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1 – 10 of 102
Article
Publication date: 1 December 2003

G.J. Monkman, S. Egersdörfer, A. Meier, H. Böse, M. Baumann, H. Ermert, W. Kahled and H. Freimuth

Since the 1960s many alphanumeric to tactile data conversion methods have been investigated, mainly with the ultimate aim of assisting the blind. More recently, interest…

Abstract

Since the 1960s many alphanumeric to tactile data conversion methods have been investigated, mainly with the ultimate aim of assisting the blind. More recently, interest has been directed toward the display of pictures on haptically explorable surfaces – tactile imaging – for a range of medical, remote sensing and entertainment purposes. This paper examines the technologies which have been utilised for haptically explorable tactile displays over the past three decades, focussing on those which appear commercially viable in the immediate future.

Details

Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 30 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 1 June 2016

Hilda Freimuth

This study analyzed 24 IELTS Task One (data explanation) prompts for task type, diagram type, subject matter, level of critical thought, and geographical references, in…

345

Abstract

This study analyzed 24 IELTS Task One (data explanation) prompts for task type, diagram type, subject matter, level of critical thought, and geographical references, in order to determine whether Emirati university students’ anecdotal claims of cultural bias on the IELTS academic writing exam (as experienced by the researcher in the past decade of teaching IELTS in the United Arab Emirates) are valid. The analysis found that the majority of the task types (88%) were non-process in nature (i.e. required the description of data in the form of a chart or graph, rather than the description of a process); 40% of the non-process prompts consisted of more than one diagram. The analysis revealed that 33% of the non-process prompts included bar graphs and 29% included line graphs. Pie charts appeared in 25% of the prompts and tables in only 17%. An Emirati student English preparatory program survey indicated the pie chart as the easiest to understand – a finding that may highlight a difference between the most commonly used IELTS prompt and the students’ prompt preference. A content analysis of topics found a high percentage (58%) of subject matter related to the social sciences, with 79% of the geographical references pertaining to Western contexts. An analysis of the amount of critical thought needed for graph interpretation revealed 52% of non-process prompts required some form of critical thought. The study therefore found that the cultural bias perceived by Emirati students has some validity, given the students’ socio-cultural and educational background.

Details

Learning and Teaching in Higher Education: Gulf Perspectives, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2077-5504

Article
Publication date: 18 October 2018

Shi Zhou and Masoud Gheisari

Over the past decade, researchers have used unmanned aerial systems (UASs) in construction industry for various applications from site inspection to safety monitoring or…

1265

Abstract

Purpose

Over the past decade, researchers have used unmanned aerial systems (UASs) in construction industry for various applications from site inspection to safety monitoring or building maintenance. This paper aims to assort academic studies on construction UAS applications, summarize logics behind using UAS in each application and extend understanding of current state of UAS research in the construction setting.

Design/methodology/approach

This research follows a systematic literature assessment methodology to summarize the results of 54 research papers over the past ten years and outlines the research trends for applying UASs in construction.

Findings

UASs are used in building inspection, damage assessment, site surveying, safety inspection, progress monitoring, building maintenance and other construction applications. Cost saving, time efficiency and improved accessibility are the primary reasons for choosing UAS in construction applications. Rotary-wing UASs are the most common types of UASs being used in construction. Cameras, LiDAR and Kinect are the most common onboard sensors integrated in construction UAS applications. The control styles used are manual, semi-autonomous and autonomous.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to classification of UAS applications in construction research and identification of UAS hardware and sensor types as well as their flying control systems in construction literature.

Details

Construction Innovation, vol. 18 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1471-4175

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 September 2020

Faris Elghaish, Sandra Matarneh, Saeed Talebi, Michail Kagioglou, M. Reza Hosseini and Sepehr Abrishami

In this study, a critical literature review was utilized in order to provide a clear review of the relevant existing studies. The literature was analyzed using the…

2144

Abstract

Purpose

In this study, a critical literature review was utilized in order to provide a clear review of the relevant existing studies. The literature was analyzed using the meta-synthesis technique to evaluate and integrate the findings in a single context.

Design/methodology/approach

Digital transformation in construction requires employing a wide range of various technologies. There is significant progress of research in adopting technologies such as unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), also known as drones, and immersive technologies in the construction industry over the last two decades. The purpose of this research is to assess the current status of employing UAVs and immersive technologies toward digitalizing the construction industry and highlighting the potential applications of these technologies, either individually or in combination and integration with each other.

Findings

The key findings are: (1) UAVs in conjunction with 4D building information modeling (BIM) can be used to assess the project progress and compliance checking of geometric design models, (2) immersive technologies can be used to enable controlling construction projects remotely, applying/checking end users’ requirements, construction education and team collaboration.

Practical implications

A detailed discussion around the application of UAVs and immersive technologies is provided. This is expected to support gaining an in-depth understanding of the practical applications of these technologies in the industry.

Originality/value

The review contributes a needed common basis for capturing progress made in UAVs and immersive technologies to date and assessing their impact on construction projects. Moreover, this paper opens a new horizon for novice researchers who will conduct research toward digitalized construction.

Details

Smart and Sustainable Built Environment, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-6099

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 August 2022

Zhijiang Wu and Guofeng Ma

The purpose of this study is to automatically generate a construction schedule by extracting data from the BIM (Building Information Modeling) model and combining an…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to automatically generate a construction schedule by extracting data from the BIM (Building Information Modeling) model and combining an ontology constraint rule and a genetic algorithm (GA).

Design/methodology/approach

This study developed a feasible multi-phase framework to generate the construction schedule automatically through extracting information from the BIM, utilizing the ontology constraint rule to demonstrate the relationships between all the components and finally using the GA to generate the construction schedule.

Findings

To present the functionality of the framework, a prototype case is adopted to show the whole procedure, and the results show that the scheme designed in this study can quickly generate the schedule and ensure that it can satisfy the requirements of logical constraints and time parameter constraints.

Practical implications

A proper utilization of conceptual framework can contribute to the automatic generation of construction schedules and significantly reduce manual errors in the Architectural, Engineering, and Construction (AEC) industry. Moreover, a scheme of BIM-based ontology and GA for construction schedule generation may reduce additional manual work and improve schedule management performance.

Social implications

The hybrid approach combines the ontology constraint rule and GA proposed in this study, and it is an effective attempt to generate the construction schedule, which provides a direct indicator for the schedule control of the project.

Originality/value

In this study, the data application process of the BIM model is divided into four modules: extraction, processing, optimization, and output. The key technologies including secondary development, ontology theory, and GA are introduced to develop a multi-phase framework for the automatic generation of the construction schedule and to realize the schedule prediction under logical constraints and duration interference.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 October 2020

Maria Laura Ruiu, Massimo Ragnedda and Gabriele Ruiu

This paper investigates both similarities and differences between two global threats represented by climate change (CC) and Covid-19 (CV). This will help understand the…

1585

Abstract

Purpose

This paper investigates both similarities and differences between two global threats represented by climate change (CC) and Covid-19 (CV). This will help understand the reasons behind the recognition of the CV as a pandemic that requires global efforts, whereas efforts to tackle climate change still lack such urgency. This paper aims to answer to the following questions: What are the elements that make CV restrictions acceptable by both the public and policymakers? and What are the elements that make CC restrictions not acceptable?

Design/methodology/approach

This paper analyses the situation reports released by the World Health Organisation between the 11th of March (declaration of pandemic) and the 22nd of April, and their associated documents such as the Strategic Preparedness and Response Plan (WHO), the Risk Communication and Community Engagement Action Plan (WHO) and its updated version (WHO) and the Handbook for public health capacity-building (WHO). The analysis ends one week after President Trump’s announcement to suspend US funding to WHO (Fedor and Manson, 2020) and his support to public demonstrations against restrictions.

Findings

The application of the second stage of the “Crisis and Emergency Risk Communication” model identifies five lessons that can be learned from this comparison. These relate to the necessity to simultaneously warn (about the severity of a threat) and reassure (by suggesting specific courses of action) the public; the need for multilevel collaboration that integrates collective and individual actions; the capacity to present cohesive messages to the public; the risk of politicisation and commodification of the issue that might undermine global efforts to tackle the threat; and the capacity to trigger individual responses through the promotion of self-efficacy.

Originality/value

This paper identifies both similarities and differences between CC and CV managements to understand why the two threats are perceived and tackled in different ways. The analysis of official documents released by both the World Health Organisation and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate CV outbreak as a crisis, whereas climate change is still anchored to the status of a future-oriented risk.

Details

Journal of Knowledge Management, vol. 24 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1367-3270

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 July 2005

Elizabeth C. Redmond and Christopher J. Griffith

Consumers often use inappropriate food‐handling practices and improving these could help to reduce the incidence of foodborne disease. However the development of an…

2662

Abstract

Purpose

Consumers often use inappropriate food‐handling practices and improving these could help to reduce the incidence of foodborne disease. However the development of an effective food safety education strategy is considered complex and could be improved by having a greater understanding of the consumer. This paper proposes investigating the modes and channels of communication that maybe used in education strategies.

Design/methodology/approach

A self‐complete postal questionnaire was distributed to a linked demographic quota of adults in South Wales. Responses were entered into a specially constructed food safety database.

Findings

Results indicated that the Environmental Health departments and UK Food Standards Agency were perceived to be the most trusted and credible organisations that can provide food safety information. The most believable spokespersons for promotion of food safety advice were determined as Environmental Health officers and the Chief Medical Officer. The most preferred source of food safety information identified were food packaging, followed by advice from a medical doctor.

Research limitations/implications

Although only a relatively small sample size, many of the findings have been corroborated by qualitative data from nationwide focus groups. The data have been used as the precursor for a large nationwide study of over 2,000 consumers and this should further validate the data.

Originality/value

The results will be of benefit to a range of organisations currently engaged in food safety education as well as identifying potentially underutilised channels of communication.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 107 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 March 2022

Bingjie Liu-Lastres

Crisis communication is an essential component of crisis management in hospitality and tourism. Yet few studies have offered a clear impression of the state of knowledge…

Abstract

Purpose

Crisis communication is an essential component of crisis management in hospitality and tourism. Yet few studies have offered a clear impression of the state of knowledge in this area. As one of the early conceptual attempts, this study aims to contribute to the existing knowledge by analyzing, comparing and synthesizing the literature in crisis communication and hospitality and tourism research. This study also proposes a transactional and dynamic crisis communication model that lays the conceptual foundation for future research.

Design/methodology/approach

This study was guided by a theory synthesis approach and analyzed the related literature. More specifically, this study conducted a rapid review of the general crisis communication research and a conventional, systematic review of crisis communication research in hospitality and tourism. Based on the review findings, this study further develops a transactive and dynamic crisis communication model in hospitality and tourism, which is fundamental for future studies in this area.

Findings

The findings of this study are presented through a literature review of general crisis communication research and crisis communication research in hospitality and tourism and the development of a transactive and dynamic crisis communication model in hospitality and tourism.

Research limitations/implications

This study reviews the literature and develops an integrated model for crisis communication in hospitality and tourism. The findings of this study lay the conceptual foundation for crisis communication in hospitality and tourism and reveal future research venues.

Practical implications

By offering a state-of-the-art review and developing an integrated conceptual model, the findings of this study can help bridge the gaps between academics and practices as well as serve as references for practitioners to identify and develop effective crisis responses.

Originality/value

This paper represents an early effort to review crisis communication research in hospitality and tourism and conceptualize the subject area through an integrated model. The findings of this study contribute to the further conceptual development of crisis communication in hospitality and tourism.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 34 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 21 February 2022

Ammina Kothari, Kimberly Walker and Kelli Burns

The purpose of this study is to examine how factual information and misinformation are being shared on Twitter by identifying types of social media users who initiate the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine how factual information and misinformation are being shared on Twitter by identifying types of social media users who initiate the information diffusion process.

Design/methodology/approach

This study used a mixed methodology approach to analyze tweets with COVID-19-related hashtags. First, a social network analysis was conducted to identify social media users who initiate the information diffusion process, followed by a quantitative content analysis of tweets by users with more than 5K retweets to identify what COVID-19 claims, factual information, misinformation and disinformation was shared on Twitter.

Findings

Results found very little misinformation and disinformation distributed widely. While health experts and journalists shared factual COVID-19-related information, they were not receiving optimum engagement. Tweets by citizens focusing on personal experience or opinions received more retweets and likes compared to any other sender type. Similarly, celebrities received more replies than any other sender type.

Practical implications

This study helps medical experts and government agencies understand the type of COVID-19 content and communication being shared on social media for population health purposes.

Originality/value

This study offers insight into how social media users engage with COVID-19-related information on Twitter and offers a typology of categories of information shared about the pandemic.

Peer review

The peer review history for this article is available at: https://publons.com/publon/10.1108/OIR-03-2021-0143/.

Details

Online Information Review, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1468-4527

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 May 2020

Jorge Furtado Falorca and João Carlos Gonçalves Lanzinha

This paper presents a reflection on the effectiveness of using drones in the technical inspection of building facades, as a practical alternative to more expensive and…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper presents a reflection on the effectiveness of using drones in the technical inspection of building facades, as a practical alternative to more expensive and heavier conventional means. In order to verify this assumption qualitatively, a number of field tests are presented and discussed.

Design/methodology/approach

The first stage consisted of a literature review. The analysis initially investigated drone technology. Then, an insight into some general applications in Civil Engineering was compiled, focusing in particular on the Construction Industry (CI), as well as the scope of building envelope inspections. In the second stage, field tests with drones were performed and the resulting data was appraised in order to get facade pathologies diagnosis as accurate as possible.

Findings

Through this study, the adaptability and versatility of using drones were checked. Thus, it has been confirmed that drone technology is an effective and promising alternative methodology to support technical inspection and diagnosis of building envelope pathologies. In fact, drones seem to be a worthwhile tool for supporting certain Civil Engineering activities–particularly when displaying a multirotor configuration, loading high-definition (HD) cameras, for both stills photography and video.

Research limitations/implications

As the main goal of this approach was simply a qualitative assessment of evidence on the advantages of using drones compared with conventional means, other kinds of comparative analysis were not discussed in depth. However, this and other potential restrictive issues may represent an opportunity to push more developments. A deeper knowledge of data handling and clear procedures for the use of drones could be very valuable for the CI and for building envelope inspections.

Practical implications

In investigating this subject, this research can offer valuable input to enable a greater awareness of the use of drones in the technical inspection of buildings, particularly in hard-to-reach locations, to the detriment of conventional means. In these circumstances, this methodology can bring great benefits, particularly from an environmental impact point of view, since the resources used are much lower. In addition, a very reliable diagnosis can be achieved more quickly, and at a much lower cost.

Originality/value

The introduction of a standard for drone inspection practice is still at an early stage, with initial steps being taken in an apparently well-focused effort to achieve consolidation. Research studies of this kind may have an important role to play in drawing the stakeholders' attention to the benefits of using this technique, particularly for those working in the building usage phase.

Details

International Journal of Building Pathology and Adaptation, vol. 39 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-4708

Keywords

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