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Article
Publication date: 19 November 2019

Guanghua Li, Chuan Chen, Guomin Zhang and Igor Martek

Factors affecting bid/no-bid decisions of international projects are more complex than those of domestic projects. The purpose of this paper is to identify and rank…

Abstract

Purpose

Factors affecting bid/no-bid decisions of international projects are more complex than those of domestic projects. The purpose of this paper is to identify and rank decision factors considered by variously sized Chinese international contractors (CICs) and categorize those groups of factors important to experienced practitioners.

Design/methodology/approach

The analysis of factors identified by a literature review is conducted based on data derived from questionnaire results received from 119 CIC project and bidding managers. The relative importance of factors is measured by mean value and standard deviation. The discrepancy in rank and importance value perceived by variously sized CICs are explored by ranking disparity analysis, non-parametric test and Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient test. Finally, factor analysis is used to categorize the underlying groups of factors considered by CICs.

Findings

In sum, 41 factors are identified through the literature review as having an impact on the bid decision. Significant disparities in ranking and importance are found in several factors, which partially affect the consistency of the ranking of factors perceived between large and small-medium CICs. Ultimately, nine major factors are identified as impacting the bidding decision, with “contractor’s capability” and “country risk of the host country,” being the most important.

Research limitations/implications

The weight of a factor considered in a decision varies across contractors as a function of contractor size. Whether using models or subjective judgment in making decisions, it is beneficial to fully understand the main groups of factors influencing the decision. Vulnerability to country risk emerges as the first criterion accessed in the bid decision.

Originality/value

A comprehensive set of factors is established for CICs, including both general factors common to domestic projects, and international factors unique to international projects. All factors are grouped by inferential analysis from the perspective of contractors, which reveals the underlying mechanism of the bid decision-making process. While the data were collected from CICs, the methodology in exploring factors, along with implications, is determined to be applicable internationally.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. 27 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

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Article
Publication date: 11 May 2010

Wei Cai

The paper aims to explore how the undue state control leads to the weak stock market in China. It analyzes how the undue state control is exerted in some key areas in the…

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Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to explore how the undue state control leads to the weak stock market in China. It analyzes how the undue state control is exerted in some key areas in the Chinese stock market. This paper intends to expand the existing literature in the relationships among law, politics, and economy.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper mainly adopts the exploratory method to analyze the undue state influences. Under some circumstances, comparative study and historical explanation are also adopted.

Findings

The paper suggests that to create a strong stock market and facilitate the development of the listed companies and the whole economy, the state should first release its control on the stock market.

Research limitations/implications

Various fields are contained in a stock market, in most of which the undue state control can be observed. In this paper, only some key ones are explored. Further research on other fields and if possible more first‐hand data are necessary.

Practical implications

This paper not only offers an answer to concerns on the various misconducts in the inefficient Chinese stock market and helps to realize the possible ways out of such dilemma, but also it offers implications for other emerging economies.

Originality/value

The on‐going debate on the role of common‐law versus civil‐law system in the capital market may have ignored the state involvement. This paper indicates that it is the undue state control rather than the legal system that leads to the weak stock market in China.

Details

Journal of Financial Crime, vol. 17 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-0790

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2019

Wanxing Jiang, Ji Li, Haifeng Yan, Hao Li and Mengyuan Chen

The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether, when and how customer orientation may contribute to success in introduction of new products (SINP).

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether, when and how customer orientation may contribute to success in introduction of new products (SINP).

Design/methodology/approach

With a multi-phase and multi-source data collection approach, this study tested the proposed theoretical model by applying multiple regression with SPSS Process Macro.

Findings

Customer orientation positively influences cross-functional integration (CFI), which in turn facilitates SINP; a firm’s new product introduction (NPI) strategy moderates customer orientation–CFI link.

Originality/value

This study empirically tests whether, why and when customer orientation may contribute to SINP. By suggesting the important role of customer orientation in improving SINP, the mediating effect of CFI and the moderating effect of NPI strategy, the current study should enrich the extant literature on customer orientation, CFI and NPI.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 35 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

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Article
Publication date: 6 August 2019

Jingrong Li, Zhijia Xu, Qinghui Wang, Guanghua Hu and Yingjun Wang

The three-dimensional porous scaffold is an important concept in tissue engineering and helps to restore or regenerate a damaged tissue. Additive manufacturing (AM…

Abstract

Purpose

The three-dimensional porous scaffold is an important concept in tissue engineering and helps to restore or regenerate a damaged tissue. Additive manufacturing (AM) technology makes the production of custom-designed scaffolds possible. However, modeling scaffolds with intricate architecture and customized pore size and spatial distribution presents a challenge. This paper aims to achieve coupling control of pore size and spatial distribution in bone scaffolds for AM.

Design/methodology/approach

First, the proposed method assumes that pore size and spatial distribution have already been transformed from the requirements of scaffolds as inputs. Second, the structural characteristics of scaffolds are explicitly correlated with an all-hexahedron meshing method for scaffold design so that the average pore size could be controlled. Third, the highly coupled internal mesh vertices are adjusted based on a random strategy so that the pore size and spatial distribution conform to their respective desired values. Fourth, after the adjustment, the unit pore cell based on a triply periodic minimal surface was mapped into the hexahedrons through a shape function, thereby ensuring the interconnectivity of the porous scaffold.

Findings

The case studies of three bone scaffolds demonstrate that the proposed approach is feasible and effective to simultaneously control pore size and spatial distribution in porous scaffolds.

Practical implications

The proposed method may make it more flexible to design scaffolds with controllable internal pore architecture for AM.

Originality/value

In the control approach, the highly coupled mesh vertices are adjusted through a random strategy, which can determine the moving direction and range of a vertex dynamically and biasedly, thus ensuring the feasibility and efficiency of the proposed method.

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Article
Publication date: 6 November 2017

Shudong Zhou, Wenkui Zhou, Guanghua Lin, Jing Chen, Tong Jiang and Man Li

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impacts of future climate change and the corresponding adaptation activities on grain production and its regional distribution in China.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impacts of future climate change and the corresponding adaptation activities on grain production and its regional distribution in China.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper applied the Chinese Agricultural Policy Analysis model, in combination with the findings from agronomic literature with highly detailed agricultural census data, to conduct equilibrium analysis under alternative impact (seasonal drought and climate warming) scenarios and adaptation scenarios (promoting water-saving irrigation, introducing new varieties, and the integrated) associated with climate change.

Findings

Simulation results indicate that climate change-induced seasonal drought and the resulting yield reduction will incur substantial losses to China’s grain production (by ~8 percent at a national scale). The application of water saving techniques can be an effective solution to seasonal drought. Introducing new varieties will increase the combination of promoting water-saving irrigation and new variety adoption will increase combination of promoting water-saving irrigation and new variety adoption constitute an effective approach to offsetting the negative effects of climate change on grain production.

Research limitations/implications

Simulation results indicate that climate change-induced seasonal drought and the resulting sown area reduction will incur substantial losses to China’s grain production by approximately 8 percent, despite farmers’ adaptation activities of switching from water use-intensive crops to drought-tolerant crops to mitigate this negative effect. The application of water saving techniques is an effective solution to seasonal drought; it can lead to a nationwide increase in the sown area by 3.48 percent and in the grain production by 4.15 percent. Introducing new varieties will increase grain outputs and change the spatial distribution of crop production across the country. The combination of promoting water-saving irrigation and new variety adoption will increase the national grain production by 19.6 percent, and thus constitute an effective approach to offsetting the negative effects of climate change on grain production.

Originality/value

Results from this study provide practical implications formulate strategies in response to climate change. Central government should reinforce the policies such as new varieties promotion and improve the subsidy method to guide the introduction of new varieties.

Details

China Agricultural Economic Review, vol. 9 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-137X

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Article
Publication date: 2 November 2021

Huimin Li, Limin Su, Jian Zuo, Xiaowei An, Guanghua Dong, Lunyan Wang and Chengyi Zhang

Unbalanced bidding can seriously imposed the government from obtaining the best value for the taxpayers' money in public procurement since it increases the owner's cost…

Abstract

Purpose

Unbalanced bidding can seriously imposed the government from obtaining the best value for the taxpayers' money in public procurement since it increases the owner's cost and decreases the fairness of the competitive bidding process. How to detect an unbalanced bid is a challenging task faced by theoretical researchers and practical actors. This study aims to develop an identification method of unbalanced bidding in the construction industry.

Design/methodology/approach

The identification of unbalanced bidding is considered as a multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) problem. A data-driven unit price database from the historical bidding document is built to present the reference unit prices as benchmarks. According to the proposed extended TOPSIS method, the data-driven unit price is chosen as the positive ideal solution, and the unit price that has the furthest absolute distance measure as the negative ideal solution. The concept of relative distance is introduced to measure the distances between positive and negative ideal solutions and each bidding unit price. The unbalanced bidding degree is ranked by means of relative distance.

Findings

The proposed model can be used for the quantitative evaluation of unbalanced bidding from a decision-making perspective. The identification process is developed according to the decision-making process. The finding shows that the model will support owners to efficiently and effectively identify unbalanced bidding in the bid evaluation stage.

Originality/value

The data-driven reference unit prices improve the accuracy of the benchmark to evaluate the unbalanced bidding. The extended TOPSIS model is applied to identify unbalanced bidding; the owners can undertake objective decision-making to identify and prevent unbalanced bidding at the stage of procurement.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

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Article
Publication date: 30 June 2020

Lucy Sojung Lee and Weiguo Zhong

This paper aims to investigate the importance and prevalence of Guanxi in business interactions in network-based societies such as China, few studies have the phenomenon…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the importance and prevalence of Guanxi in business interactions in network-based societies such as China, few studies have the phenomenon from a dyadic view. In a business dyad, one partner may not value Guanxi and take it as a template for actions as the other does.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors propose that such collective and asymmetric Guanxi orientation influence both the creation and distribution of relational rent in a Guanxi dyad. Furthermore, relationship-specific investments (RSIs) moderate the relationship between dyadic Guanxi orientation and relational rent creation and distribution.

Findings

Based on a matched sample of supplier-buyer dyads in China, the authors find that joint Guanxi orientation is positively related to joint pie creation, whereas Guanxi orientation imbalance has a positive effect on the pie distribution imbalance.

Originality/value

These results contribute to the literature by revealing how dyadic Guanxi dynamics and practices affect dyadic performance and providing managers with meaningful implications for dyadic Guanxi management.

Details

Chinese Management Studies, vol. 15 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-614X

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Article
Publication date: 2 February 2015

Linxian Ji, Chong Wang, Shouxu Wang, Wei He, Dingjun Xiao and Ze Tan

The purpose of this paper is to optimize experimental parameters and gain further insights into the plating process in the fabrication of high-density interconnections of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to optimize experimental parameters and gain further insights into the plating process in the fabrication of high-density interconnections of printed circuit boards (PCBs) by the rotating disc electrode (RDE) model. Via metallization by copper electrodeposition for interconnection of PCBs has become increasingly important. In this metallization technique, copper is directly filled into the vias using special additives. To investigate electrochemical reaction mechanisms of electrodeposition in aqueous solutions, using experiments on an RDE is common practice.

Design/methodology/approach

An electrochemical model is presented to describe the kinetics of copper electrodeposition on an RDE, which builds a bridge between the theoretical and experimental study for non-uniform copper electrodeposition in PCB manufacturing. Comsol Multiphysics, a multiphysics simulation platform, is invited to modeling flow field and potential distribution based on a two-dimensional (2D) axisymmetric physical modeling. The flow pattern in the electrolyte is determined by the 2D Navier–Stokes equations. Primary, secondary and tertiary current distributions are performed by the finite element method of multiphysics coupling.

Findings

The ion concentration gradient near the cathode and the thickness of the diffusion layer under different rotating velocities are achieved by the finite element method of multiphysics coupling. The calculated concentration and boundary layer thicknesses agree well with those from the theoretical Levich equation. The effect of fluid flow on the current distribution over the electrode surface is also investigated in this model. The results reveal the impact of flow parameters on the current density distribution and thickness of plating layer, which are most concerned in the production of PCBs.

Originality/value

By RDE electrochemical model, we build a bridge between the theoretical and experimental study for control of uniformity of plating layer by concentration boundary layer in PCB manufacturing. By means of a multiphysics coupling platform, we can accurately analyze and forecast the characteristic of the entire electrochemical system. These results reveal theoretical connections of current density distribution and plating thickness, with controlled parameters in the plating process to further help us comprehensively understand the mechanism of copper electrodeposition.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 41 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

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Article
Publication date: 7 November 2018

Guoqun Fu, Yang Li and Xianzheng Fei

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the evolution of wedding-related consumption of urban families in China during the past 50 years.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the evolution of wedding-related consumption of urban families in China during the past 50 years.

Design/methodology/approach

This study used qualitative and quantitative approaches to collect and analyse data from 157 families in China. Data collection occurred through semi-structured interviews and questionnaire surveys.

Findings

The findings are as follows: average wedding expenses per family have increased, mainly as a result of the substantial growth of indirect wedding costs; the percentage of total wedding expenses represented by direct costs pertaining to the ritual is trending downwards; the percentage of total wedding expenses borne by the groom’s family is much higher than that borne by the bride’s family, and the gap is enlarging; the proportion of newlyweds living with parents was more than 50 per cent in the 1970s and 1980s, decreased to 10 per cent in the 1990s and began slightly increasing again after 2000.

Research limitations/implications

The authors used signal investment theory to explain the fact that the groom’s family bears more of the wedding expenses than the bride’s family does, but more evidences are needed to verify the theory.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the understanding of evolution of wedding consumption of urban families in China, as well as how social and economic factors influence wedding consumptions in different ages, an area with limited previous research. The authors also propose signal investment theory as an alternative explanation to current wedding consumption theories to justify the phenomenon.

Details

Journal of Contemporary Marketing Science, vol. 1 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2516-7480

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Article
Publication date: 27 May 2014

Siguang Li and Xi Weng

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the optimal allocation of authority within “chain” organizations and to show when partial centralization becomes dominant in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the optimal allocation of authority within “chain” organizations and to show when partial centralization becomes dominant in the sense of organizational performance.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper takes an incomplete contract approach and uses an information transmission framework to investigate the optimal governance structure, in which non-contractible decisions must be adapted to local operating conditions, and also coordinated with the upstream and downstream divisions. We also use simulation analysis to numerically show the theoretical mapping between the underlying parameters (i.e. coordination need) and the dominant organizational structures.

Findings

Partial decentralization will arise as the optimal governance structure only when the information in the middle branch is relatively concentrated or dispersive, so as to exploit the underlying information structure in the “chain” organizations. Specifically, when information is highly concentrated, direct control of the middle branch can improve coordination within firms. When the information is highly dispersive, to delegate authority to the middle branch only can improve communication.

Originality/value

This paper characterizes the optimal governance structure in “chain” organizations. The findings may give some enlightenment on real authority driven by ex ante asymmetric information structures and have implications on asymmetric delegation within firms.

Details

Nankai Business Review International, vol. 5 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8749

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