shape of its particles, affects the shape of the particles of the synthesized zinc ferrite. The formulated zinc ferrites had a rod‐shape, lamellar, and/or isometric shape. The shape of the particles of synthesized zinc ferrites was studied with regard to its effects on the mechanical and corrosion resistance of organic coatings. The obtained pigments were characterized by means of X‐ray diffraction analysis and scanning electron microscopy. The synthesized anticorrosion pigments were used to prepare epoxy coatings and water‐borne styrene‐acrylate coatings that were subjected to post‐application tests for physical‐mechanical properties and anticorrosion properties.

Findings

The shape of the particles was identified in the synthesized pigments. X‐ray diffraction analysis revealed the degree of precipitation and lattice parameters. All of the synthesized pigments had good anticorrosion efficiency in an epoxy and in styrene‐acrylate coatings. Compared with a commercially used anticorrosion pigment, their protective power in coatings was demonstrably stronger.

Practical implications

The synthesized pigments can be used conveniently in coatings protecting metal bases against corrosion.

Originality/value

The synthesis of zinc ferrites with different particle shapes for applications in anticorrosion coatings provides a new way of protecting metals against corrosion. Of benefit is the fact that the synthesized pigments do not contain any environmentally harmful substances.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 55 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

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Article
Publication date: 10 July 2007

A. Kalendová and D. Veselý

To synthesise anticorrosion pigments of a lamellar and core‐shell type based on Zn, Ca and Mg ferrites for metal protecting paints.

Abstract

Purpose

To synthesise anticorrosion pigments of a lamellar and core‐shell type based on Zn, Ca and Mg ferrites for metal protecting paints.

Design/methodology/approach

The anticorrosion pigments were synthesised from oxides or carbonates at high temperature. The pigments synthesised had particles with a pronounced lamellar‐tubular shape consisting of MgFe2O4; Mg0.8Zn0.2Fe2O4; Mg0.6Zn0.4Fe2O4; Mg0.4Zn0.6Fe2O4; Mg0.2Zn0.8Fe2O4; ZnFe2O4; Ca0.2Zn0.8Fe2O4; and CaFe2O4. The other type of synthesised ferrite pigments were core‐shell anticorrosion pigments where a layer corresponding to the compositions including MgFe2O4/KAl3Si3O11; Mg0.8Zn0.2Fe2O4/KAl3Si3O11; Mg0.6Zn0.4Fe2O4/KAl3Si3O11; Mg0.4Zn0.6Fe2O4/KAl3Si3O11; Mg0.2Zn0.8Fe2O4/KAl3Si3O11; ZnFe2O4/KAl3Si3O11; Ca0.2Zn0.8Fe2O4/KAl3Si3O11; and CaFe2O4/KAl3Si3O11 was applied onto the core – white mica – by a chemical reaction. The pigments prepared were characterised by means of X‐ray diffraction analysis, particle size distribution measurement, and scanning electron microscopy. The anticorrosion pigments synthesised were used to formulate alkyd paints that were tested in corrosion atmospheres.

Findings

Lamellar particles were detected in the pigments prepared, whereas quality coverage of the core was identified in the core‐shell ferrites. Good anticorrosion efficiency was detected in all of the pigments synthesised.

Practical implications

The pigments synthesised can be conveniently utilised in paints to protect metal bases from corrosion.

Originality/value

The method of using the ferrites synthesised as metal protecting anticorrosion paints is new. Of great benefit are the application and the method of synthesising the anticorrosion pigments that do not contain any heavy metals and are environmentally friendly.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 36 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 3 June 2020

Mayya Ziganshina, Sergey Stepin, Sergey Karandashov and Veronika Mendelson

The purpose of this paper is to search for toxic anticorrosive pigments’ substitute in protective coatings is one of the important tasks that the specialists in the field…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to search for toxic anticorrosive pigments’ substitute in protective coatings is one of the important tasks that the specialists in the field of steel corrosion face.

Design/methodology/approach

One of the ways to solve the problem of metal corrosion is to use complex oxides as pigments, which are characterized as low-toxic compounds and possess the ability to inhibit corrosion.

Findings

In the production of ferrites, it is possible to use production waste as raw material, and that makes it possible to reduce the price of the resulting product and solve environmental problems simultaneously.

Originality/value

Permanent growth of world production is accompanied by the increasing environment corrosiveness, associated with the intensification of air, water basin and soil pollution by industrial waste. This, as well as the continuously increasing operated metal stock, has recently made the tendency of metals’ total loss from corrosion steadily increasing. All of this points to the importance of studying corrosion processes and the systematic and effective fight against metal corrosion.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 67 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

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Article
Publication date: 16 January 2007

A. Kalendová and D. Veselý

This paper seeks to synthesize needle‐shaped anticorrosion pigments based on the ferrites of Zn, Ca and Mg for metal protecting paints.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to synthesize needle‐shaped anticorrosion pigments based on the ferrites of Zn, Ca and Mg for metal protecting paints.

Design/methodology/approach

Anticorrosion pigments were synthesized from oxides or carbonates at hot temperatures. The following pigments were synthesized: ZnFe2O4, MgFe2O4, CaFe2O4, Mg0.2Zn0.8Fe2O4, and Ca0.2Zn0.8Fe2O4. The prepared pigments were characterized by means of X‐ray diffraction analysis, by measuring the distribution of particle size and by means of scanning electron microscopy. The synthesized anticorrosion pigments were used to formulate epoxy coatings with PVC = 10 per cent for the synthesized pigment and with the PVC/CPVC ratio = 0.3. The coatings were tested for physical‐mechanical properties and in corrosion atmospheres. The corrosion test results were compared with aluminium zinc phosphomolybdate.

Findings

The needle‐shaped particles were identified in the formulated pigments. It was found that all of the synthesized pigments had high anticorrosion efficiency comparable with that of Zn‐Al phosphomolybdate. The needle‐shaped particles markedly contributed to the advancement of the physical‐mechanical properties of epoxy coatings.

Practical implications

The synthesized pigments can be conveniently used in coatings protecting metal bases against corrosion.

Originality/value

The application of the synthesized pigments with the needle‐shaped particles in anticorrosion paints protecting metals presents a new method. The benefit of the application and method of synthesizing anticorrosion pigments is that they do not contain heavy metals and are acceptable for the environment.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 54 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2006

H.S. Emira

This work aims to study the corrosion protection of laboratory‐prepared micaceous zinc ferrite (MZF) pigment in anticorrosive paints for steel.

Abstract

Purpose

This work aims to study the corrosion protection of laboratory‐prepared micaceous zinc ferrite (MZF) pigment in anticorrosive paints for steel.

Design/methodology/approach

Acrylic‐modified alkyd coatings, based on MZF pigment, micaceous iron oxide (MIO) and zinc ferrite (ZF) pigments, were prepared at different pigment volume concentrations “PVCs” to the critical pigment volume concentrations “CPVCs” ratio, which denoted hereafter by A. Scanning electron microscope, weight loss measurements, water vapour transmission (WVT) and immersion in 3.5 per cent salt solution as well as physico‐mechanical properties were performed to evaluate the paints anticorrosive performance.

Findings

WVT and corrosion protection can be affected by the PVC/CPVC ratio for all systems. At any particular PVC, the barrier property of the pigment was the main factor affecting the WVT and corrosion protection. MZF pigment protected the carbon steel physically through barrier action and chemically by the reaction with the acidic acrylic‐modified alkyd resin to produce soaps which passivate the substrate.

Originality/value

Novel MZF paint could be used with optimum percentage in anticorrosive paints for steel protection especially in humid and coastal regions.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 53 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

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Article
Publication date: 8 September 2012

Hassan S. Emira, Alia A. Shakour, Sayed S. Abd El Rehim, Inas A. Saleh and Mohammed A. El‐Hashemy

The paper aims to evaluate the anti‐corrosion performance of inorganic pigments included in paint systems based on plasticized‐chlorinated rubber for carbon steel in…

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to evaluate the anti‐corrosion performance of inorganic pigments included in paint systems based on plasticized‐chlorinated rubber for carbon steel in different environmental conditions.

Design/methodology/approach

Paint systems based on chlorinated rubber and inorganic pigments such as zinc chromate, zinc phosphate, red iron oxide and treated iron industry waste powder were prepared. Immersion in 3.5 percent salt solution, as well as outdoor exposure tests, were performed and the paint physico‐mechanical properties were tested to evaluate the paints' anti corrosive performance.

Findings

The concentration and the type of pigments included in the prepared paint systems control their anticorrosive performance.

Originality/value

The paper demonstrates how pigment consisting of treated iron industry waste powder could be used in anticorrosion paints for carbon steel.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 59 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

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Article
Publication date: 29 May 2007

A. Kalendová, D. Veselý and P. Kalenda

To synthesise calcium titanate with a perovskite structure as an anticorrosion pigment for metal protecting paints.

Abstract

Purpose

To synthesise calcium titanate with a perovskite structure as an anticorrosion pigment for metal protecting paints.

Design/methodology/approach

Calcium titanate was synthesised from titanium dioxide and calcium carbonate at high temperature. The pigment obtained was characterised by means of X‐ray diffraction, particle size distribution measurement and scanning electron microscopy. The pigment obtained was further characterised with regard to the parameters required for paint formulation; its specific mass was determined by oil consumption and critical pigment volume concentration. The synthesised calcium titanate was used to prepare epoxy coatings with varying contents of the anticorrosion pigment. The coating was tested for physical‐mechanical properties and in corrosive atmospheres. The results were compared with titanium dioxide that served as a starting material for calcium titanate preparation.

Findings

Calcium titanate was prepared from materials that do not add any impurities to the anticorrosion properties of the pigment. It was identified that calcium titanate of perovskite structure is a highly efficient anticorrosion pigment for paints.

Practical implications

Calcium titanate can be utilised for the preparation of anticorrosion paints to protect metal bases from corrosion.

Originality/value

The method of synthesising calcium titanate as an anticorrosion pigment is new. The literature has not yet described the use of calcium titanate as a pigment with inhibitive properties in paints. From an ecologic standpoint, the application of a new anticorrosion pigment for paints presents a highly positive trend.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 36 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2005

F.F. Abdel‐Mohsen and H.S. Emira

To prepare of fine particle size magnesium ferrite pigments by sol‐gel method.

Abstract

Purpose

To prepare of fine particle size magnesium ferrite pigments by sol‐gel method.

Design/methodology/approach

Different magnesium ferrite pigments with stoichiometric ratios were prepared by sol‐gel and dispersion methods. The characterisation of magnesium ferrite pigments were based on X‐ray diffraction, transmission electron microscope, particle size distribution, thermal and magnetometric analyses.

Findings

The type of polymer and the starting inorganic materials (oxides or salts) have a significant effect on the properties of the magnesium ferrite pigments prepared.

Research limitations/implications

The magnesium ferrite pigments, prepared and used in the work reported here were synthesised from magnesium and iron oxides, oxalates and chlorides. Urea formaldehyde resin and acrylic polymer were used as the dispersing media. Various other materials, e.g. carboxymethyl cellulose, ethoxy methyl cellulose, polyvinylalcohol and 2‐hydroxyethyl methacrylate and polyacrylamide can also be used to achieve similar effect.

Practical implications

The sol‐gel method provided a fine particle size and different particle shapes. Therefore, the method of preparation could be used to produce fibres, films and monoliths.

Originality/value

The magnesium ferrite pigments prepared could be use in numerous paints for steel protection.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 34 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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