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Book part
Publication date: 1 January 2014

Holly Sutherland

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Handbook of Microsimulation Modelling
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-570-8

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Handbook of Microsimulation Modelling
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-570-8

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Article
Publication date: 19 June 2020

Wing-Keung Wong

This paper aims to give a brief review on behavioral economics and behavioral finance and discusses some of the previous research on agents' utility functions, applicable…

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to give a brief review on behavioral economics and behavioral finance and discusses some of the previous research on agents' utility functions, applicable risk measures, diversification strategies and portfolio optimization.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors also cover related disciplines such as trading rules, contagion and various econometric aspects.

Findings

While scholars could first develop theoretical models in behavioral economics and behavioral finance, they subsequently may develop corresponding statistical and econometric models, this finally includes simulation studies to examine whether the estimators or statistics have good power and size. This all helps us to better understand financial and economic decision-making from a descriptive standpoint.

Originality/value

The research paper is original.

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Studies in Economics and Finance, vol. 37 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1086-7376

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Article
Publication date: 3 October 2016

Chun-Kei Tsang, Wing-Keung Wong and Ira Horowitz

This paper aims to investigate how a prospective buyer’s optimal home-size purchase can be determined by means of a stochastic-dominance (SD) analysis of the historical…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate how a prospective buyer’s optimal home-size purchase can be determined by means of a stochastic-dominance (SD) analysis of the historical data of Hong Kong.

Design/methodology/approach

By means of SD analysis, the paper uses monthly property yields in Hong Kong over a 15-year period to illustrate how buyers of different risk preference may optimize their home-size purchase.

Findings

Regardless of whether the buyer eschews risk, embraces risk or is indifferent to it, in any adjacent pairing of five well-defined housing classes, the smaller class provides the optimal purchase. In addition, risk-averters focusing on total yield would prefer to invest in the smallest and second-smallest classes than in the largest class.

Research limitations/implications

As the smaller class provides the optimal purchase, the smallest class affords the buyer the optimal purchase over all classes in this important housing market – at least where rental yields are of primary concern.

Practical implications

The findings suggest that in the Hong Kong housing market, long-term investors may be better off purchasing smaller homes. For other type of investors, it depends on their risk preference.

Originality/value

There is a very small body of empirical literature on housing investment, especially if the focus is on the optimal home-size purchase.

Details

Studies in Economics and Finance, vol. 33 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1086-7376

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Article
Publication date: 3 April 2017

Mourad Mroua, Fathi Abid and Wing Keung Wong

The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the literature in three ways: first, the authors investigate the impact of the sampling errors on optimal portfolio weights…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the literature in three ways: first, the authors investigate the impact of the sampling errors on optimal portfolio weights and on financial investment decision. Second, the authors advance a comparative analysis between various domestic and international diversification strategies to define a stochastic optimal choice. Third, the authors propose a new methodology combining the re-sampling method, stochastic optimization algorithm, and nonparametric stochastic dominance (SD) approach to analyze a stochastic optimal portfolio choice for risk-averse American investors who care about benefits of domestic diversification relative to international diversification. The authors propose a new portfolio optimization model involving SD constraints on the portfolio return rate. The authors define a portfolio with return dominating the benchmark portfolio return in the second-order stochastic dominance (SSD) and having maximum expected return. The authors combine re-sampling procedure and stochastic optimization to establish more flexibility in the investment decision rule.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors apply the re-sampling procedure to consider the sampling error in the optimization process. The authors try to resolve the problem of the stochastic optimal investment strategy choice using the nonparametric SD test by Linton et al. (2005) based on sub-sampling simulated p values. The authors apply the stochastic portfolio optimization algorithm with SSD constraints to define optimal diversified portfolios beating benchmark indices.

Findings

First, the authors find that reducing sampling error increases the dominance relationships between different portfolios, which, in turn, alters portfolio investment decisions. Though international diversification is preferred in some cases, the study’s results show that for risk-averse US investors, in general, there is no difference between the diversification strategies; this implies that there is no increase in the expected utility of international diversification for the period before and after the 2007-2008 financial crisis. Nevertheless, the authors find that stochastic diversification in domestic, global, and Europe, Australasia, and Far East markets delivers better risk returns for the US risk averters during the crisis period.

Originality/value

The originality of the idea in this paper is to introduce a new methodology combining the concept of portfolio re-sampling, stochastic portfolio optimization with SSD constraints, and the nonparametric SD test by Linton et al. (2005) based on subsampling simulated p values to analyze the impact of sampling errors on optimal portfolio returns and to investigate the problem of stochastic optimal choice between international and domestic diversification strategies. The authors try to prove more coherence in the portfolio choice with the stochastically and the uncertainty characters of the paper.

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American Journal of Business, vol. 32 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1935-5181

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Handbook of Transport Systems and Traffic Control
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-61-583246-0

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Article
Publication date: 30 July 2018

Nnedinma Umeokafor

The purpose of this study is to examine the involvement of communities – geographical or geopolitical units, which identifies culture, interest and ethnicity – in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the involvement of communities – geographical or geopolitical units, which identifies culture, interest and ethnicity – in construction health and safety (H&S) and the implications. This stems from the unexamined hence poorly understood roles of many stakeholders in the construction H&S management and regulatory regime in Nigeria.

Design/methodology/approach

Interviews with contractors and key informants and a survey of contractors were conducted. Descriptive and inferential statistics and thematic analysis were used.

Findings

There is evidences of community interventions: negotiating with contractors on H&S issues; strongly stipulating that H&S measures are adopted and implemented; and enforcing H&S through both violent and non-violent means. These have no legal backing. There is a relationship between the locations of the projects, urban area and rural area, and six community intervention variables. The study also reveals that among the implications of community interventions in H&S are contractors contextualising H&S in these communities and the tension between parties in construction projects. Again, there is a relationship between the location of the projects and six of the implications including the tension between communities and contractors and between contractors and clients.

Practical implications

In adequately addressing construction safety, health and environment issues in Nigeria, geographic location and socio-cultural consideration are pertinent, a point for policymakers, communities and contractors.

Originality/value

The study draws attention to the geographic location and socio-cultural explanations for the differences in the H&S management, performance and attitudes of contractors in Nigeria. This is the first study that examines the involvement of communities in H&S and the implications.

Details

Journal of Financial Management of Property and Construction, vol. 23 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1366-4387

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Book part
Publication date: 16 December 2016

Alexandre Rambaud and Jacques Richard

This chapter gives in “Introduction to the Human Capital Issue” a critical analysis of the standard (economic) Human Capital (HC) theory, with the help of some…

Abstract

Purpose

This chapter gives in “Introduction to the Human Capital Issue” a critical analysis of the standard (economic) Human Capital (HC) theory, with the help of some “traditional” (founding) accounting concepts. From this study, to avoid the accounting and social issues highlighted in “Introduction to the Human Capital Issue,” we present, in “The “Triple Depreciation Line” Model and the Human Capital,” the “Triple Depreciation Line” (TDL) accounting model, developed by Rambaud & Richard (2015b), and we apply it to “HC,” but viewed as genuine accounting capital – a matter of concern – that firms have to protect and maintain.

Methodology/approach

From a critical review of literature on HC theory, from the origin of this concept to its connection with sustainable development, this chapter provides a conceptual discussion on this notion and on the differences/common points between capital and assets in accounting and economics. Then, it uses a normative accounting model (TDL), initially introduced to extend, in a consistent way, financial accounting to extra-financial issues.

Findings

This analysis shows at first that the standard (economic) HC theory is based on a (deliberate) confusion between assets and capital, in line with a standard economic perspective on capital. Therefore, this particular viewpoint implies: an accounting issue for reporting HC, because “traditional” accounting capital and assets are clearly isolated concepts; and a societal issue, because this confusion leads to the idea that HC does not mean that human beings are “capital” (i.e., essential), or have to be maintained, even protected, for themselves. It only means that human beings are mere productive means. The application of the TDL model to an accounting redefinition of HC allows a discussion about some key issues involved in the notion of HC, including the difference between the standard and “accounting” narratives on HC. Finally, this chapter presents some important consequences of this accounting model for HC: the disappearance of the concept of wage and the possibility of reporting repeated (or continuous) use of HC directly in the balance sheet.

Research implications

This chapter contributes to the literature on HC and in general on capital and assets, by stressing in particular some confusions and misunderstandings in these concepts. It fosters a cross-disciplinary approach of these issues, through economic, accounting, and sustainability viewpoints. This analysis also participates in the development of the TDL model and the research project associated. It finally proposes another perspective, more sustainable, on HC and HC reporting.

Social implications

The stakes of HC are important in today’s economics, accounting, and sustainable development. The different conceptualizations of HC, and the narratives behind it, may have deep social and corporate implications. In this context, this analysis provides a conceptual, and practicable, framework to develop a more sustainable concept of HC and to enhance working conditions, internal business relations, integrated reporting. As an outcome of these ideas, this chapter also questions the standard corporate governance models.

Originality/value

This chapter gives an original perspective on HC, and in general on the concept of capital, combining an economic and an accounting analysis. It also develops a new way to report HC, using an innovative integrated accounting model, the TDL model.

Details

Finance and Economy for Society: Integrating Sustainability
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-509-6

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Book part
Publication date: 1 January 2005

Hai Yang and Hai-Jun Huang

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Mathematical and Economic Theory of Road Pricing
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-08-045671-3

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Book part
Publication date: 2 October 2001

Abstract

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Handbook of Transport Systems and Traffic Control
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-61-583246-0

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