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Article
Publication date: 2 January 2018

Andrew Allan Johnson, Guy Bingham and Candice Majewski

The purpose of this paper is to establish the minimum thickness required to provide stab protection in accordance with the United Kingdom Home Office Scientific…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to establish the minimum thickness required to provide stab protection in accordance with the United Kingdom Home Office Scientific Development Branch (HOSDB) standards while testing a series of laser sintered (LS) planar specimens using instrumented test apparatus.

Design/methodology/approach

Planar test specimens were LS in single-layer thicknesses ranging from 1.00 to 15.00 mm in four material powder categories – DuraForm® virgin, DuraForm 50/50 mix, DuraForm EX® virgin and DuraForm EX 50/50 mix. All specimens were tested using instrumented drop test apparatus and were impacted with established Stanley Tools 1992 trimming blades to the UK HOSDB KR1-E1 stab impact energy level.

Findings

The research demonstrated that a minimum single planar specimen thickness of 11.00 mm, manufactured from DuraForm EX 50/50 mix powder, was required to provide protection against the HOSDB KR1-E1 level of stab impact energy. The alternative powder mixes tested within this experiment demonstrated poor levels of stab protection, with virgin powder specimens demonstrating no protection up to 15.00 mm, whereas DuraForm 50/50 mix specimens demonstrating inconsistent performances.

Originality/value

This paper enhances on existing literature surrounding the manufacturing and testing of additive manufacturing (AM) stab-resistant armour by adding further rigour to the testing of AM body armour specimens. In addition, this research establishes key foundation characteristics which could be utilised for the future development of bespoke AM body armour garments.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 24 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

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Article
Publication date: 7 June 2013

Guy A. Bingham and Richard Hague

The purpose of this paper is to investigate, develop and validate a three‐dimensional modelling strategy for the efficient generation of conformal textile data suitable…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate, develop and validate a three‐dimensional modelling strategy for the efficient generation of conformal textile data suitable for additive manufacture.

Design/methodology/approach

A series of additive manufactured (AM) textiles samples were modelled using currently available computer‐aided design software to understand the limitations associated with the generation of conformal data. Results of the initial three‐dimensional modelling processes informed the exploration and development of a new dedicated efficient modelling strategy that was tested to understand its capabilities.

Findings

The research demonstrates the dramatically improved capabilities of the developed three‐dimensional modelling strategy, over existing approaches by accurately mapping complex geometries described as STL data to a mapping mesh without distortion and correctly matching the orientation and surface normal.

Originality/value

To date the generation of data for AM textiles has been seen as a manual and time‐consuming process. The research presents a new dedicated methodology for the efficient generation of complex and conformal AM textile data that will underpin further research in this area.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 19 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

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Article
Publication date: 19 April 2013

Andrew Johnson, Guy A. Bingham and David I. Wimpenny

The purpose of this paper is to ascertain the stab resistance characteristics of a series of planar and articulated laser sintered (LS) samples, in accordance with the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to ascertain the stab resistance characteristics of a series of planar and articulated laser sintered (LS) samples, in accordance with the United Kingdom Home Office Scientific Development Branch (HOSDB) Body Armour Standard – Publication 39/07.

Design/methodology/approach

A series of LS planar samples were manufactured using an EOS P100 Formiga system, manufactured from 100 per cent virgin or a 50:50 mix of recycled and virgin Nylon (PA2200), ranging in thickness from 1‐10 mm. All planar samples were stab tested to the HOSDB knife‐resistance (KR) level one impact energy of 24 Joules, using an in‐house manufactured HOSDB guided rail drop test impact rig and standardised knives. Penetration through the underside of each sample was measured and recorded. These results were then used to develop an articulated, additive manufactured (AM) scale textile – LS from a 50:50 mix of recycled and virgin PA2200 powder. These samples were then tested using the aforementioned impact rig and stab impact energy.

Findings

The research demonstrated that while virgin PA2200 sample required a minimum thickness of 8 mm to achieve stab‐resistance below the HOSDB maximum penetration limit of 7 mm, this figure can be reduced to 5.6 mm when manufacturing LS planar samples from a 50:50 mix of virgin and recycled PA2200. Results from stab testing the articulated samples indicated a successful AM textile‐like design, with a maximum knife penetration of 1.6 mm – below the 7 mm HOSDB limit.

Originality/value

The paper describes a unique application of AM technologies for the manufacture of high‐performance stab resistant AM textiles.

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Article
Publication date: 20 April 2015

Abby Megan Paterson, Richard Bibb, R. Ian Campbell and Guy Bingham

– The purpose of this paper is to compare four different additive manufacturing (AM) processes to assess their suitability in the context of upper extremity splinting.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to compare four different additive manufacturing (AM) processes to assess their suitability in the context of upper extremity splinting.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper describes the design characteristics and subsequent fabrication of six different wrist splints using four different AM processes: laser sintering (LS), fused deposition modelling (FDM), stereolithography (SLA) and polyjet material jetting via Objet Connex. The suitability of each process was then compared against competing designs and processes from traditional splinting. The splints were created using a digital design workflow that combined recognised clinical best practice with design for AM principles.

Findings

Research concluded that, based on currently available technology, FDM was considered the least suitable AM process for upper extremity splinting. LS, SLA and material jetting show promise for future applications, but further research and development into AM processes, materials and splint design optimisation is required if the full potential is to be realised.

Originality/value

Unlike previous work that has applied AM processes to replicate traditional splint designs, the splints described are based on a digital design for AM workflow, incorporating novel features and physical properties not previously possible in clinical splinting. The benefits of AM for customised splint fabrication have been summarised. A range of AM processes have also been evaluated for splinting, exposing the limitations of existing technology, demonstrating novel and advantageous design features and opportunities for future research.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 21 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

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Article
Publication date: 17 October 2016

Romeo V. Turcan and Anita Juho

The extant research on early internationalizing ventures focuses primarily on these ventures’ start-up phase or their initial internationalization. Scarce attention is…

Abstract

Purpose

The extant research on early internationalizing ventures focuses primarily on these ventures’ start-up phase or their initial internationalization. Scarce attention is paid to how these ventures grow, if at all, beyond their start-up phase or initial internationalization phase. This paper aims to explore how international new ventures transition from the internationalizing phase to the phase of being international, and whether they actually made it to that phase. Understanding whether and how these ventures reach their “made-it” point would contribute to our understanding of how early internationalization affects a venture’s survival and growth. In this, the authors draw on the dynamic capability theory of the firm.

Design/methodology/approach

Given the scarcity of theoretical understanding and empirical evidence in this substantive area of research, the authors adopted a multiple case study methodology for the purpose of theory building. Following an intensity sampling strategy, they purposefully selected information-rich, but not extreme two-case companies. The authors initially collected unobtrusive data in the form of running records and mass-media news reports from the inception of the case companies. They then conducted in-depth interviews with key decision makers of the case companies, namely, their co-founders and CEOs. Critical incident technique guidelines for data analysis were employed.

Findings

Grounded in data, the following constructs emerged related to value creation: strategic experimentation, gestalt tensions and legitimacy lies. Entrepreneurs experiment with and reconfigure their venture at several levels: goal (vision), decision (strategic) and behavioral (tactical) levels of the organizational gestalt to reach a threshold level of practiced activity. Entrepreneurs’ strategic experimentation efforts are fueled by tensions that exist at these three levels of the organizational gestalt. During this experimentation process, entrepreneurs may tell legitimacy lies to legitimate their ventures in the eyes of their stakeholders.

Research limitations/implications

Given the instrument the authors used to explore the issues and concerns identified above, the results are limited in scope. However, a number of questions and conjectures are put forward to guide future research in this currently under-researched area of international entrepreneurship. The authors have also suggested using the concept of turning point in future research to advance the understanding of the dynamic capability view of international new ventures.

Practical implications

Understanding whether and how international new ventures reach their made-it points would contribute to the understanding of how early internationalization affects international new ventures’ organizational survival and growth.

Originality/value

The authors have put forward the concept of the made-it point to aid international entrepreneurship researchers to investigate the continued growth, evolutionary patterns and the organizational survival of international new ventures.

Details

Competitiveness Review, vol. 26 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1059-5422

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1973

John Brightman, R. Boyfield and F.J. Fielding

December 20, 1972 Industrial relations — Unfair dismissal — Employee semi skilled sheet metal worker — Refusal by employee to do pipe bending without additional payment …

Abstract

December 20, 1972 Industrial relations — Unfair dismissal — Employee semi skilled sheet metal worker — Refusal by employee to do pipe bending without additional payment — Employers' custom of negotiation with employees for bonus rates — Dismissal of employee without adequate negotiation — Whether unfair dismissal — Industrial Relations Act, 1971 (c.72), s. 24 (1), (2), (6).

Details

Managerial Law, vol. 14 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0558

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Book part
Publication date: 13 May 2017

Sara E. Green and Shawn C. Bingham

In this chapter, we examine narratives of inclusion and exclusion told by professional performers with lifelong impairments who are successfully leading “inclusive” lives…

Abstract

In this chapter, we examine narratives of inclusion and exclusion told by professional performers with lifelong impairments who are successfully leading “inclusive” lives in order to bring their voices and experiences to the attention of academics, educators, policy makers, and service providers. We draw on stories told during in-depth interviews with 10 disabled comedians conducted as part of a larger project on the complex seemingly paradoxical relationship between disability and humor. We take an interpretive approach to our data collection and analysis consistent with principles of the emancipatory tradition in disability studies. These performers clearly value the inclusive childhoods their families provided. As children, they were educated in inclusive settings and participated in a wide variety of activities – often centering on the performing arts. Their rich and varied experiences (even the negative ones) have provided both fuel for performance and confidence to push back against attempts by others to exclude them from social and professional life in the everyday world. Their inclusive childhoods, however, are not entirely without a downside. In many cases, they did not develop a sense of disability pride, or even a disability identity, until they had opportunities to interact with others who have impairments during the transition to adulthood. For children raised in more inclusive settings, a conscious effort to provide opportunities to engage with other children and adults with impairments may be an important adjunct to inclusion.

Details

Working with Families for Inclusive Education
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-260-2

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Article
Publication date: 18 October 2018

Sara Rolando and Franca Beccaria

The purpose of this paper is to analyse dynamics amongst members to better understand in what terms and to what extent marketplace forums can be seen as new forms of harm…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyse dynamics amongst members to better understand in what terms and to what extent marketplace forums can be seen as new forms of harm reduction.

Design/methodology/approach

This is a qualitative analysis focused on conversations about psychoactive substances on the forum community of AlphaBay Market. A sample consists of 100 online threads. The data, collected in July 2016, were analysed by applying the grounded theory approach with the support of Atlas.ti.

Findings

Conversations in the marketplace forum focus mostly on the purchase. Concerns and disputes are voiced in a significant proportion of them, and interactions are affected by a climate of distrust where stigmatisation processes can emerge between users of different drug categories. This casts a certain amount of doubt on the thesis that marketplace forums – like online forums – are new forms of harm reduction and peer-led communities.

Research limitations/implications

The study focuses on only one marketplace forum. Other such forums should be analysed to corroborate its findings.

Practical implications

Harm reduction interventions in the online environment should take different form according to the forum type, and take the differences and boundaries that separate users of different substances into account.

Originality/value

Thanks to its infrequently used qualitative approach, the study provides a more thorough understanding of the relationships on marketplace forums.

Details

Drugs and Alcohol Today, vol. 18 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1745-9265

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Book part
Publication date: 4 October 2019

Stephan Manning

This chapter examines key drivers of variation in adaptive capacity of project network organizations (PNOs). PNOs are defined as strategically coordinated sets of…

Abstract

This chapter examines key drivers of variation in adaptive capacity of project network organizations (PNOs). PNOs are defined as strategically coordinated sets of longer-term, yet project-based relationships, which provide for both stability and change in volatile project businesses. While prior research has emphasized the adaptive role of flexible structures and agency, the author focuses on the role of project variety and contextual embedding and disembedding in building adaptive capacity. Comparing two PNOs in TV movie production, the author argues that differences in adaptive capacity are a function of inter-context connectivity, that is, the level of task and team linkages among diverse project contexts, and the degree to which network ties and relational practices have “dual quality” in being valuable both within and beyond specific project contexts. Findings have important implications for project, network, and organization research.

Details

Managing Inter-organizational Collaborations: Process Views
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-592-0

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Article
Publication date: 13 December 2017

Joanne Pransky

The following paper is a “Q&A interview” conducted by Joanne Pransky of Industrial Robot Journal as a method to impart the combined technological, business and personal…

Abstract

Purpose

The following paper is a “Q&A interview” conducted by Joanne Pransky of Industrial Robot Journal as a method to impart the combined technological, business and personal experience of a prominent, robotic industry engineer-turned successful innovator and leader, regarding the challenges of bringing technological discoveries to fruition. This paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

The interviewee is Mel Torrie, CEO and President of Autonomous Solutions, Inc. (ASI). ASI manufactures an OEM/vendor independent software and hardware solution retrofitted to existing equipment to create a wide variety of fully autonomous vehicles spanning agriculture, mining, automotive, industrial cleaning, security and government/military applications. In this interview, Torrie shares how he first got started in the robotics field along with his experiences in running his ground-breaking startup.

Findings

In 1999, Torrie received a Master’s Degree in Electrical Engineering at Utah State University (USU) where he worked on two National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) space shuttle payloads. After his work at USU, he managed robotics development programs for John Deere, the US Department of Defense and the US Department of Energy. He founded ASI, a spin-off of the Center of Self Organizing and Intelligent Systems (CSOIS) at USU, in 2000.

Originality/value

Torrie was a pioneer and visionary who bootstrapped ASI from the beginning. Under Torrie’s leadership, ASI raised over $85m in a unique business model where there is no equity but only strategic partners. These foremost companies are given exclusive rights to their vertical market and jointly own their industry’s driverless vehicle’s intellectual property (IP) with ASI. The vehicles are developed and tested at ASI’s 100-acre proving ground facility in Utah. To date, ASI’s more than 100 employees and their business partners have automated 75 different vehicle types and ASI continues to create new markets. Some of ASI’s notable installations include the Bingham Canyon Mine clean-up effort; BatCat, the teleoperated CAT telehandler for the Los Angeles Police Department; and the robotic durability testing program with Ford Motors, Toyota, Fiat Chrysler Automotive, Hyundai, General Motors as well as other private proving grounds.

Details

Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 45 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

Keywords

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