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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1956

Herbert H. Uhlig

The name of H. H. Uhlig and the work of the Corrosion Laboratory at M.I.T. are synonymous and familiar to corrosion engineers throughout the world. We are fortunate this…

Abstract

The name of H. H. Uhlig and the work of the Corrosion Laboratory at M.I.T. are synonymous and familiar to corrosion engineers throughout the world. We are fortunate this month in being able to publish an article describing the corrosion researches at M.I.T., from the pen of Professor Uhlig himself. Research on corrosion has been pursued at M.I.T. since the turn of the century, always on fundamental corrosion phenomena. As Professor Uhlig says at the end of his article, “money spent by industry or Government on basic corrosion research probably marks one of the soundest investments of present times”—the following gives a very good idea of what this has entailed at M.I.T.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 3 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2005

R. Bhaskaran, N. Palaniswamy, N.S. Rengaswamy and M. Jayachandran

To analyze the different approaches used to estimate the cost of corrosion and understand the limitations so as to have proper appropriation in future appraisals.

Abstract

Purpose

To analyze the different approaches used to estimate the cost of corrosion and understand the limitations so as to have proper appropriation in future appraisals.

Design/methodology/approach

Four well‐known approaches to analysis of cost of corrosion viz., the Uhlig method, the Hoar method, NBS‐BCL input/output method and net present value method have been considered in great detail and the impact of these approaches on corrosion economy in different countries has been highlighted.

Findings

Uhlig method of estimating corrosion cost always gives a conservative estimate of the direct cost of corrosion. The direct cost of corrosion, as estimated by the Hoar method, is found to be somewhat higher than is the estimate made using the Uhlig method, as shown by Shibata of Japan. The NBS‐BCL method of input/output analysis, though apparently more scientific, is subject ultimately to uncertainties in quantifying the capital cost and intermediate output. The net present value method appears to be more realistic than do other approaches as it enables a life cycle costing of each structure/facility to be made and arrives at the most cost‐effective corrosion control method. Even though all the above four approaches enable an estimation of direct cost of corrosion, there is no standard approach to assess the indirect cost of corrosion.

Originality/value

In a developing economy, each and every industry has to go for systematic corrosion auditing in order to identify and adopt the most appropriate corrosion control measures and effect considerable savings. This paper would be of immense use in that regard.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 52 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 1 July 2015

Willi Semmler and Christian R. Proaño

The recent financial and sovereign debt crises around the world have sparked a growing literature on models and empirical estimates of defaultable debt. Frequently…

Abstract

The recent financial and sovereign debt crises around the world have sparked a growing literature on models and empirical estimates of defaultable debt. Frequently households and firms come under default threat, local governments can default, and recently sovereign default threats were eminent for Greece and Spain in 2012–2013. Moreover, Argentina experienced an actual default in 2001. What causes sovereign default risk, and what are the escape routes from default risk? Previous studies such as Arellano (2008), Roch and Uhlig (2013), and Arellano et al. (2014) have provided theoretical models to explore the main dynamics of sovereign defaults. These models can be characterized as threshold models in which there is a convergence toward a good no-default equilibrium below the threshold and a default equilibrium above the threshold. However, in these models aggregate output is exogenous, so that important macroeconomic feedback effects are not taken into account. In this chapter, we (1) propose alternative model variants suitable for certain types of countries in the EU where aggregate output is endogenously determined and where financial stress plays a key role, (2) show how these model variants can be solved through the Nonlinear Model Predictive Control numerical technique, and (3) present some empirical evidence on the nonlinear dynamics of output, sovereign debt, and financial stress in some euro areas and other industrialized countries.

Details

Monetary Policy in the Context of the Financial Crisis: New Challenges and Lessons
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-779-6

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Article
Publication date: 1 November 1988

Z.A. Foroulis Exxon Research and Engineering Company

Passivity and localized corrosion is discussed using iron, iron‐chromium, iron‐chromium‐nickel alloys and aluminium as examples. A brief description is given of the…

Abstract

Passivity and localized corrosion is discussed using iron, iron‐chromium, iron‐chromium‐nickel alloys and aluminium as examples. A brief description is given of the prevailing ideas regarding the nature of the passive film and the processes by which its protective properties are lost when breakdown of passivity and localized corrosion occurs.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 35 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 1956

Howard K. Worner

This is a slightly shortened version of a paper presented at the symposium on corrosion held in the University of Melbourne late last year. Prof. Worner presided over the…

Abstract

This is a slightly shortened version of a paper presented at the symposium on corrosion held in the University of Melbourne late last year. Prof. Worner presided over the meetings which succeeded in directing the attention of many industrialists to the dangers of corrosion. In this paper some interesting aspects of corrosion costing are given, with particular application to Australian industry, and we feel that the information given here is an important addition to the not over‐prodigious amount of literature available on the subject of corrosion costs.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 3 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

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Article
Publication date: 13 August 2018

Aleksandar Vasilev

The purpose of this paper is to show a standard RBC model, when augmented with a VAT evasion channel, where evasion depends on the consumption tax rate, can produce a…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to show a standard RBC model, when augmented with a VAT evasion channel, where evasion depends on the consumption tax rate, can produce a hump-shaped consumption-Laffer curve.

Design/methodology/approach

The methodology is in the spirit of modern quantitative macroeconomic literature.

Findings

The model with VAT evasion can generate a peaking consumption tax revenue curve, which is a little discussed result in the taxation literature.

Research limitations/implications

The paper contributes to the public finance literature by providing evidence for the importance of the evasion mechanism, while at the same time adding to the debate about the existence of a peak tax rate for consumption tax revenue.

Practical implications

Contrary to popular belief, raising VAT rate as a cheap way (being a tax on demand) to finance government expenditure, is still not a free lunch, and raising the rate, especially in a country with substantial VAT evasion, quickly leads to a drop in the revenue associated with that category.

Originality/value

This is the first study that provides a tractable model of VAT evasion, and a setup where consumption tax revenue curve is peaking.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 45 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1994

E.E. Abd El Aal, A. Abd El Aal and S.M. Abd El Haleem

The effect of the addition of aggressive salts such as LiCl, NaCl, KCl, RbCl and MgCl2 on the steady‐state potential of a Zn electrode previously equilibrated in a…

Abstract

The effect of the addition of aggressive salts such as LiCl, NaCl, KCl, RbCl and MgCl2 on the steady‐state potential of a Zn electrode previously equilibrated in a passivating chromate solution is established. S‐shaped curves are obtained for the variation of the steady‐state potential with the quantity of aggressive salt added. For each inhibitor concentration, Cinh, the addition of aggressive ions up to a certain concentration has no effect on the passivity of Zn. However, higher Cl ion concentration causes destruction of the passive film and initiation of pitting corrosion. Destruction of passivity occurs after an induction period which decreases with the increase in the concentration of the attacking ion and/or the decrease in that of the inhibiting ions. The concentration of aggressive ion, Cagg, that can be tolerated by a certain concentration of the inhibiting ions, Cinh, is given by the relation : log Cinh =K + n log CCl−, where K and n are constants. The efficiency of these salts in initiating pitting corrosion increases in the order RbCl ≤ MgCl2, ≤ KCl < NaCl < LiCl. The change in the degree of aggressivity of these salts could be attributed either to the incorporation of the cations in the passive film or to their effect on pH.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 41 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2003

S.A. Nosier

The present study addresses the mutual relationship between pollution and corrosion in the context of the petroleum refining industry. The rate of galvanic corrosion of…

Abstract

The present study addresses the mutual relationship between pollution and corrosion in the context of the petroleum refining industry. The rate of galvanic corrosion of steel coupled with copper when immersed in oil refinery wastewater was studied by the weight‐loss technique. The variables studied were: MgCl2 concentration, the ratio between the cathode area and the anode area of the galvanic couple, and operating temperature. It was found that the rate of galvanic corrosion of steel coupled with copper increased with increasing MgCl2 up to a certain concentration and then remained almost constant with further increase in concentration. Increasing the cathode/anode area ratio also increased the rate of corrosion. The rate of corrosion increased with temperature at an activation energy of 8.4 kcal/mol, which denotes that galvanic corrosion of steel in MgCl2 solution is a diffusion‐controlled reaction.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 50 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 1963

Corrosion and Corrosion Control, by Herbert H. Uhlig. The aim of this 370‐page book is well summarised by the sub‐title, i.e. ‘An introduction to corrosion science and…

Abstract

Corrosion and Corrosion Control, by Herbert H. Uhlig. The aim of this 370‐page book is well summarised by the sub‐title, i.e. ‘An introduction to corrosion science and engineering’. The author, a well‐known authority on corrosion subjects, has been in charge of the Corrosion Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, since 1946, but his research work in this field began as far back as 1936.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 10 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

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Article
Publication date: 29 May 2018

Bernard Njindan Iyke

This paper aims to assess the effects of housing market shocks on real output in South Africa, by focusing on the real private consumption channel.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to assess the effects of housing market shocks on real output in South Africa, by focusing on the real private consumption channel.

Design/methodology/approach

It measures housing market shocks as non-monetary housing shocks, uses a data set covering the period 1969Q4-2014Q4 and uses the agnostic identification procedure.

Findings

The paper finds that 20 per cent of the variation in house prices is explained by these shocks. The paper also finds that the effects of housing demand shocks on real private consumption are short-lived and generate a transitory real output response. Overall, housing demand shocks have managed to explain nearly 13 per cent and 14 per cent of the variation in real private consumption and real output respectively, over 20-quarters ahead forecast revision.

Research limitations/implications

This finding suggests that shocks emanating from the housing market in the country are essential and should be considered when making macroeconomic policy decisions.

Originality/value

None of the existing studies, to our knowledge, have empirically assessed the effects of housing market shocks on real output directly. This paper attempts to contribute to the literature by assessing the direct impact of housing market shocks on the real output, using South Africa as a case study.

Details

Studies in Economics and Finance, vol. 35 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1086-7376

Keywords

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