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Certain elements of Hayek’s work are prominent precursors to the modern field of complex adaptive systems, including his ideas on spontaneous order, his focus on market…
Certain elements of Hayek’s work are prominent precursors to the modern field of complex adaptive systems, including his ideas on spontaneous order, his focus on market processes, his contrast between designing and gardening, and his own framing of complex systems. Conceptually, he was well ahead of his time, prescient in his formulation of novel ways to think about economies and societies. Technically, the fact that he did not mathematically formalize most of the notions he developed makes his insights hard to incorporate unambiguously into models. However, because so much of his work is divorced from the simplistic models proffered by early mathematical economics, it stands as fertile ground for complex systems researchers today. I suggest that Austrian economists can create a progressive research program by building models of these Hayekian ideas, and thereby gain traction within the economics profession. Instead of mathematical models the suite of techniques and tools known as agent-based computing seems particularly well-suited to addressing traditional Austrian topics like money, business cycles, coordination, market processes, and so on, while staying faithful to the methodological individualism and bottom-up perspective that underpin the entire school of thought.
One of the most frequently occurring classes of production system can be represented by a series of productive facilities arranged so that work flows sequentially between…
One of the most frequently occurring classes of production system can be represented by a series of productive facilities arranged so that work flows sequentially between them. These systems can be largely defined by the output characteristics of the individual productive elements of the system and the nature of the flow between them. In reality, perhaps the most straightforward series production system is where the output rate of each productive facility is not deterministic but can be described by a unimodal distribution of some sort and the flow between each facility is not mechanically paced in any way. On a macro level such a system could represent a series of major productive units feeding into each other, where overall capacity issues would be predominant. On the micro level the system describes an unpaced manual assembly line.
This chapter develops a set of two-step identification methods for social interactions models with unknown networks, and discusses how the proposed methods are connected…
This chapter develops a set of two-step identification methods for social interactions models with unknown networks, and discusses how the proposed methods are connected to the identification methods for models with known networks. The first step uses linear regression to identify the reduced forms. The second step decomposes the reduced forms to identify the primitive parameters. The proposed methods use panel data to identify networks. Two cases are considered: the sample exogenous vectors span Rn (long panels), and the sample exogenous vectors span a proper subspace of Rn (short panels). For the short panel case, in order to solve the sample covariance matrices’ non-invertibility problem, this chapter proposes to represent the sample vectors with respect to a basis of a lower-dimensional space so that we have fewer regression coefficients in the first step. This allows us to identify some reduced form submatrices, which provide equations for identifying the primitive parameters.
Intellectual disabilities (ID) may complicate the experience of bereavement and loss, in those with communicative impairments compounded by complex healthcare needs and…
Intellectual disabilities (ID) may complicate the experience of bereavement and loss, in those with communicative impairments compounded by complex healthcare needs and sensori-motor limitations. Whilst theorists have argued that the cognitive difficulties of people with profound ID impede mourning reactions, none have attempted to make sense of the responses they do exhibit. The current paper discusses this.
A select review considers the neurobiology underlying attachment bonds, complications in attachment formation and affect regulation in people with ID, and separation responses of people with profound ID.
The current paper demonstrates that by recognising the affective nature of separation distress, an understanding beyond a cognitive conceptualisation is possible.
It is worth questioning whether people with profound ID are incapable of any meaningful form of person permanence. A critical review could deal with this comparatively by drawing on research of person and object permanence in typically developing children.
Of specific interest, the bio-behavioural regulators of relationships may help us to appreciate the importance of routine physical health and social care for emotional wellbeing in this group.
It is argued that by appreciating the basic emotional and regulatory functions of relationships, we can achieve a greater insight into the loss experiences of people with profound ID that will offer therapeutic direction.
This chapter discusses how Nancy Fraser’s theory of two-dimensional participatory justice may be employed in research concerned with inequalities within higher education…
This chapter discusses how Nancy Fraser’s theory of two-dimensional participatory justice may be employed in research concerned with inequalities within higher education. The main concepts of Fraser’s theory are discussed and evaluated in the light of the critical attention they have attracted. Following that, I demonstrate the empirical application of Fraser’s ideas through discussion of extracts of data from a recent small-scale investigation undertaken within a UK-based higher education institution. Finally, I conclude by discussing the strengths of Fraser’s concepts with some indications for future research.
From the first attempts to prepare, train and educate teachers the official knowledge of the state has shaped what was identified as worth knowing, the curriculum. The knowledge and skills imparted link with political, economic and social priorities of the state. The formalization of this knowledge via pupil-teacher schemes, normal schools, as well as teachers’ colleges and universities was imperative in order for the state to define and control what was taught and who taught. Furthermore, central control of the curriculum, examination, classification and certification of teachers ensured that the agenda of the state was transported into the nation’s classrooms. Thus, the primary objective was to both produce and reproduce ‘good’ and ‘capable’ teachers ‘free from defect or infirmity’ to teach the skills and knowledge required for disciplined future citizenship.