Search results

1 – 10 of 23
Content available

Abstract

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 42 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article

Zhang Yuan, Guanghua Wan and Niny Khor

Using official and household survey data, the purpose of this paper is to analyze the size of middle class in rural China, its trend and geographical distribution…

Abstract

Purpose

Using official and household survey data, the purpose of this paper is to analyze the size of middle class in rural China, its trend and geographical distribution. Determinants or drivers of changes in the size of middle class are explored.

Design/methodology/approach

An absolute definition of middle class, adjusted by rural purchasing power parity (PPP) and spatial price index, is employed to measure the size and geographic distribution of rural middle class in 1988, 1995, 2002, and 2007. Biprobit models and OLS models are estimated to investigate the determinants and consumption behavior of middle class in rural China.

Findings

Major findings include: in 2007, as many as 398 million rural residents or almost 54 percent of China's rural population belonged to the middle class; the size estimate of China's rural middle class based on income is broadly consistent with that based on assets; factors enhancing the probability of a household entering the middle class include human capital, political capital and non‐farming employment while industrialization, urbanization and development of TVEs also play significant roles; and the middle class not only consume more, but also consume more durables.

Research limitations/implications

A limitation of the paper is the use of 2002 data. However, more recent data are not available.

Originality/value

The size of the middle‐class is crucial for the stability of China, and the growth of the middle class in rural China is crucial for rebalancing the Chinese and global economy. Thus, the measurement results, the identified drivers, and the consumption behavior of rural middle class revealed in this paper can help shed light on nurturing middle class and adjusting development strategy for China to achieve a more sustainable and balanced economic growth.

Details

China Agricultural Economic Review, vol. 4 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-137X

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article

Haitao Wu, Shijun Ding and Guanghua Wan

The purpose of this paper is to apply a poverty level decomposition approach to decompose the poverty by income sources and investigate the impact of government transfers…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to apply a poverty level decomposition approach to decompose the poverty by income sources and investigate the impact of government transfers on income inequality and rural poverty.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper uses the decomposition method of inequality and the decomposition method of poverty level by resource endowments to decompose the overall inequality and the overall poverty by income sources.

Findings

It is found that unequal income distribution rather than income endowments is mainly responsible for the existence of poverty. Government transfers and relief income, aiming at the poor, help alleviate inequality and poverty, but are not targeting the poorest. Unequal distribution of production subsidies actually lead to higher poverty incidence.

Research limitations/implications

This paper has revealed that the poverty issue cannot be resolved with economic development alone if the issues including the inequality in income distribution are not solved. It is important to make government transfers/subsidies pro-poor.

Originality/value

A poverty level decomposition approach is first used to decompose the poverty by income sources in China.

Details

China Agricultural Economic Review, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-137X

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article

Xian Xin, Tun Lin, Xiaoyun Liu, Guanghua Wan and Yongsheng Zhang

The impacts of climate change on agricultural production in the People’s Republic of China’s (PRC) are significant, and differ across regions and crops. The substantial…

Abstract

Purpose

The impacts of climate change on agricultural production in the People’s Republic of China’s (PRC) are significant, and differ across regions and crops. The substantial regional differences will induce changes in agricultural interregional trade pattern. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the climate change impacts on China’s agricultural interregional trade pattern.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper will use the computable general equilibrium (CGE) model to assess the impacts of climate change on the PRC’s agricultural interregional trade flows. The CGE model consists of seven Chinese regions and the rest of the world and six commodities.

Findings

The results indicate that northwest, south, central, and northeast PRC will see increases in the outflows of agricultural products in 2030 and 2050. Conversely, outflows from east, north, and southwest PRC will decrease. Agricultural products handling and transportation facilities need to be repositioned to address the changes in agricultural trade flows.

Originality/value

Studies on the impacts of climate change on the PRC’s agriculture have been increasing. To the best of our knowledge, however, no previous studies have assessed the impacts of climate change on the PRC’s agricultural interregional trade flows. This paper aims to fill this gap in the literature.

Details

China Agricultural Economic Review, vol. 7 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-137X

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here

Abstract

Details

Research on Economic Inequality
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-521-4

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part

Joseph Deutsch, Jacques Silber and Guanghua Wan

This chapter examines the impoverishment process in three South Caucasian states: Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia. It uses the concept of ‘order of curtailment’ of…

Abstract

This chapter examines the impoverishment process in three South Caucasian states: Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia. It uses the concept of ‘order of curtailment’ of consumption expenditures to detect the order of curtailment of expenditures in the Caucasus region. It then suggests computing poverty rates on the basis of a threshold corresponding to the curtailment of a certain number of consumption expenditures categories and compares the poverty rates obtained with those derived from more traditional approaches to the unidimensional measurement of poverty. The empirical illustrations are based on the Caucasus Barometer surveys of 2009 and 2013.

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article

Xian Xin, Tun Lin, Xiaoyun Liu, Guanghua Wan and Yongsheng Zhang

This paper aims to investigate the impacts of climate change on the People's Republic of China's (PRC) grain output using rural household survey data. The paper highlights…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the impacts of climate change on the People's Republic of China's (PRC) grain output using rural household survey data. The paper highlights the regional differences of impacts by estimating output elasticities (with respect to climate change) for different grain crops and different regions.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper uses production function to investigate the responses of grain output to climate variables as well as other traditional input variables. The use of production function approach allows us to do away with the competitive land market assumption as required in the Ricardian approach. The paper will use interaction terms of climate variables and regional dummies to capture the regional differences of climate change impact on grain crops.

Findings

The results indicate that the overall negative climate impacts on the PRC's grain output range from −0.31 to −2.69 percent in 2030 and from −1.93 to −3.07 percent in 2050, under different emission scenarios. The impacts, however, differ substantially for different grain crops and different regions.

Originality/value

This paper addresses the limitations of existing literature by highlighting regional differences and crop varieties using the most recent nationwide rural household survey data. The results indicate pronounced regional differences and crop differences in the impacts of climate changes on PRC's grain output.

Details

China Agricultural Economic Review, vol. 5 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-137X

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article

Luisa Marti, Rosa Puertas and Consuelo Calafat

The purpose of this paper is to study the efficiency and financial situation of Spanish airlines by conducting a comparative analysis of those operating in hubs and those…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the efficiency and financial situation of Spanish airlines by conducting a comparative analysis of those operating in hubs and those that employ the point-to-point system.

Design/methodology/approach

Data envelopment analysis and accounting rates are implemented to do so.

Findings

The results show that hubs do not result in the companies that use them being efficient. Instead, it is the charter, low-cost and private flight operators that best manage their resources.

Originality/value

The study makes a novel contribution to the literature, as there has been no research on Spanish airlines that compares the two types of operators (hubs and point to point).

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 42 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article

Jacques Silber

The purpose of this paper is to aim at taking a closer look at the decline in the inequality of the distribution of four health variables, infant and child mortality…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to aim at taking a closer look at the decline in the inequality of the distribution of four health variables, infant and child mortality, child stunting and underweight, that took place in various Southeast Asian countries during the past 25 years. More specifically its goal is to check the extent to which this decline in health inequality, as well as the overall reduction in infant and child mortality, in child stunting and underweight, affected the poorest wealth quintile of the population of these countries.

Design/methodology/approach

In the first part of the paper the author presents a systematic comparison of the values taken by various consistent measures of the inequality of health attainments and shortfalls for several countries in Southeast Asia and for four health indicators: infant mortality, child mortality, child stunting and underweight. The second part of the paper uses the concept of Shapley decomposition to determine the respective impacts of the decrease in the average value of these health variables and in the inequality of their distribution on the reduction observed for each of these variables in the lowest wealth quintile.

Findings

During the period examined there was an important decline infant and child mortality as well as in child stunting and underweight in all countries of Southeast Asia for which data were available. As far as the poorest wealth quintile is concerned this decline was mostly the consequence of the overall decline in these health variables rather than to the reduction of the inequality of their distribution.

Research limitations/implications

Data were available for only four health variables and for many countries data were available for only one period.

Practical implications

A decline in health inequality should be considered as an important aspect of poverty reduction.

Social implications

Development should not be limited to its economic components. A broader view of development is indispensable.

Originality/value

This study is probably one of the first ones to provide the reader with data on the reduction in health inequality in Southeast Asia as well as on the impact of this decline on the poorest wealth quintile.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 42 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article

Wisdom Dube and Andrew Phiri

– The purpose of this paper is to examine asymmetric co-integration effects between nutrition and economic growth for annual South African data from the period 1961-2013.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine asymmetric co-integration effects between nutrition and economic growth for annual South African data from the period 1961-2013.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors deviate from the conventional assumption of linear co-integration and pragmatically incorporate asymmetric effects in the framework through a fusion of the momentum threshold autoregressive and threshold error correction (MTAR-TEC) model approaches, which essentially combines the adjustment asymmetry model of Enders and Silkos (2001); with causality analysis as introduced by Granger (1969); all encompassed by/within the threshold autoregressive (TAR) framework, a la Hansen (2000).

Findings

The findings obtained from the study uncover a number of interesting phenomena for the South Africa economy. First, in coherence with previous studies conducted for developing economies, the authors establish a positive relationship between nutrition and economic growth with an estimated income elasticity of nutritional intake of 0.15. Second, the authors find bi-direction causality between nutrition and economic growth with a stronger causal effect running from nutrition to economic growth. Lastly, the authors find that in the face of equilibrium shocks to the variables, policymakers are slow to responding to deviations of the variables from their co-integrated long run steady state equilibrium.

Originality/value

In the study, the authors make a novel contribution to the literature by exploring asymmetric modelling in the correlation between nutrition intake and economic growth for the exclusive case of South Africa.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 42 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

Keywords

1 – 10 of 23