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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2005

J. Mouritsen, H. Thorsgaard Larsen and P.N. Bukh

This paper compares balanced scorecard and intellectual capital and finds important differences between their theoretical underpinnings, which suggest that the breath of…

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper compares balanced scorecard and intellectual capital and finds important differences between their theoretical underpinnings, which suggest that the breath of indicators will work differently in organisations.

Design/methodology/approach

Analysing texts about balanced scorecard and intellectual capital, the paper discusses not the obvious similarities – that they are both integrated performance management systems – but four more aspects: strategy, organisation, management, and indicators. Comparing these four dimensions the paper discusses the differences arising from the very different theories of strategy that they presuppose: competitive advantage versus competency strategy.

Findings

The paper suggests that the very different notions of strategy that underpin the balanced scorecard and the intellectual capital approach make such comprehensive performance management systems behave in very different ways – the difference between a tightly coupled and a loosely coupled system accounts for this.

Research limitations/implications

The main limitation is that the paper is primarily a literature study and therefore it is not certain that in practical situations companies will necessarily adopt the theoretical perspectives mobilised behind balance scorecard and intellectual capital.

Practical implications

The usefulness of that paper is that practitioners may understand the breath of implications of a shift in strategic focus and realise the various organisational conditions that can help mobilise the use of indicators in different ways.

Originality/value

The paper's analysis shows how the two models assume how indicators work in an organisational systems and concludes that the differences are significant and that therefore there are considerable differences in how a system of indicators may work in the context of balanced scorecard compared with the context of intellectual capital.

Details

Journal of Intellectual Capital, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1469-1930

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 February 2004

CHRISTINA BOEDKER, JAMES GUTHRIE and SURESH CUGANESAN

The disclosure of information on organisational knowledge resources and related knowledge management (KM) activities in annual reports has become a much debated issue within the…

Abstract

The disclosure of information on organisational knowledge resources and related knowledge management (KM) activities in annual reports has become a much debated issue within the intellectual capital (IC) discourse. This paper discusses the disclosure of IC information, and in particularly human capital information, in an Australian public sector organisation's annual reports. It contrasts and compares the case study organisation's internal IC management issues and practices with its external IC reporting practices. The empirical analysis demonstrates inconsistency between the organisation's internal IC management issues and practices and its external IC reporting practices. It shows that strategically important information about the organisation's management challenges, knowledge resources, KM activities and IC indicators was not disclosed to external stakeholders in the organisation's annual reports. The study exemplifies to external stakeholders the significance of the provision of information on IC and, in particular human capital, and highlights to public policy makers the relevance of extending existing reporting policies to incorporate disclosure requirements for organisations to include information on IC in annual reports.

Details

Journal of Human Resource Costing & Accounting, vol. 8 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1401-338X

Article
Publication date: 8 January 2018

Michael Habersam, Martin Piber and Matti Skoog

The purpose of this paper is to present the findings of a longitudinal study on the use of mandatory knowledge balance sheets (KBS) in Austrian public universities. It contributes…

4330

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present the findings of a longitudinal study on the use of mandatory knowledge balance sheets (KBS) in Austrian public universities. It contributes to the discourse on fourth-stage intellectual capital (IC) research. Conclusions drawn from the analysis of the empirical material are expected to focus further research on fourth-stage IC and to improve practices of IC disclosure.

Design/methodology/approach

A mandatory KBS has been used to govern the Austrian Higher Education Institution sector for more than a decade. In a qualitative longitudinal case study, the authors analyze two series of qualitative interviews and documents in order to reveal functional and dysfunctional effects of the KBS in use.

Findings

The conclusions focus on the communicative culture in the implementation process, the way change processes are organized and the value of strategy for orientation, sense making and an effective allocation of resources.

Practical implications

The practical implications are twofold: first, to identify aspects of monetary, utilitarian, social and environmental value dimensions, a concerted effort to embed quantitative data in a discourse on qualitative impact on value would be needed. Second, the authors support a “communicative culture first” rather than a “tool-box first” approach.

Originality/value

Original empirical data have been gathered in a longitudinal study of a valuable and unique case. Retrospectively, a better understanding of the top-down implementation of the KBS and its pitfalls is achieved.

Details

Journal of Intellectual Capital, vol. 19 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1469-1930

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 October 2009

Antti Lönnqvist, Aino Kianto and Virpi Sillanpää

This paper aims to examine the role of intellectual capital (IC) management in an organizational change process. The purpose is to obtain new empirical findings and an enhanced…

4053

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the role of intellectual capital (IC) management in an organizational change process. The purpose is to obtain new empirical findings and an enhanced understanding of the role of IC in an organizational change process is obtained.

Design/methodology/approach

First, the existing literature on change management and IC management is reviewed. Then, empirical research is carried out in terms of an action research project on IC development processes in three case companies. These processes and their outcomes are evaluated using interviews.

Findings

An IC model can be a useful tool for change management as it helps to ensure the alignment of the change content with the strategic goals of the organization.

Research limitations/implications

The study is based on applying the Danish IC management model in Finnish companies. Different results might have been obtained if another IC management model had been used or the companies representing other countries and cultures had been selected.

Practical implications

The paper demonstrates that IC tools can be useful for promoting organizational change processes. However, more important than the specific conceptual model or measurement method chosen seems to be the process of organizational representatives connecting their contextual and idiosyncratic understandings to the model.

Originality/value

This paper makes a contribution to the existing knowledge by reporting and critically evaluating the implementation of dynamic IC management practices. This is a contribution to the existing conceptually oriented literature on the topic. In addition, the analysis of empirical IC management projects applied in a change context has novelty value.

Details

Journal of Intellectual Capital, vol. 10 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1469-1930

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 30 May 2008

Paula Kujansivu

Intellectual capital (IC) management includes various activities that focus on identifying, measuring, controlling and developing the intangible resources of business. As a

Abstract

Purpose

Intellectual capital (IC) management includes various activities that focus on identifying, measuring, controlling and developing the intangible resources of business. As a concept IC management is still theoretical – the managerial problem is that managers do not know the most appropriate approach for them to operationalise IC management. The purpose of this research is to understand the situation in which a suitable approach to IC management is chosen and factors affecting the choice.

Design/methodology/approach

Factors that may affect choosing the approach to IC management are suggested in light of the literature. In addition, three cases in which a suitable approach to IC management is chosen in practice are examined. The main research method used in the cases is action research.

Findings

The results may provide support when operationalisation of IC management is relevant. The framework presented can be used as a guideline when deciding how to operationalise IC management in one's own organisation. In addition, three examples are given of how IC management can be initiated and why certain choices have been made. Using the framework researchers can improve their models to take better of account various situations.

Originality/value

This paper provides new knowledge about the situation in which a suitable approach to IC management is selected and the factors affecting the choice. The results contribute to the existing discussion on IC management by diminishing the gap between theory and practice.

Details

Measuring Business Excellence, vol. 12 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1368-3047

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 September 2012

Rodney Coyte, Federica Ricceri and James Guthrie

The paper's aim is to examine processes used to control the management of knowledge resources in small and medium enterprises (SMEs) and to compare the findings with the

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Abstract

Purpose

The paper's aim is to examine processes used to control the management of knowledge resources in small and medium enterprises (SMEs) and to compare the findings with the underlying assumptions and prescriptions of intellectual capital guidelines designed for SMEs.

Design/methodology/approach

An in‐depth case study of a successful Australian SME is conducted to identify the means used to control strategizing and the management of knowledge resources.

Findings

It was found that informal, intensive dialogue based processes, structured by an overriding management philosophy, governed strategization and the management of knowledge resources. These governance processes were affected by a combination of formal and informal controls and serendipitous outcomes.

Research limitations/implications

The paper examines only one organization and the study can be extended to other SMEs to develop more detailed specific policy recommendations.

Practical implications

Intellectual capital management guidelines developed for SMEs may have little benefit due to assumptions of resource availability and the fundamental importance of formalization of strategy and control, ignoring possible scarcity of resources and the benefits of flexibility and responsiveness afforded by informal controls in SMEs. The research shows that knowledge harvesting is affected through the way knowledge is used rather than what is developed.

Originality/value

The paper empirically examines the management of knowledge resources in an Australian SME and outlines the way formal and informal controls were interwoven in organizational practices to manage knowledge harvesting. It provides a critique of intellectual capital guidelines in SMEs, highlighting a potential mis‐match between practice and key assumptions underlying the guidelines.

Details

Journal of Knowledge Management, vol. 16 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1367-3270

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 April 2008

Christina Boedker, Jan Mouritsen and James Guthrie

This paper seeks to examine contemporary trends in enhanced business reporting (EBR) and the development of a policy agenda for EBR. The paper aims to build on a submission to the…

2009

Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to examine contemporary trends in enhanced business reporting (EBR) and the development of a policy agenda for EBR. The paper aims to build on a submission to the US Securities and Exchange Commission (US SEC) advisory committee on improvements to financial statements (Pozen Committee).

Design/methodology/approach

The paper takes the form of a literature and policy review of intangible assets and intellectual capital.

Findings

Developments in the area of EBR will require to stand the test of practice, policy and research. The paper identifies five areas where recommendations would be welcome. First, the vast diversity in international EBR practice indicates that producers and users struggle with its implantation, suggesting concerns for international harmonisation. Second, the vast diversity in measurement and reporting models also suggests ambiguity about the content of EBR, raising questions as to how EBR techniques might be consolidated. Third, while experimentation with EBR has been increasing in several countries, limited practical insights have been derived from US companies. Fourth, greater visibility needs to be given to EBR, to increase its practical uptake. Fifth, research needs to be focus more on harmonisation. There is a need for further research about the barriers to, and consequences of, harmonisation including analyses of how the diverse frameworks “actually” differ.

Practical implications

This paper informs contemporary debate about EBR and especially the US SEC advisory committee on improvements to financial reporting (Pozen Committee).

Originality/value

This is a study into the contemporary international initiatives and relevant research into EBR, specifically from Europe and Australia.

Details

Journal of Human Resource Costing & Accounting, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1401-338X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 20 April 2010

Virpi Sillanpää, Antti Lönnqvist, Niina Koskela, Ulla‐Maija Koivula, Matti Koivuaho and Harri Laihonen

The starting‐point of this paper is the observation that, while intellectual capital (IC) management seems to be a potential approach for non‐profit elderly care organizations…

2079

Abstract

Purpose

The starting‐point of this paper is the observation that, while intellectual capital (IC) management seems to be a potential approach for non‐profit elderly care organizations, there is a lack of empirical evidence on how it could actually be applied. This paper aims to add to knowledge of this issue.

Design/methodology/approach

This is an exploratory, qualitative case study including three case organizations. The case descriptions and analysis are based on interviews with managers of the case organizations.

Findings

The study describes which intangible resources are highlighted in the operations of non‐profit elderly care organizations, the existing practices regarding the management of IC factors and the IC needs of management in these organizations.

Research limitations/implications

The study focuses on Finnish non‐profits. The operations of the third sector may vary across countries.

Practical implications

The elderly care sector is facing big challenges due to the changing age structure in many Western countries and due to the pressure to produce cost‐effective but still high‐quality services. The IC approach seems well‐suited as a managerial framework that can capture the intangible aspects of operations. However, more research and practical application experience are needed at this stage.

Originality/value

IC research on non‐profit organizations is rare and has so far been rather generic and conceptual. The paper makes a contribution by presenting empirical and industry‐specific findings.

Details

Journal of Intellectual Capital, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1469-1930

Keywords

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