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A comprehensive scheme of lubrication now being carried out for the British Ship building Research Association by the Royal Technical College, Glasgow, in their Department of Civil and Mechanical Engineering has included work on journal bearings, and a paper entitled “Some Factors in the Design and Lubrication of Journal Bearings” by Prof. A. S. T. Thomson, D.Sc., Ph.D., Prof. A. W. Scott, B.Sc., Ph.D., W. Ferguson, B.Sc., and H. L. McBroom, B.Sc., Ph.D. was recently read before the Institution of Engineers and Shipbuilders in Scotland, and this gave details of this work. We give here a shortened version of this paper.
The Presidential Address to the Liverpool Engineering Society by Mr. Farthing (the salient points of which are reproduced in this issue) has particular bearing upon…
The Presidential Address to the Liverpool Engineering Society by Mr. Farthing (the salient points of which are reproduced in this issue) has particular bearing upon lubrication and especially on young lubrication engineers. Mr. Farthing stressed the very wide field open to young engineers and the difficulties associated with training in order to cover as wide a field as may be necessary. It is usually so important to gain a wide knowledge before one can specialise and this is certainly the case with lubrication engineers. One cannot begin to fully appreciate the intricacies of a lubrication system with all its accessory components lubricating and guarding, for example, a large motive power plant or rolling mill, until one has more than a mere working knowledge of the plant itself, the duties it must perform, how it performs them and the snags that arise which might be overcome by correct lubrication. In view of the fact that lubrication systems are just as important in a textile mill as in a power station or a large brick works, the almost impossible‐to‐achieve‐range of knowledge that would simplify the work of a lubrication engineer is very obvious. Fortunately, lubricating principles apply to most cases and knowing how to apply one's knowledge from basic principles is the key to success in this difficult profession.
The existence of cavitation in the divergent part of a lubricating oil film has long been presumed, but its occurrence has so far been demonstrated only in a very limited way and its consequences are scarcely appreciated. The investigation now described provides on a small scale a more definite indication of certain primary effects of cavitation in a lubricated bearing. It shows also that the pressure conditions in the divergent part of the film as postulated in some recent theoretical analyses are not confirmed by experiment. While possible damage to the bearing surfaces has been under investigation for some time, this may be considered a secondary effect and is not discussed here.
The National Engineering Laboratory is one of the larger stations of the British Government's Department of Scientific and Industrial Research. Current programmes include…
The National Engineering Laboratory is one of the larger stations of the British Government's Department of Scientific and Industrial Research. Current programmes include theoretical and experimental studies of non‐Newtonian lubricants, the development of new methods of measuring the compressibility of hydraulic fluids, research into the behaviour of oils under hydrostatic tension, and investigations of various aspects of the phenomenon of aeration in hydraulic fluids. The Laboratory's facilities for carrying out sponsored research and testing in this field are briefly described.
Introduction: Recent research studies focusing on the relationship between psychiatric illness and deviant behaviour (Huselid & Cooper, 1992; Holman, Jensen, Capell, and…
Introduction: Recent research studies focusing on the relationship between psychiatric illness and deviant behaviour (Huselid & Cooper, 1992; Holman, Jensen, Capell, and Woodard, 1993) suggest that a behaviour that is inconsistent with sex‐role expectations, particularly when it is defined as more appropriate for the opposite sex, is seen as deviant. By implication, women's alcohol misuse falls into this category of ‘deviant deviance’. In their research on gender roles as mediators of sex differences in adolescent alcohol use and abuse, Huselid and Cooper (1992), concluded that the relationships between gender roles and alcohol use were consistent with the hypothesis that individuals with conventional gender identities conform more closely to cultural norms that condone drinking among males but not among females. In addition to heavy and problem drinking of women judged frequently to be a deviation from the traditional feminine role, it is also viewed as a rejection of the traditional feminine sex‐role and adoption of an aspect of the traditional masculine role, or both (Chomak and Collins, 1987). In their research on sex‐role conflicts in alcoholic women, when the factors of age, socio‐economic status (SES), and marital status were controlled, Kroft and Pierre (1987) observed that alcoholic women scored as more depressed and more sex‐role undifferentiated than non‐alcoholic women. Alcoholic women were also found to have a relatively traditional sex‐role ideology, and remitted alcoholics expressed less satisfaction than other groups with some traditional female roles. The presence of conflict between perceived (real) and desired (ideal) gender‐role characteristics, rather than the specific pattern or direction of the conflict, may best predict problem drinking. Similarly, the research on gender‐role attitudes, job competition and alcohol consumption among women and men, conducted by Parker and Hartford (1992), concluded that among females, the non‐traditional role of employment in non‐traditional gender‐role attitudes concerning responsibilities for household labour and child‐care were associated with greater alcohol consumption. Among the employed, traditional females and non‐traditional males had greater alcohol use. The females and males who experience conflict between competition at the work‐place and substantial obligations at home consumed a greater amount of alcohol. The results of these clashes between feminine role pattern at home and traditionally masculine roles of paid employment will be social and psychological conflicts and tensions that could adversely affect women's mental health (McBroom, 1986). In other words, many women may find it stressful to switch between more masculine role expectations in the workplace and more feminine role expectations in the home (Gerson, 1985) and some may increase their alcohol consumption to alleviate distress resulting from mismatched gender‐related role expectations and preferences (Eccles, 1987).
Barriers to employment are a significant issue in the United States and abroad. As civil rights legislation continues to be enforced and as employers seek to diversify…
Barriers to employment are a significant issue in the United States and abroad. As civil rights legislation continues to be enforced and as employers seek to diversify their workplaces, it is incumbent upon the management field to offer insights that address obstacles to work. Although barriers to employment have been addressed in various fields such as psychology and economics, management scholars have addressed this issue in a piecemeal fashion. As such, our review will offer a comprehensive, integrative model of barriers to employment that addresses both individual and organizational perspectives. We will also address societal-level concerns involving these barriers. An integrative perspective is necessary for research to progress in this area because many individuals with barriers to employment face multiple challenges that prevent them from obtaining and maintaining full employment. While the additive, or possibly multiplicative, effect of employment barriers have been acknowledged in related fields like rehabilitation counseling and vocational psychology, the Human Resource Management (HRM) literature has virtually ignored this issue. We discuss suggestions for the reduction or elimination of barriers to employment. We also provide an integrative model of employment barriers that addresses the mutable (amenable to change) nature of some barriers, while acknowledging the less mutable nature of others.
Major demographic changes in family life occurred during the post‐World War II period in the United States. An increase in women combining traditional family roles with…
Major demographic changes in family life occurred during the post‐World War II period in the United States. An increase in women combining traditional family roles with employment in the work force represents one of the most significant of these changes. The late 1960s and early 1970s, in particular, were heralded as a period of revolution in attitudes toward the roles of women (Ferre, 1974; Mason, Czajka and Arber, 1976; McBroom, 1986; Tallichet and Willits, 1986; Thornton and Freedman, 1979). These studies revealed that attitudes became more favourable toward the working women and toward greater opportunities and rewards for women outside the home. Several studies have documented the association of egalitarian sex‐role attitudes with higher levels of education and increased participation in the work force (Mason et.al., 1976; Smith‐Lovin and Tickamyer, 1978; Thornton and Freedman, 1979).
The objective of this paper is to report results from a Canadian-based study addressing systems-level barriers that restrict the employment of persons with vision loss…
The objective of this paper is to report results from a Canadian-based study addressing systems-level barriers that restrict the employment of persons with vision loss, specifically in the experience of searching for and maintaining competitive employment. This paper aims to generate knowledge which may inform strategies and advocacy efforts to enhance opportunities for, and experiences of, paid employment for persons with vision loss.
This constructivist, grounded theory study used in-depth, semi-structured interviews with seven participants with restricted vision (those who are legally blind) to frame data collection and analyses.
Three interconnected themes emerged: facing and negotiating barriers, the cyclical process of seeking and keeping employment and settling for second best. Participants described barriers to employment that have been described in previous literature that not only continue to exist, but that act to potentiate one another, resulting in settling for competitive employment experiences that are second best. This represents a type of social injustice that has been previously described as ‘occupational injustice’. We explain this concept and link it to participants’ experiences.
This was a small, geographically bounded study. Nonetheless, the findings resonate with previous research and further our understanding regarding how barriers are experienced.
Knowledge gained furthers the understanding of how systemic obstacles restrict and bound the participation of persons with vision loss in the labour market.
While the barriers to employment for persons with low vision have been previously well described, this paper demonstrates how these barriers interact and act synergistically with one another, thereby reinforcing the need to focus on shortcomings at the service, system and policy level, in addition to individual rehabilitation.
This chapter is concerned with exploring the various ways in which Pokémon Go complements or challenges family life. The chapter begins by explicating the multisided concept of play and the myriad definitions that surround this term. Having established the various way in which this phenomenon can improve the lives of those who engage in it – physically, emotionally and cognitively – we go on to consider how play has gradually shifted from public spaces and into designated playgrounds, and how this trend corresponds with children concurrently moving away from the streets and into their bedrooms. Following this, we explore the impact digital technologies are having on the practice of parenting, paying particular attention to video games as a significant facet of youth culture that is often associated with a range of negative connotations. Yet, video games are not intrinsically bad. As we outline, research on intergenerational play and joint-media engagement (JME) readily demonstrate the many benefits families can experience when these games are played together. What is missing from this developing body of work is the familial playing of locative games and the extent to which this practice adds contours to our understanding of this field. The chapter is, therefore, driven by the following research questions. First, why and how do families play Pokémon Go? This includes the different roles that family members adopt, alongside motivations for families playing this game, how the playing of this game complements the rhythms of family life and the extent to which this hybrid reality game (HRG) is suited to intergenerational play. Second, what impact does locative familial play have on families, collectively speaking, and regarding individual family members? Here, we are not just interested in whether this game allows families to bond and how this bonding process is experienced, but also whether the familial play of Pokémon Go provides families with any learning opportunities that might facilitate personal growth beyond the game. Third, what worries might parents have about the familial playing of Pokémon Go and to what extent does the locative aspect of this game reshape their apprehensions?
Digital gaming has become one of the largest entertainment sectors worldwide, increasingly turning the medium into an attractive vehicle for the communication of…
Digital gaming has become one of the largest entertainment sectors worldwide, increasingly turning the medium into an attractive vehicle for the communication of advertising messages. As a result, the incorporation of products or brands in digital games or in-game advertising (IGA) is expected to grow steadily over the course of the following years. However, much work is still needed to determine and optimize the effectiveness of IGA. The goal of the chapter is to advance IGA effectiveness research by investigating the influence of three aspects of the context in which a game is played and the player’s involvement in response to this context on brand awareness.
To this purpose, three experiments were set up. The first experiment (between-subjects, N = 121) investigated the impact of the social setting in which a game is played, the second experiment (within-subjects, N = 31) examined the effect of the game controls that are used, and the third experiment (between-subjects, N = 62) analyzed the influence of the game story.
The findings of the experiments show that the game context can significantly influence the way in which people recall and recognize brands that are included within its environment and that examining the player’s involvement in response to this context can provide useful information regarding the processes underlying this effect.
These findings contribute to the knowledge of when, how, and in which games advertising can be incorporated in order to achieve games’ full potential as an advertising medium.