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Most studies of conflict handling styles in organizations analyze these styles separately. These studies assume that individuals are oriented towards the use of one of the…
Most studies of conflict handling styles in organizations analyze these styles separately. These studies assume that individuals are oriented towards the use of one of the styles of conflict management. As a result, different styles are compared one by one as if they were independent. In contrast, from a more all‐embracing perspective people are seen as adopting configurations of styles. The interest in this alternative perspective lies in exploring the relations between these styles, how they combine and form patterns of conflict styles. This article presents an exploratory study that seeks to identify empirically the specific combinations of conflict handling styles that result in differentiated patterns within groups of managers. By using hierarchical and non‐hierarchical cluster analyses of a sample of managers, different patterns of conflict management were identified. The effectiveness of each of the resulting patterns was analyzed in terms of its influence on the parties' joint substantive outcomes and their mutual relationship. Results show that patterns using multiple conflict handling styles were more effective than patterns based on a single style.
The investigation here reported was undertaken to determine certain physical principles and their application to dehydration problems in general. The project was not carried to the point where it was possible to consider the modifications necessary for the different varieties of fruits and vegetables. Factors leading to the deterioration of dehydrated products and the relation which the condition of the fresh material may bear to this deterioration are important phases of the problem not here considered. Spoilage of raw food is due principally to the growth of moulds and bacteria. This growth does not occur when the soluble solids are sufficiently concentrated through the reduction, by drying or by other means, of the water present in foods. Even if they are not killed, the moulds and bacteria remain dormant and harmless in the absence of a suitable medium for their growth. Changes in composition, flavour and appearance, however, may also be brought about by the action of the enzymes present in practically all foodstuffs. As these natural catalytic bodies are not always inactivated by the treatment which stops mould and bacterial action they must be considered in working out methods of dehydration. The outstanding advantage of drying as a method of preserving foods is that the weight and bulk of the products are greatly reduced, thus making possible economy in storage and transportation. The production cost of dehydration compares favourably with that of canning. Dried fruits and vegetables are almost as convenient for use in the home as the fresh products. They need no peeling or other preliminary treatment, and soaking and cooking can often be combined. Only the quantity required need be used when the package is opened; the rest will keep in good condition for a reasonable time. “Dried,” “sun‐dried,” “evaporated” and “dehydrated” are the terms most commonly used to describe dried products. Dried indicates drying by any means; sun‐dried indicates drying without artificial heat; and evaporated implies the use of artificial heat. Evaporated refers more particularly to the use of artificial heat in driers depending for their air circulation on natural draught, while dehydrated implies mechanical circulation of artificial heat. The commercial dehydration of fruits has reached a more advanced stage of development than has the commercial dehydration of vegetables, owing largely to the fact that the public is familiar with sun‐dried and evaporated fruits, whereas it knows comparatively little about dried vegetables. During the World War 8,905,158 lbs. of dehydrated vegetables, divided as follows, were shipped to the United States Army overseas: Potatoes, 6,437,430lbs.; onions, 336,780; carrots, 214,724; turnips, 56,224; and soup mixture, 1,860,000. In the years immediately following 1919 the drying of vegetables declined rapidly, and for the last 10 years or more production has been compartively small. To be successful, a dehydration plant must be built where fresh materials are plentiful and reasonable in price. A diversity of products makes possible an operating season long enough to keep the overhead expenses down to the minimum. The products dried, however, should be limited to those for which a ready market exists. The only satisfactory method of operating is to contract for a sufficient acreage to take care of the needs of a plant at a price which will permit both the grower and the drier to make a profit. Material to be dried must be carefully sorted so as to be free of mould, decay and other defects that would lower the grade of the finished product. The stone fruits (apricots, peaches, cherries and plums) must be sufficiently firm to permit mechanical pitting without tearing. Where they are prepared by manual labour they must not be so soft as to stick to the trays. Apples and pears must not be so soft as to crush in the coring and peeling machines. Berries, cranberries and grapes are usually dried whole. Fruit that needs trimming must be avoided, as it not only adds to the cost of operation, but also lowers the grade of the final product. Vegetables, such as beans (snap), cabbage, carrots, celery, corn, parsnips, potatoes, pumpkin, spinach, squash and turnips, are sliced, shredded, diced or cut in desired pieces before drying. Dehydration does not improve the quality of fresh fruits or vegetables, nor does it provide for the satisfactory use of unsound products. At best the process can only conserve the original constituents of the foods, minus replaceable water. Careful handling reduces labour and waste. Bruised tissue is especially susceptible to discolouration and decay. Individual pieces prepared from good stock are more uniform and attractive than those from heavily trimmed stock. Raw materials should be as carefully washed and cleaned for dehydration as for table use. Much of the washing machinery used in canning is suitable for use in dehydration plants. A rotary cylindrical washer equipped with a water‐spraying system is very satisfactory for washing many types of products. Soft or easily broken fruits and vegetables may be washed by passing the trayed material between several sprays of cold water. The segregation of fresh fruits and vegetables according to size facilitates both the preparatory handling and the drying. One type of grader consists of a perforated metal plate, 3 by 10 feet, or larger. The perforations are in sections of varying size, and the plate is inclined and mechanically agitated in order to insure an even flow of the material in one direction. The product is separated according to size by being passed through the perforations. Perforated plates are also used in stacks. Several plates, each stamped with holes of a uniform size, the holes varying in size with each plate, are set one above the other, with 6 inches or more between plates. They are arranged so that the holes are progressively smaller from top to bottom. Another grader sorts out easily rolling materials according to diameter. As a mechanically driven cable rolls the materials along an opening that increases in width, the product falls through and is collected according to size. A grader based on the same principle passes the product down a chute the floor of which consists of rollers placed at increasingly greater distances apart. As the product rolls along the chute it is separated in progression according to size.
Heat also facilitates the transmission of water through the cell walls, thereby assisting its passage from the interior to the surface of the material; it increases the vapour pressure of water, thus increasing its tendency to evaporate; and it increases the water‐vapour‐carrying capacity of the air. In the United States the unit of heat customarily used is the British thermal unit (B.t.u.), which for practical purposes is defined as the heat required to raise the temperature of a pound of water 1° F. Heat is commonly produced through the combustion of oil, coal, wood, or gas. Heating by electricity is seldom practicable because of its greater cost; but where cheap rates prevail it is one of the safest and most efficient, convenient and easily regulated methods. Direct heat, direct radiation and indirect radiation are the types of heat generally employed. Direct‐heating systems have the highest fuel or thermal efficiency. The mixture of fuel gases and air in the combustion chamber passes directly into the air used for drying. This method requires the use of special burners and a fuel, such as distillate or gas, which burns rapidly and completely, without producing soot or noxious fumes. The heater consists simply of a bare, open firebox, equipped with one or more burners, an emergency flue to discharge the smoke incidental to lighting, and a main flue, through which the gases of combustion are discharged into the air duct leading to the drying chamber. Direct‐radiation systems also are relatively simple and inexpensive and have a fairly high thermal efficiency. A typical installation consists of a brick combustion chamber with multiple flues, which carry the hot gases of combustion back and forth across the air‐heating chamber and out to a stack. The air is circulated over these flues and heated by radiation from them. The flues are made of light cast iron or sheet iron. The air‐heating chamber should be constructed of fireproof materials. The efficiency of the installation depends upon proper provision for radiation. This is attained by using flues of such length and diameter that the stack temperatures will be as low as is consistent with adequate draught. Heating the air by boiler and steam coils or radiators is an indirect‐radiation system, as the heat is transferred from the fuel to the air through the intermediate agency of steam. Such a system costs more to install and has a lower thermal efficiency than either of the other two systems. It is principally adapted to large plants operating over a comparatively long season on a variety of materials where the steam is needed to run auxiliary machinery or to process vegetables. Large volumes of air are required to carry to the products the heat needed for evaporation and to carry away the evaporated moisture. Insufficient air circulation is one of the main causes of failure in many dehydrators, and a lack of uniformity in the air flow results in uneven and inefficient drying. The fan may be installed to draw the air from the heaters and blow it through the drying chamber, or it may be placed in the return air duct to exhaust the air from the chamber. An advantage of the first installation is that the air from the heaters is thoroughly mixed before it enters the drying chamber. It has been claimed that exhausting the air from the chamber increases the rate of drying by reducing the pressure, but the difference is imperceptible in practice. Either location for the fan is satisfactory, and the chief consideration in any installation should be convenience. Close contact between the air and the heaters and between the air and the material is necessary for efficient transfer of heat to the air and from the air to the material, and to carry away the moisture. The increased pressure or resistance against which the fan must operate because of such contact is unavoidable and must be provided for, but at other points in the system every effort should be made to reduce friction. To this end air passages should be large, free from constrictions, and as short and straight as possible. Turns in direction should be on curves of such diameter as will allow the air to be diverted with the least friction. The general rule in handling air is that a curved duct should have an inside radius equal to three times its diameter. The water vapour present in air at ordinary pressures is most conveniently expressed in terms of percentage of relative humidity. Relative humidity is the ratio of the weight of water vapour actually present in a space to the weight the same space at the same temperature would hold if it were saturated. Since the weight of water vapour present at saturation for all temperatures here used is known, the actual weight present under different degrees of partial saturation is readily calculated from the relative humidity. Relative humidity is determined by means of two thermometers, one having its bulb dry and the other having its bulb closely covered by a silk or muslin gauze kept moist by distilled water. Tap water should not be used because the mineral deposits from it clog the wick, retard evaporation, and produce inaccurate readings. The wick must be kept clean and free from dirt and impurities. The two thermometers are either whirled rapidly in a sling or used as a hygrometer mounted on a panel with the wick dipping in a tube of water and the bulbs exposed to a rapid and direct current of air. The relative humidities corresponding to different wet‐ and dry‐bulb temperatures are ascertained from charts furnished by the instrument makers, or published in engineers' handbooks. As a general rule, the more rapidly the products have been dried the better their quality, provided that the drying temperatures used have not injured them. Some fruits and vegetables are more susceptible to heat injury than others, but all are injured by even short exposures to high temperatures. The duration of the exposure at any temperature is important, since injury can be caused by prolonged exposure at comparatively moderate temperatures. The rate of evaporation from a free water surface increases with the temperature and decreases with the increase of relative humidity of the air.
The purpose of this paper is to analyze the relationship between Thomas‐Kilmann's Conflict Management Modes (CMM) and Fiedler's Leadership Style (LS) measures, both in the…
The purpose of this paper is to analyze the relationship between Thomas‐Kilmann's Conflict Management Modes (CMM) and Fiedler's Leadership Style (LS) measures, both in the data, and from the theoretical perspective. Based on the conceptual similarities, the authors first propose the existence of a relationship between Thomas‐Kilmann's CMM and Fiedler's LS measures, then establish the presence of the relationship, based on a dataset of Estonian managers.
The authors use a unique dataset of 343 leaders and specialists from different Estonian organizations, on both Thomas‐Kilmann's CMM and Fiedler's Least Preferred Co‐worker test. The data were analyzed by multivariate methods.
The results indicate that leaders who are task‐oriented, according to Fiedler's model, tend to use more competing as the dominant CMM, while relationship‐oriented leaders are more accommodating. The authors also analyze the effect of individual characteristics, finding that younger managers are more task‐oriented while older ones are typically relationship‐oriented and conflict avoiding; women are more collaborative and less conflict avoiding, and men tend to use the accommodating mode more than women. Surprisingly, women tend to be more competitive.
This is the first study to establish a relationship between Fiedler's Leadership Style and Thomas‐Kilmann's Conflict Mode Instrument. This relationship can potentially be used for assessing the reliability and validity of measurements. The particular shape of it may be used to analyze the links between conflicts, relationships and assertiveness. Additionally, the paper provides an empirical analysis of conflict management habits and leadership styles of Estonian managers.
This study examined the relationship between the headquarters and the foreign subsidiaries of multinational corporations (MNCs). Hypotheses concerning the strategies…
This study examined the relationship between the headquarters and the foreign subsidiaries of multinational corporations (MNCs). Hypotheses concerning the strategies pursued by each MNC, intergroup conflict, conflict management styles, integrating mechanisms, and the effectiveness of the headquarters‐subsidiary relationship are developed and tested. There were no significant differences in the intergroup conflict experienced by subsidiaries pursuing different international strategies. However, effectiveness of the headquarters‐subsidiary relationship was negatively related to intergroup conflict. The use of the avoiding style of conflict management was negatively related to the effectiveness of the headquarters‐subsidiary relationship, as hypothesized. For MNCs pursuing global integration strategies, the use of personal integrating mechanisms and integrating conflict management styles were negatively related to intergroup conflict. For MNCs pursuing local responsiveness strategies, the use of bureaucratic integrating mechanisms and dominating conflict management styles were not negatively related to inter‐group conflict. This ran counter to expectations. MNCs pursuing multi‐focal strategies did not fit neatly into either strategy camp—global integration or local responsiveness.
Research examining the relation of personality to conflict resolution strategy has yet to incorporate the dominant, contemporary view of personality, the five‐factor model…
Research examining the relation of personality to conflict resolution strategy has yet to incorporate the dominant, contemporary view of personality, the five‐factor model (FFM). The use of broad traits (domains), to represent personality, although parsimonious, ignores information contained in narrow personality facets, masks important conceptual relations with various strategies, and has produced inconsistent results. The present study demonstrates that narrow, rather than broad, FFM traits consistently explain greater variance in strategy, and account for significant variance when FFM domain scores appear unrelated to the criterion. These effects are shown to result from the unbinding of criterion‐related from criterion‐unrelated facet scores that are otherwise aggregated into broad domains.
Dual‐concern models suggest that “concern about self” and “concern about other” motivate individuals to choose conflict‐handling strategies. We test those assumptions with…
Dual‐concern models suggest that “concern about self” and “concern about other” motivate individuals to choose conflict‐handling strategies. We test those assumptions with a study of the cognitions associated with the choice of conflict strategies. Consistent with dual‐concern model conceptualizations, regression analyses that account for up to 41% of variance indicate that concern about self and concern about other are significantly associated with dominating and obliging strategies. However, predicted interactions between concern about self and concern about other and avoiding, compromising, and integrating strategies are not consistent with conceptualizations in dual‐concern models. Results from this study suggest the need for a conflict‐handling model with dimensions that account for more of the variance in the choices to avoid, compromise, and integrate.
Strategy scholars have long argued that breakthrough innovation is generated by recombining knowledge from distant domains. Even if firms have the ability to access and…
Strategy scholars have long argued that breakthrough innovation is generated by recombining knowledge from distant domains. Even if firms have the ability to access and absorb knowledge from distant domains, however, they may fail to pay attention to such knowledge because it is seemingly irrelevant to their tasks. We draw attention to this problem of knowledge relevance and develop a theoretical model to illuminate how ideas from seemingly irrelevant (i.e., peripheral) domains can generate breakthrough innovation through the cognitive process of analogical reasoning, as well as the conditions under which this is more likely to occur. We situate our theoretical model in the context of teams in order to develop insight into the microfoundations of knowledge recombination within firms. Our model reveals paradoxical requirements for teams that help to explain why breakthrough innovation is so difficult.