A precise and rapid temperature cycling of a small volume of fluid is vital for an effective DNA replication process using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The purpose of this paper is to study the velocity and temperature fields inside a rotating PCR‐tube during cooling of the enclosed liquid.
The velocity and temperature fields inside a rotating PCR‐tube during cooling of the enclosed liquid are studied. By using computational fluid dynamics, the time development of the flow can be investigated in detail. Owing to the rotation, the flow exhibits features which could never arise in a non‐rotating system.
An intricate azimuthal boundary layer flow is presented and explained. The inherent problem of stratification of the temperature is discussed, and different methods towards a remedy are presented. By analyzing the governing equations, some properties of the flow observed in the simulations are explained. It is shown that increasing the rate of rotation does not improve temperature homogenization.
The simulations were performed for a limited number of temperature boundary conditions, as well as a specific simulation geometry.
The analytical and simulation results offer fundamental insight into the physics behind increased DNA duplication. Further simulations offer possible design improvements.
While many studies have probed the effects of buoyancy in rotating cylinders and the development of boundary layers in stratified flows in conical containers rotating around their axis of symmetry, little work has been specifically focused on the case where the axis of rotation is normal to the direction of the stratification, which is the case in the present study.
The purpose of the paper is to develop a methodology to characterize the rheological behaviour of macroscopic non-Brownian suspensions, like solder paste, based on…
The purpose of the paper is to develop a methodology to characterize the rheological behaviour of macroscopic non-Brownian suspensions, like solder paste, based on microstructural evolution.
A structure-based kinetics model, whose parameters are derived analytically based on assumptions valid for any macroscopic suspension, is developed to describe the rheological behaviour of a given fluid. The values of the parameters are then determined based on experiments conducted at a constant shear rate. The parameter values, obtained from the model, are then adjusted using an optimization algorithm using the mean deviation from experiments as the cost function to replicate the measured rheology. A commercially available solder paste is used as the test fluid for the proposed method.
The initial parameter values obtained through the analytical model indicates a structural breakdown that is much slower than observations. But optimizing the parameter values, especially the ones associated with the structural breakdown, replicates the thixotropic behaviour of the solder paste reasonably well, but it fails to capture the structure build-up during the three interval thixotropy test.
The structural kinetics model tends to under-predict the structure build-up rate.
This study details a more realistic prediction of the rheological behaviour of macroscopic suspensions like solder paste, thermal interface materials and other functional materials. The proposed model can be used to characterize different solder pastes and other functional fluids based on the structure build-up and breakdown rates. The model can also be used as the viscosity definitions in numerical simulations instead of simpler models like Carreau–Yasuda and cross-viscosity models.
The rheological description of the solder paste is critical in determining its validity for a given application. The methodology described in the paper provides a better description of thixotropy without relying on the existing rheological measurements or the behaviour predicted by a standard power-law model. The proposed model can also provide transient viscosity predictions when shear rates vary in time.