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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2003

Gry Agnete Alsos, Elisabet Ljunggren and Liv Toril Pettersen

This exploratory study combines three theoretical approaches to investigate why farmers start additional business activities: the rural sociology perspective, the…

Abstract

This exploratory study combines three theoretical approaches to investigate why farmers start additional business activities: the rural sociology perspective, the opportunity perspective and the resource‐based perspective – as applied within entrepreneurship research. Building on in‐depth interviews of respondents from Norwegian farm households, three types of entrepreneurs were identified: the pluriactive farmer, the resource exploiting entrepreneur and the portfolio entrepreneur. These entrepreneurial types differed in regard to their basic motivation and objectives for start‐up, the source of their business ideas, the basis of competitive position and the connectivity between the new business and the farm, as well as in several other ways.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 10 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

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Article
Publication date: 23 September 2013

Gry Agnete Alsos, Elisabet Ljunggren and Ulla Hytti

The purpose of this article is to present a framework for research on gender and innovation. The framework is developed based on a review of the current literature in the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this article is to present a framework for research on gender and innovation. The framework is developed based on a review of the current literature in the area; it is applied to provide a context for the articles in this special issue and to offer suggestions for future research.

Design/methodology/approach

The article relies on a literature review of gender and innovation. Additional literature searches on Scopus were conducted to provide an overview of the area. In addition, comparative analogies are sought from research fields of gender and entrepreneurship as well as gender and technology.

Findings

The article presents the scope and issues in the current research on gender and innovation. Based on the overview, research in this area is conducted in various disciplines applying a variety of methodological approaches. In order to make sense of the current research, the paper developed a framework consisting of various approaches to, gender and innovation; these include gender as a variable, construction and process and innovation as a result, process and discourse.

Research limitations/implications

Based on the review, several recommendations for future research are made. First, future research should question the connection between technology and innovation and purposefully seek innovation activity also in low-tech and service sectors and firms. Innovation scholars and policy makers should not primarily target radical and product innovations but should be equally interested in incremental and process innovations. Second, understanding women's innovation activity needs to be embedded in understanding the normative frames and structural factors at play. A particular theoretical call is linked to the study of power and innovation. Third, it is imperative to develop and apply new methodological approaches and new operationalizations of innovation and innovators.

Practical implications

By focusing on gender and innovation, it is possible to discover innovation as a gender biased phenomenon. Policy makers should bear this in mind when developing innovation policies.

Social implications

An understanding of innovation literature and innovation policy as gender biased has important social implications. Discovering gendered structures is important to further develop gender equal societies. Further, innovation may be hampered by biases in the understanding of the concept, including gender biases.

Originality/value

This introductory article puts forward a framework on gender and innovation that helps to make sense of the current state-of-the-art and to develop new research questions that need to be addressed for further theorising within the field.

Details

International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, vol. 5 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-6266

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Article
Publication date: 23 September 2013

Malin Rönnblom and Britt-Inger Keisu

This paper utilizes the concept of innovation as a form of methodological starting-point in order to analyse the gendered meanings of marketization in Swedish…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper utilizes the concept of innovation as a form of methodological starting-point in order to analyse the gendered meanings of marketization in Swedish universities. The purpose of the paper is to scrutinize how the concept of innovation is produced in Swedish universities, and how these versions of innovation are gendered and related to different understandings of gender equality.

Design/methodology/approach

The analysis departs from a critical perspective to studies of gender equality and is anchored in a critical policy analysis approach – the “what's the problem represented to be? Approach” developed by Bacchi. This approach is used in the analysis of interviews with top-level leaders at two Swedish universities and how they perceive innovation. The results are related to a governmentality framework in order to explain the gendered innovation discourse in academia.

Findings

One of the main results is that innovation is represented in a broad way when discussed at a more abstract level. However, when the discussion becomes more concrete and also related to a gendered understanding of the researchers actually turning their research results into innovations, this broad representation of innovation shrinks. The analysis also shows how a governmentality framework both explains the inevitability of innovation and the difficulties of working for political change for women in the academy.

Originality/value

In analysing innovation as produced instead of taken for granted, this article puts forward a critical understanding of innovation, both in relation to gender and to the inevitability of de-politicisation processes of the neo-liberal audit culture in academia.

Details

International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, vol. 5 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-6266

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Article
Publication date: 30 May 2008

Odd Jarl Borch, Anniken Førde, Lars Rønning, Ingebjørg Kluken Vestrum and Gry Agnete Alsos

This paper aims to focus on the role of the community entrepreneur and the process of community entrepreneurship. It seeks to emphasize the social context as critical for…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to focus on the role of the community entrepreneur and the process of community entrepreneurship. It seeks to emphasize the social context as critical for gaining access to the resources needed by a community venture and elaborates on the action pattern of the community entrepreneur towards raising critical resources from the environment.

Design/methodology/approach

The analysis is based on a longitudinal field study of community entrepreneurs in four Norwegian rural municipalities. The data consists of interviews, observations, and documents.

Findings

Community entrepreneurs create local arenas and thereby facilitate cooperative entrepreneurial action, through bridging social capital. The actors are part of these community contexts and are involved in a range of reciprocal relations. Thus, the actors' creative practices toward the community have to run parallel with the resource configuration process.

Research limitations/implications

Future studies may provide a broader empirical platform in different communities, and take part in the process for a longer time period. One may also develop comparative studies focusing on the basic resource platform, the action pattern, and the performance of the different social ventures.

Practical implications

A major finding is that government support should be flexible and develop tools “tailored” to the characteristics of the rural communities. The combined resources of the entrepreneurs, social networks, and more formal institutions create more ambitious results.

Originality/value

The paper contributes to the field of entrepreneurship by studying community entrepreneurs and their entrepreneurial ventures. Further, an integration of a resource configuration approach and a practice‐oriented approach gives an increased understanding to the community venture creation process.

Details

Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, vol. 2 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6204

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Article
Publication date: 23 September 2013

Seppo Poutanen and Anne Kovalainen

This article provides an analysis of the gendering process in product innovation. Interwoven into this process is the encapsulation of a token position. The article…

Abstract

Purpose

This article provides an analysis of the gendering process in product innovation. Interwoven into this process is the encapsulation of a token position. The article expands and deepens the tokenism theory through a discussion of gender in the innovation process. The article draws from recent and classical theories of gender, ranging from gendering approaches to Acker's theory of gendered organisations and processes within organisations, and Moss Kanter's tokenism theory. The main objective of the article is to address this gap in the tokenicsm discussion and introduce a new concept of “processual tokenism”.

Design/methodology/approach

The article builds on an intensive single case study and uses a narrative methodology and approach in the analysis of the data of the case in question. The primary data used in the narratives consist of interview data. The article also uses documents and reports as secondary data in the narrative construction. The approach used is theoretical, interpretative and qualitative.

Findings

The article provides a detailed narrative of the intertwined nature of the gender position in an organisation and the invention process. One of the outcomes is that the gendering of a product is triggered by tokenism, and that gendering of a product can be interpreted also as a deliberate and successful process. The article contributes to the tokenism theorizing.

Research limitations/implications

The limitations of the article may relate to the specificity of the innovation process in chemical industry that are different to other industrial fields.

Practical implications

The article does not have direct practical implications.

Originality/value

The article contributes to the theory of tokenism by providing an updated and extended version of tokenism and naming it as “processual tokenism”. Furthermore, the article contributes to the debates on gendered organisations by focusing on gendering through tokenism and the persistence of male dominance. Finally, the article contributes to gender theories by introducing the idea and analysing of how the gendering of a product innovation takes place.

Details

International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, vol. 5 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-6266

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Article
Publication date: 23 September 2013

Katarina Pettersson and Malin Lindberg

Various studies indicate that men and certain masculinities are ascribed a normative role in innovation policies and innovation networks. This article aims to analyse…

Abstract

Purpose

Various studies indicate that men and certain masculinities are ascribed a normative role in innovation policies and innovation networks. This article aims to analyse which feminist approaches have been used in order to articulate and perform resistance to the hegemonic “masculinist” discourses on innovation, applying the concept of paradoxical space coined by Rose. The paper specifically focuses on Swedish gender and innovation research and development (R&D) projects, as Sweden has been depicted as progressive in the theoretical and practical development of this field.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper analyses feminist approaches used in the “margin to the mainstream” of innovation R&D. The analysis is conducted on research and evaluation – where the authors have been involved as “outsiders within”. The empirical material is gathered through literature searches and interviews.

Findings

The paper concludes that three approaches to feminist resistance, outlined by Rose, are used in the analysed material: movements between the centre and margin; reaching beyond representation and definition, and paradoxical spaces used as separatism. A fourth approach – using paradoxical space for recognising differences in terms of, for example, “race”, class and sexuality – is mainly lacking in the material, except in a few cases. The theoretical contribution lies in clarifying and delineating the occurrence of different approaches to the application of a gender perspective on innovation R&D, and in highlighting the implication for gendered innovation discourses in policy, research and practice.

Practical implications

Implications based on the analysis include the need for applying different approaches to feminist resistance against the masculinist central discourse on innovation, since different approaches are able to perform resistance against the different aspects of the masculinist discourses. The findings indicate that policy support and specific calls in the field of gender and innovation are necessary for the development of this field. Further, policy support should enable various approaches to feminist resistance.

Originality/value

The article contributes by providing an overview of programs, projects and studies concerning gender and innovation R&D in Sweden – thus delineating the forefront of the scientific and practical field of gender and innovation. It also links feminist theories to practical efforts, identifying different approaches to feminist resistance towards a masculinist central discourse on innovation.

Details

International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, vol. 5 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-6266

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Article
Publication date: 23 September 2013

Björn Remneland Wikhamn and David Knights

This paper aims to illustrate how open innovation is implemented in practice in a large multinational corporation and to discuss how masculine discourses of rational…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to illustrate how open innovation is implemented in practice in a large multinational corporation and to discuss how masculine discourses of rational control and competition are reinforced during such a process.

Design/methodology/approach

An exploratory single case study approach has been employed. Qualitative empirical data (interviews and documents) are derived from a four year longitudinal research project on open and distributed innovation processes in the automotive industry.

Findings

Masculinity enters the discourse of open innovation through prescribed classical management ideals in line with auditing and bureaucratisation. The paper illustrates how these masculine discourses are reproduced rather than challenged by open innovation. It also highlights how the preoccupation with control and conquest tends to silence alternative (feminine) discourses which could otherwise enrich the radical and creative features of the open innovation paradigm.

Research limitations/implications

The paper is suggesting that the potential disruptive force in the open innovation paradigm tends to be watered down when appropriated by classical managerial ideals. It shows how difficult it is for managers to incorporate alternative (feminine) discourses when acting within a strong masculine hegemony.

Practical implications

The open innovation paradigm leans on aspects such as “openness”, “collaboration”, “creativity” and “intuition” – much in line with feminine discursive connotations. But when masculine norms govern the company setting, these alternative modes of organising tend to be either marginalised or appropriated and transformed in ways that ensure they are compatible with discourses and practices of masculinity.

Originality/value

This study provides insights into how discourses of masculinity play out and manifest themselves in the management of the firm. By doing so, it challenges the underlying and often uncritical assumptions of open innovation's disruptive force on contemporary managerial practice.

Details

International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, vol. 5 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-6266

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Article
Publication date: 27 September 2011

Gry Agnete Alsos, Ulla Hytti and Elisabet Ljunggren

Using stakeholder theory the paper seeks to investigate how technology incubators manage and balance the expectations of stakeholders, and the effect on the shaping of…

Abstract

Purpose

Using stakeholder theory the paper seeks to investigate how technology incubators manage and balance the expectations of stakeholders, and the effect on the shaping of technology incubators and their chances of success.

Design/methodology/approach

Incubator programmes have been introduced with multiple goals. A case study is conducted in order to examine stakeholders based on their power to influence, the legitimacy of the relationship and the urgency of claim, and how incubators deal with stakeholder expectations.

Findings

Incubator management involves balancing a complex set of conflicting goals. Expectations are interdependent, hierarchically organised, and involve sub‐processes related to different stakeholders. Goals are not fitted to an operational context. Consequently, suboptimal solutions are chosen to balance and fulfil expectations sufficiently to ensure survival. Three strategies to balance stakeholder expectations are identified.

Research limitations/implications

The stakeholder theory approach adopted shows how incubators manage the expectations of their various stakeholders, and so may explain why studies on incubator performance produce diverse results.

Practical implications

The effectiveness of incubators is difficult to assess due to multiple, and often moving, targets. There is a great risk that incubators aim for the goals that are easiest to measure and focus on short‐term results. Social returns of incubators can be reduced if incubator managers choose suboptimal solutions to balance the demands of different stakeholders.

Originality/value

Rather than accepting normative assumptions, the paper contributes to the critical analysis of the technology incubator ideal. Through stakeholder analysis the paper demonstrates how incubators are shaped by the struggle to balance conflicting goals.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 17 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

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Article
Publication date: 23 September 2013

Lene Foss, Kristin Woll and Mikko Moilanen

This paper uses a combination of organisation theory, gender theory and the work environment to study the generation and implementation of new ideas in organisations. How…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper uses a combination of organisation theory, gender theory and the work environment to study the generation and implementation of new ideas in organisations. How do employees' perceptions of organisational structure and the work environment affect idea generation and implementation, and how does gender moderate this relationship?

Design/methodology/approach

The study develops and tests a structural equation model using data from a survey of a large Norwegian energy corporation. Survey items are measured using five-point scales and show good internal consistency levels. Exploratory factor analyses are used to ensure internal consistency, and confirmatory factor analyses are used to assess the fit of the model. Convergent and discriminant validity tests are also performed. Common method bias and invariance are evaluated across the female and male samples.

Findings

The theoretical model had a better fit for the male sample than the female sample, indicating that men's innovations were better captured than women's. The relationship between creativity and implementation is moderated by gender: women's ideas are not implemented to the same degree as men's. Work pressure has a positive effect on creativity; support from colleagues affects both idea generation and implementation, though support from managers does not.

Research limitations/implications

The study has the usual limitations of cross-sectional surveys. The findings confirm that the two phases of the innovation process (idea generation and implementation) depend on similar intrinsic motivational factors in the work environment. However, implementing ideas also depends on decision-making authority.

Practical implications

Managers should be aware of how to increase innovative potential among employees. Employees should be given decision-making authority and work in an environment with supportive colleagues. The gendered findings in the study indicate that more attention should be paid to women's innovations in male-dominated corporations.

Originality/value

The study integrates research from disciplines that traditionally do not communicate into one theoretical framework to explore the conditions for employee-driven innovation. The findings highlight the need for developing gender-neutral innovation measures and understanding context-embedding innovation processes.

Details

International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, vol. 5 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-6266

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 23 March 2012

Abstract

Details

International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, vol. 4 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-6266

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