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Article
Publication date: 27 October 2020

Ahmed Mohamed, Abdelhalim Mustafa, M.S.A. Elgaby, H. Abd El-Wahab, Said Ahmed Abed and A. Kazlauciunas

This paper aims to prepare a new modified poly(ester amide) (PEA) resins and use it as a binder for anticorrosive and antimicrobial coatings.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to prepare a new modified poly(ester amide) (PEA) resins and use it as a binder for anticorrosive and antimicrobial coatings.

Design/methodology/approach

New modified PEA compositions were prepared based on 4-amino-N, N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl) benzamide (AHEB) as the ingredient source of the polyol used and evaluated as vehicles for surface coating. The structure of the modifier and PEA resin was confirmed by FT-IR, H¹-NMR, MW, thermogravimetric analysis and scanning electron microscope studies. Coatings of 50±5 µm thickness were applied to the surface of glass panels and mild steel strips by means of a brush. The coating performance of the resins was evaluated using international standard test methods and involved the measurement of phyisco-mechanical properties and chemical resistance.

Findings

The tests carried out revealed that the modified PEA based on AHEB enhanced both phyisco-mechanical and chemical properties. Also, the resins were incorporated within primer formulations and evaluated as anti-corrosive and antimicrobial single coatings. The results illustrate that the introduction of AHEB, within the resin structure, improved the film performance and enhances the corrosion resistance and antimicrobial activity performance of PEA resins.

Practical implications

The modified PEA compounds can be used as binders in paint formulations to improve the chemical, physical, corrosion resistance and antimicrobial activity properties.

Originality/value

Modified PEA resins are cheaper and can be used to replace other more expensive binders. These modified PEA resins can compensate successfully for the presence of many the anticorrosive and antimicrobial paint formulations, and thus, lower the costs. The main advantage of these binders is that they combine the properties of both polyester and polyamide resins based on nitrogenous compound, are of lower cost and they also overcome the disadvantages of both its counterparts. Also, they can be applied in other industrial applications.

Article
Publication date: 15 December 2020

H. Abd El-Wahab, A.M. Nasser, H.M. Abd ElBary, M. Abd Elrahman and M. Hassanein

This paper aims to study the effect of the new modified dispersing agent, milling time of the properties and particle size distribution (PSD) of inkjet ink formulation for…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to study the effect of the new modified dispersing agent, milling time of the properties and particle size distribution (PSD) of inkjet ink formulation for polyester fabric printing.

Design/methodology/approach

The study’s methods include preparation of different formulations of textile inkjet inks based on different types of dispersing agents, then applying and evaluating the prepared formulations on the polyester fabric. The properties of the prepared ink formulations were analyzed by measuring viscosity, surface tension and particle size. The current work is including the study of the effect of using different doses of different dispersing agents and the milling time on their characteristics. Also, the study was extended to evaluate the printed polyester by using the prepared inks according to light fastness, washing fastness, alkali perspiration fastness and crock fastness.

Findings

The results showed that the used dispersing agents and the different milling time enhanced the viscosity and dynamic surface tension in the accepted range, but it was largely cleared in the PSD which tends to perform the inks on the printhead and prevent clogging of nozzles. Light fastness, washing fastness, alkali perspiration fastness and crock fastness gave good results in agreement with this type of inkjet inks for textile printing.

Research limitations/implications

In this work, good results were obtained with this type of dispersing agent for inkjet ink formulations, but for other dispersing agents, other tests could be performed. The inkjet ink could also be formulated with other additives to prevent clogging of nozzles on the printhead.

Practical implications

These ink formulations could be used for printing on polyester fabric by the inkjet printing.

Originality/value

Recently, there was a considerable interest in the study of the effect of PSD on the inkjet inks to prevent clogging of nozzles on the printhead and to improve the print quality on the textile fiber.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 50 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 23 April 2020

Abd El-Wahab H., Farouk Abd El-Monem, Naser M.A., Hussain A.I., Elshhat H.A. Nashy and Lin L.

The purpose of this paper is devoted to application of the emulsion polymer of poly(methyl methacrylate-co-butyl acrylate) prepared with in situ nano-silica as a novel…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is devoted to application of the emulsion polymer of poly(methyl methacrylate-co-butyl acrylate) prepared with in situ nano-silica as a novel tanning agent of hide to partly or totally replace chrome salt and to improve physical, thermal and mechanical properties of the tanned leather and to reduce the environmental impact of chrome tanning effluent.

Design/methodology/approach

Polymer/nano-silica hybrid emulsions were prepared via in situ seed emulsion polymerisation. The prepared polymers were characterised for solid content, molecular weight, viscosity, drying time, minimum film-forming temperature (MFFT) and microstructures (via transmission electron microscopy). The mechanical, thermal and surface morphological (by scanning electron microscope) properties of the treated samples were also investigated. The influences of the increase in the content of organic nano-silica on the properties of the tanned leather are discussed.

Findings

It was found that the viscosity, the particle size and the solid content of the prepared polymers increased as the content of the nano-silica increased while gloss and drying time of the resulting polymer film decreased. Tanning buffalo hide by Polymer F (containing a high content of nano-silica) gave desirable properties in terms of tensile strength, thermal stability and shrinkage temperature.

Research limitations/implications

This paper discusses the preparation and the characterisation of emulsion polymers with in situ nano-silica and their application in tanning process to enhance and improve the leather quality, as well as reduce the use of chrome tanning materials and consequently chrome tanning waste.

Practical implications

The tanned leather showed an improvement of physico-mechanical properties and enhancement of thermal stability. Furthermore, the tanned leather has uniform colour, softness and firmness of grain. All these promising results provide evidence to support the applicability of the prepared co-polymer/nano-silica emulsions as an efficient tanning agent that also provides lubricating properties for leather.

Originality/value

Since May 2015, REACH Annex XVII restricts Cr(VI) in leather articles or leather parts of articles that come into contact with skin to a concentration of less than 3 mg/kg. Cases of discovery of Cr(VI) in leather papers have been reported by the European rapid alert system on dangerous consumer products (RAPEX). The emulsion poly (methyl methacrylate-co-butyl acrylate) with in situ nano-silica that has been developed via the study reported in this paper is one of the better technologies for the reduction of chromium ratio used in tanning industry.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 49 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 23 October 2021

M. M. Elsawy, Mohamed A. Awad, Nashwa M. Saleh and H. Abd El-Wahab

Paper aims to Preparation and evaluation of isoxazole benzene sulfonamide derivatives and incorporated it with waterborne household paints to develop coating compositions…

Abstract

Purpose

Paper aims to Preparation and evaluation of isoxazole benzene sulfonamide derivatives and incorporated it with waterborne household paints to develop coating compositions as an insecticidal coating against Musca domestica adults.

Design/methodology/approach

The synthesized compounds were prepared and confirmed by different analyzes, fourier transform infra-red (FTIR), mass, proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1HNMR) and Carbon 13 nuclear magnetic resonance (13CNMR) spectra. The prepared compound has been blended with waterborne household paint formulation, the physical and mechanical properties of the paint formulation has been studied. The efficiency of the isoxazole benzene sulfonamide derivatives when incorporated with waterborne paint against Culex quinquefasciatus and Mosquito house fly adults, also have been examined.

Findings

The obtained results of the paint formulations confirmed their best performance and providing good scrub resistance. Also, the finding promising results of the insecticide test of the paint formulation may be because of the biological activity of these compounds and containing sulfonamide, cyanide and free aromatic amine groups comparing with the standard recommended organophosphorus insecticide. The order activity increase with increasing the dose concentration of the isoxazole derivatives and the activity of chemical compounds itself is represented in terms of their medium lethal concentrations LC50 (LC90), which recorded 0.90(1.62), 0.89(1.61) and 0.86(1.56) g/ml for 5, 3 and 4 chemical compounds, respectively, after 72 h from treatment.

Practical implications

These types of organic compounds are friendly environmentally and can be used as a biocide with different types of paint formulations.

Originality/value

Insecticide waterborne household paints based on isoxazole benzene sulfonamide derivatives as insecticide agents are novel.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 19 May 2022

H. Abd El-Wahab and Raafat A. El-Eisawy

This paper aims to prepare new modified alkyd resins and use it as an antimicrobial binder for surface coating applications.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to prepare new modified alkyd resins and use it as an antimicrobial binder for surface coating applications.

Design/methodology/approach

Various modified alkyd resins were prepared by partial replacement of 3,6-dichloro benzo[b]thiophene-2-carbonyl bis-(2-hydroxy ethyl)-amide as a source of polyol with glycerol and confirmed by acid value, FT-IR, 1H-NMR. The modified alkyd resins were covering a wide range of oil lengths and hydroxyl content (0%, 10%, 20% and 30% excess-OH). The antimicrobial activity of the prepared alkyds was also investigated. The coatings of 60 ± 5 µm thickness were applied to the surface of glass panels and mild steel strips by means of a brush. Physico-mechanical tests, chemical resistance and antimicrobial activities were investigated.

Findings

The obtained results illustrate that the introduction of benzo[b]thiophene derivative as a modifier polyol within the resin structure improved the film performance and enhanced the physico-mechanical characteristics, chemical resistance and the antimicrobial activities.

Practical implications

The modified alkyd resins can be employed as antimicrobial binders in paint compositions for a variety of surfaces, particularly those that are susceptible to a high number of bacteria.

Originality/value

Modified alkyd resins based on antimicrobial heterocyclic compounds have the potential to be promising in the manufacturing of antimicrobial coatings and development of paints, allowing them to function to prevent the spread of microbial infection, which is exactly what the world requires at this time. Also, they can be applied in different substrates for industrial applications.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 October 2021

Nashwa Mostafa Saleh, Maha Mohammed Elsawy, Hamada Abd El-Wahab, Salem Salah Salem and Nour El-Din Abd El-Sattar

The purpose of this study is to develop a new protective coating formulation for industrial use, using benzodiazepine derivatives as double function additives.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to develop a new protective coating formulation for industrial use, using benzodiazepine derivatives as double function additives.

Design/methodology/approach

Benzodiazepine’s derivatives of types (3–5) were prepared and confirmed by infrared, Mass, 1H-Proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and 13C NMR spectra. The synthesized compound was physically incorporated in the alkyd paint formulation by pebble mill grinding until all particulates are smaller than 20 ums. The prepared coatings were applied by air spray on steel panels. The physical, mechanical characteristics, corrosion resistance and antimicrobial test of the prepared coatings were studied to evaluate the prepared compounds drawbacks.

Findings

The results of the mechanical and physical properties of the paint formulation revealed that the paint formulation incorporating benzodiazepines derivatives 3–5 performed best and improved corrosion-resistance and antibacterial activity tests.

Research limitations/implications

In alkyd paint, heterocyclic compounds are the most used antibacterial additives. Other functionalities of these compounds, such as corrosion inhibitors, might be studied to see if they are suited for these applications.

Practical implications

Because of the activity of various benzodiazepine derivatives, which may be attributable to the presence of some function groups such as sulfonamide aromatic amino NH2 group, and elements such as Sulphur, Nitrogen, Chlorine, in its chemical structure. As a result, paint compositions including these compounds as additives can be used as dual-purpose paint and for a variety of industrial applications.

Originality/value

The research demonstrates how a low-cost paint composition based on synthesized benzodiazepine derivatives 3–5 may be used as a dual-function paint for industrial use.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 24 January 2020

H. Abd El-Wahab, G. El-Meligi, M.G. Hassaan, A. Kazlauciunas and Long Lin

The purpose of this paper is to prepare, characterise and evaluate nano-emulsions of copolymers of various compositions as eco-friendly binders for flexographic ink industry.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to prepare, characterise and evaluate nano-emulsions of copolymers of various compositions as eco-friendly binders for flexographic ink industry.

Design/methodology/approach

Various nano-emulsions of copolymers were prepared using styrene (St), butyl acrylate (BuAc), acrylic acid (AA) and acrylamide (AAm) monomers by means of a conventional seeded emulsion polymerisation technique, using K2S2O8 as the initiator. The characterisation of the prepared emulsions was performed using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A selection of copolymers was formulated with pigments and additional ingredients, as water-based flexographic inks. The inks were characterised for their viscosity, pH, degree of dispersion, water resistance and colour density.

Findings

It was found that the low viscosity of the prepared copolymers may reduce the film thickness of the flexographic inks and may also increase the spreading of the ink on the surface. As a result, stable modified polyacrylate-based latex with improved physico-mechanical properties were obtained. The prepared latexes were showed improving and enhancing in water resistance; gloss values, and the print density that ranged from 2.06 to 2.51 and the maximum gloss values (39 and 48) were also obtained. Also, these binders provide excellent adhesion properties for both the pigment particles and the base paper.

Practical implications

This study focuses on the preparation of new water-based copolymer nanoparticles and their use as eco-friendly binders for flexographic ink industry.

Social implications

The ink formulations developed could find use in industrial-scale printing.

Originality/value

Eco-friendly environment ink formulations for printing on paper substrates are novel.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 49 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 20 October 2021

Ali A. Ali, Maha Mohammed Elsawy, Salem S. Salem, Ahmed A. El-Henawy and Hamada Abd El-Wahab

Paper aims to preparation of new acid disperse dyes based on thiadiazol derivatives and evaluation of their use as antimicrobial colorants in digital transfer-printing ink…

Abstract

Purpose

Paper aims to preparation of new acid disperse dyes based on thiadiazol derivatives and evaluation of their use as antimicrobial colorants in digital transfer-printing ink formulations for printing onto polyester fabric substrates.

Design/methodology/approach

New disperse dyes based on 1,3,4 - thiadiazol derivative (dyes 1–3) were prepared and evaluated by different analysis then formulated as colored materials in the ink formulations. The viscosity, dynamic surface tension and particle size distribution of the prepared inks were measured. The printed polyester fabric substrates were tested using a variety of tests, including light fastness, washing, alkali perspiration and Crock fastness, as well as depth of penetration. Density-functional theory (DFT) calculations were carried out at the Becke3-Lee-Yang-parr (B3LYP) level using the 6–311** basis set, and the biological activity of the prepared disperse dyes was investigated.

Findings

The obtained results of the physical of the prepared ink revealed that thiadiazol disperse ink is a promising ink formulation for polyester printing and agrees with the quality of the printed polyester fabric. The optimization geometry for molecular structures agreed with the analysis of these compounds. The HOMO/LUMO and energy gap of the studied system were discussed. The molecular docking analysis showed strong interaction with DNA Gyrase and demonstrated to us the high ability of these inks to act as antimicrobial agents.

Practical implications

The prepared inks containing the prepared thiadiazol disperse dye were high-performance and suitable for this type of printing technique, according to the results. The prepared inks resist the growth of microorganisms and thus increase the ink's storage stability.

Originality/value

The prepared disperse dyes based on 1,3,4 - thiadiazol derivative (dyes 1–3) can be a promising colorant in different applications, like some types of paint formulations and as a colorant in printing of different fabric substrates.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 August 2019

Abdelrahman Moukhtar Naser, Hamada Abd El - Wahab, Mohamed Abd El Fattah Moustafa El Nady, Abdelzaher E.A. Mostafa, Long Lin and Ahmed Galal Sakr

This paper aims to investigate the best methods of utilisation of reclaimed asphalt pavements (RAP) in Egypt, to determine the effect of using 100% RAP instead of using…

145

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the best methods of utilisation of reclaimed asphalt pavements (RAP) in Egypt, to determine the effect of using 100% RAP instead of using virgin aggregates and asphalt; investigate the effect of thermoplastic elastomer polymer as asphalt modifier; and also improve the mechanical and physical characteristics and consequently improving the quality of asphalt paving, increasing service life of asphalt-paving and reducing costs.

Design/methodology/approach

Nano acrylate terpolymers were prepared with different % (Wt.) of and were characterised by Fourier transforms infrared (FTIR), for molecular weight (Mw), by thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) and by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A 4% (Wt.) of the prepared nanoemulsion terpolymer was mixed with virgin asphalt as a polymer modifier, to improve and reuse of the RAP. The modified binder was tested. The tests conducted include penetration, kinematic viscosity, softening point and specific gravity. Application of Marshall mix design types; hot mix asphalt (HMA), warm mix asphalt (WMA) and cold in place recycled (CIR). Four different mix designs used; control mix contained virgin asphalt by HMA, and the other three mix designs were polymermodified asphalt sample by HMA, WMA and CIR.

Findings

The research results showed that using 4 Wt.% of the prepared nanoemulsion terpolymer to produce hot mix asphalt (HMA) and warm mix asphalt (WMA) achieved higher stability compared to the control mix and cold in place recycled (CIR).

Research limitations/implications

This paper discusses the preparation and the characterisation of nanoemulsion and its application in RAPs to enhance and improve the RAP quality.

Practical implications

Nano-acrylate terpolymer can be used as a new polymer to modify asphalt to achieve the required specifications for RAP.

Originality/value

According to the most recent surveys, Europe produced 265 tonnes of asphalt for road applications in 2014, while the amount of available RAP was more than 50 tonnes. The use of RAP in new blended mixes reduces the need of neat asphalt, making RAP recycling economically attractive.

Article
Publication date: 13 May 2020

H. Abd El-Wahab, G.A. Meligi, M.G. Hassaan and L. Lin

The purpose of this study is to prepare, characterise and evaluate nano-emulsions of ter-polymers of various compositions as eco-friendly binders for flexographic ink industry.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to prepare, characterise and evaluate nano-emulsions of ter-polymers of various compositions as eco-friendly binders for flexographic ink industry.

Design/methodology/approach

Various nano-emulsions of ter-polymers were prepared based on Vinyl acetate, Vinyl Versatate, butyl acrylate, acrylic acid and acrylamide monomers by means of a conventional seeded emulsion polymerisation technique, using K2S2O8 as the initiator. The characterisation of the prepared emulsions was performed using Fourier transform infrared, thermo-gravimetric analysis, gel permeation chromatography and transmission electron microscopy. A selection of co-polymers and ter-polymers were formulated with pigments and additional ingredients, as water-based flexographic inks. The inks were characterised for their rheological properties, pH, degree of dispersion, water-resistance and colour density.

Findings

It was found that the low viscosity of the prepared polymers may reduce the film thickness of the flexographic inks and may also increase the spreading of the ink on the surface. As a result, stable modified poly acrylate-based latex with improved physico-mechanical properties was obtained. The prepared latexes showed improved properties such as enhanced thermal stability and better water resistance. The effect of the emulsifier type on the properties of the resulting emulsion latexes and their corresponding films were investigated. Also, as the hydrophobic monomer increases, so does the colour density and increasing the binder ratio enhances the gloss values. The improving in gloss values were obtained and provide excellent adhesion properties for both the pigment particles and the base paper.

Research limitations/implications

The study focusses on the preparation of new water-based ter-polymer nano-particles and their use as eco-friendly binders for flexographic ink industry. Ink formulations based on other different type emulsion polymers could also be studied to assess the applicability of the ink formulation system found for other binders.

Practical implications

The ink formulations developed could find use in industrial-scale printing.

Originality/value

Eco-friendly environment and low-cost ink formulations for printing on paper substrates are novel.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 49 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

1 – 10 of 42