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Article

Harold M. Otness

To the making of guidebooks, there is apparently no end. Books in Print 1978–1980 lists 54 guide‐books to New York City, 39 to France, 32 to Mexico, and 22 to Hawaii, and…

Abstract

To the making of guidebooks, there is apparently no end. Books in Print 1978–1980 lists 54 guide‐books to New York City, 39 to France, 32 to Mexico, and 22 to Hawaii, and that may be only the tip of the iceberg because many guidebooks are locally produced and sold without the benefit of a BIP listing. Others are produced for sale only in the countries they cover and are not ordinarily available through the book trade in the United States. As a more or less regular reviewer of travel books for Library Journal for several years, I have been amazed by the number and variety of guidebooks that pour forth every season. There are guidebooks to virtually every place on the face of the earth, and guidebooks directed at every imaginable category of traveler.

Details

Reference Services Review, vol. 8 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0090-7324

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Article

Leopold Lucas

Starting from the hypothesis of an ordinary/extraordinary tension that drives the link between tourist places and non-tourist places, this paper discusses the issue of…

Abstract

Purpose

Starting from the hypothesis of an ordinary/extraordinary tension that drives the link between tourist places and non-tourist places, this paper discusses the issue of tourist spatial delimitations. Rather than take such an issue for granted, the paper argues that the author needs to understand how the different actors within the tourism system create specific delimitations and how tourists deal with these delimitations. To pinpoint these tourist spatial delimitations, this paper considers three types of discourses: the discourse of local promoters, the discourse of guidebooks and the discourse of tourists. The purpose of this paper is to explain not only the tourist delimitations established by these actors but also the concordance between the guidebooks’ prescriptions, the public actors’ strategies and the tourists’ practices. In this empirical investigation, the author uses the case of Los Angeles and focuses more specifically on the two main tourist places within the agglomeration: Hollywood and Santa Monica. The argument supports the idea that political actors tend to develop what the author could consider a tourist secession, as the author tends to precisely delimit the designated area for the sake of efficiency. Guidebooks, which the author must consider because they are true and strong prescribers of tourist practices, draw their own tourist neighbourhoods. Finally, most tourists in Los Angeles conform to these delimitations and do not venture off the beaten track.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper examines three types of discourses: the discourse of local tourism promoters, the discourse of tourist guidebooks and the discourse of tourists. The purpose of the study is to explain not only the tourist delimitations established by these actors but also the concordance between the guidebooks’ prescriptions, the public actors’ strategies and the tourists’ practices. To conduct this analysis, this paper relied on an empirical survey (Lucas, 2014b) whose methodology used a range of different techniques. First, interviews with Convention and Visitors Bureau managers were performed to understand the delimitations established by the institutional actors directly in charge of the tourist development of those places. Second, the second kind of discourse considered here is that in guidebooks. Los Angeles is often included in guidebooks about California in general, albeit with a much shorter number of pages. Although all guidebooks were considered, the study mostly focused on those specifically dedicated to Los Angeles (Time Out, Rough Guide and Lonely Planet) to conduct a thick analysis of their discourses and to note the spatial delimitations that they established. The author must regard guidebooks as the prescribers of practices because they represent a source of information for tourists. The aim is to determine how tourists follow – or do not follow – the recommendations of guidebooks. Third, to understand these practices, the paper considers numerous interviews (approximately seventy) conducted with tourists.

Findings

Thus, in these two examples, the author has distinguished powerful delimitations of the tourist places created by promoters through their discourse, which provides information on how they promote the place through urban planning. This tourist staging, and all the specific processing of the place, contributes to a clear distinction between these places and the rest of the urban environment, allowing a very precise definition. The distinction is made from one street to another. However, these delimitations are mainly defined by the practices of the tourists: they have a very selective way of dealing with the public space of the two places concerned. They validate, update and thus make relevant the limits established by the institutional operators, sometimes performing even stricter operations of delimitation. This way of dealing with space is observed in the urban planning and in the discourses on the tourist places expressed in the guidebooks. There are no tactics to bypass, divert and subvert the spatial configuration settled by local authorities and guidebooks; tourists do not attempt to discover new places or to go off the beaten track (Maitland and Newman, 2009). Yet, this is not the only explanation for the way in which tourists occupy a place. Although the guidebooks perform the operations of delimitation and rank places (insisting on one place over another and highlighting what should be seen, where to go, etc.), they also exhaustively present the practices that one can perform, and how tourists deal with space either hints at their disregard of these tools or at individuals’ selection based on the information given. In Hollywood, as in Santa Monica, while the guidebooks exhaustively enumerate the numerous sites that might be interesting for tourist practices, the author observes a very important and discriminating concentration of these tourist practices within a precisely delimited perimeter, respectively, the Walk of Fame and the Ocean Front Walk: tourists walk from one street to another and from a full to an empty space. Thus, the author can support the idea that how tourists cope with space are temporary, delimited by highly targeted practices and restricted only to a few tourist places.

Originality/value

What about the ordinary/extraordinary dialectic? Most tourists do not look for something ordinary; yet, the entirety of what could be considered as “extraordinary” in one metropolis is not included in its tourism space. On the contrary, tourist places can also be seen as “ordinary.” Nevertheless, there is clearly a distinction observed through the discourses, but also in the practices, between an “inside” and an “outside” and between something extraordinary and one’s ordinary environment. One can interpret this result as an actual confirmation of the classic combination (tourist/sight/marker) that constitutes a “tourist attraction” (MacCannell, 1976, p. 44), which concerns a very specific way of dealing with space in Los Angeles. Tourists do not practice Los Angeles as the author might assume that they would typically practice other metropolises, e.g. strolling down the streets randomly. The two places examined in this paper are open to that kind of practice. One can consider that these places have a higher degree of urbanity than the average area of Los Angeles precisely because there are tourists. The density in terms of buildings is (relatively) more important and accompanied by a narrative construction of the urban space (the historic dimension of the buildings), and the public space has undergone specific urban planning and given special consideration, at least greater consideration than elsewhere. In these places, the author finds a concentration of population – the metropolitan crowd – that is otherwise very rare in Los Angeles. However, the tourists seem to have a limited interest in these attractions. These classic characteristics of urbanity do not seem to be regarded positively by a certain number of tourists and are not taken into consideration by tourists. This observation contrasts somewhat with the idea that dwelling touristically in a metropolis primarily entails the discovery of its urbanity (Equipe MIT, 2005). Discovering Los Angeles does not consist of experiencing the local society and of exploring the urban space but, rather, of performing specific practices in Los Angeles (seeing the Hollywood sign and the Stars and walking along the famous beaches). Two approaches can help us understand this gap: considering Los Angeles as a specific case or considering that the spatial configuration of Los Angeles enables us to bring out the logic at work in other metropolises but that would be too complex to distinguish here. Perhaps, the author finds both elements, and this reflection must invite the author to continue the discussion on the logic of tourists’ practice of metropolises: are they really looking for a maximal urbanity during their metropolitan experiences?

Details

International Journal of Tourism Cities, vol. 5 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-5607

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Book part

Miha Koderman and Anton Gosar

This chapter analyzes the recent increase in tourists traveling from Asia to South Central Europe. The work specifically examines the cross cultural communication about…

Abstract

This chapter analyzes the recent increase in tourists traveling from Asia to South Central Europe. The work specifically examines the cross cultural communication about religious works of art in popular guidebooks. Since tourism represents a widespread global phenomenon, the guidebook descriptions of religious contents should be objective and accessible for all potential users/tourists, regardless of their cultural, historical, religious, and ethnic background. The analyses of the description of four Catholic cathedrals in South Central Europe in 12 well-known guidebooks demonstrates that the in-depth religious explanations in the literature published in English are minimal and arguably inadequate for the growing Asian market.

Details

The World Meets Asian Tourists
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-219-1

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Article

Russell R. Currie, Tamara Campbell‐Trant and Sheilagh Seaton

The authors of this paper examine the role of the guidebook as a symbol and the implications of symbols in relation to tourist behaviors. The objective of the researchers…

Abstract

Purpose

The authors of this paper examine the role of the guidebook as a symbol and the implications of symbols in relation to tourist behaviors. The objective of the researchers is to determine if guidebooks act as a symbol for group identity within the backpacker community.

Design/methodology/approach

The researchers conducted ten in‐depth interviews in a Halifax youth hostel in Nova Scotia to collect data for analysis. The data obtained in this study is analyzed through a thematic analysis that involved grouping background information with the data that related to each criterion for a symbol.

Findings

From the analysis of information obtained from the eight respondents, guidebooks accomplish three functions equivalent to the three criteria of symbols: facilitating communication, providing the basis for attitude development and acceptable modes of behavior, and facilitating collaboration and conformity of the group.

Research limitations/implications

There are several limitations to this study that includes sample size, location, and time restrictions. Consequently, generalization of results beyond the specifics of this sample is limited.

Originality/value

The subculture of backpackers is able to survive because the social interaction within the backpacker community preserves and develops the meaning of symbols. An examination into the symbolic meanings held by backpackers provides implications in predicting backpacker behaviors and destination marketing.

Details

International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, vol. 5 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6182

Keywords

Abstract

Details

Land Use and Transport
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-08-044891-6

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Article

Roger Bennett and Jim Oliver

Action Research is increasingly being used on many education and training programmes. As an approach that focuses research on live issues in order to take action, it fits…

Abstract

Action Research is increasingly being used on many education and training programmes. As an approach that focuses research on live issues in order to take action, it fits well with action learning. Experience shows, however, that careful consideration needs to be given to selecting, designing and implementing projects. This Guidebook helps the would‐be action researcher to do this. It is part text and part workbook, covering the need for and use of action research, explaining the essential features and pitfalls, and indicating ways in which action research can be developed and put to work. The use of checklists, action plans and examples makes it an effective means of helping to produce a good action research project for those undertaking action oriented learning programmes. It results in a statement of the project, methods, opportunities, learning benefits and further developments. A list of further readings is provided for those who wish to go more deeply into the concepts and ideas underpinning action research, action learning and related matters.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 9 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

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Article

Peter E. Swift and Alvin Hwang

This paper seeks to present organizational learning processes of knowledge accumulation, articulation, codification and subsequent routine development in a marketing…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to present organizational learning processes of knowledge accumulation, articulation, codification and subsequent routine development in a marketing services organization where judgment and rules of thumb were more the norm than codified knowledge and explicit routines. The case illustrates how organizational learning through a conscious knowledge codification effort could lead to tangible benefits for consumer‐driven organizations and how heterogeneous and infrequent yet important routines can be aided by an explicit and dynamic learning process.

Design/methodology/approach

After a review of the relevant literature, a case is provided to illustrate many of the key concepts in the organizational learning literature as they are applied to a consumer package goods company.

Findings

The case study is followed by a discussion of how the organization in the case applied organizational learning processes through a knowledge clarification and codification system. The organizational learning process was enabled by contextual enablers such as leadership commitment to organizational learning, teamwork and organization‐wide participation in the knowledge articulation and codification processes, and multi‐lateral flow of information across the organization in developing the routines.

Practical implications

Implications of how companies in market‐oriented environments that often have nuanced practices and uncodified norms could utilize various organizational learning processes are discussed in the paper.

Originality/value

It is rare in the field of organizational learning to see the application of numerous learning theories in one place and one organization. Such was the case in this examination, where different roles played by different organizational components, such as support from leadership, teamwork and flexibility, organization‐wide participation, and multilateral communication, in addition to knowledge accumulation, articulation, codification, and circular learning loops were utililzed by the organization to produce marketplace success for a major consumer battery company with heterogeneous and nuanced yet important learning requirements.

Details

The Learning Organization, vol. 15 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-6474

Keywords

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Article

Hee Youn Kim and Ji‐Hwan Yoon

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the Korea tourism brand image in a popular tour guidebook, Lonely Planet Korea and to provide an objective insight for examining…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the Korea tourism brand image in a popular tour guidebook, Lonely Planet Korea and to provide an objective insight for examining destination image.

Design/methodology/approach

To achieve this goal, this study used content analysis to analyze the Korea tourism brand image.

Findings

Overall, 200,435 words were selected. The frequency of words was highly related to transportation and famous attractions. Moreover, to evaluate the value of the Korea tourism brand image, only adjectives in context were extracted. In total, 2,716 adjectives in each category were examined. The Korea tourism brand image was positive in that “good” adjectives were the most frequently selected. Furthermore, value properties based on The Lasswell Value Dictionary were examined. The value of words also supported the results of the content analysis of adjectives. The results of correspondence analysis found that the “outdoor” category was separately positioned with “old” adjectives.

Practical implications

Based on the results of content analysis by category, selected adjectives reflected current Korean tourism and hospitality problems.

Originality/value

The paper suggests implications that can be used to improve the Korea tourism brand image.

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Article

Brendan Luyt

Given Wikipedia’s size and importance to the world’s information infrastructure, it can be forgotten that there exists under the same Wikimedia Foundation umbrella, a…

Abstract

Purpose

Given Wikipedia’s size and importance to the world’s information infrastructure, it can be forgotten that there exists under the same Wikimedia Foundation umbrella, a number of other volunteer wikis producing information on a variety of topics and subjects. Little research has been conducted on these offshoots. In this article I examine one of the earliest of these efforts, Wikivoyage, a free wiki-based travel guidebook.

Design/methodology/approach

I examine the content of Wikivoyage’s articles on the temples of Angkor, Siem Reap (the tourist gateway to the temples), the introductory page for the country of Cambodia as a whole and a sample of regional Cambodian entries. Textual and discourse analysis is the foundation of this work.

Findings

The findings suggest that although Wikivoyage is not currently an exemplar of alternative tourism discourses, it certainly has potential. But that potential can only be realized if those interested in contributing to the site alternative perspectives and discourses take up the task in a sensitive manner and in accordance with the developing editing culture.

Originality/value

While conceding that Wikivoyage is currently unlikely to monopolize the guidebook market anytime soon, it is still important to study this social phenomenon both for its own intrinsic interest and to assess its potential for a more enlightened and transformative tourism.

Peer review

The peer review history for this article is available at: https://publons.com/publon/10.1108/OIR-03-2020-0104

Details

Online Information Review, vol. 45 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1468-4527

Keywords

Content available

Abstract

Details

International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management, vol. 1 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-8692

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