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Article
Publication date: 1 September 1998

Seleshi Sisaye

Contingency models have enabled researchers to develop system‐based decision‐making approaches to organizational studies. Two contingency decision‐making models ‐ rational…

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2487

Abstract

Contingency models have enabled researchers to develop system‐based decision‐making approaches to organizational studies. Two contingency decision‐making models ‐ rational and political choice ‐ have been applied to identify those organizational characteristics and strategic leadership qualities associated with acquisitive growth through “absorption” and “diversification”. A study of the International Telephone and Telegraph Company (ITT) organizational growth strategies from 1920 to 1997 reveals that senior managers adopt the rational decision‐making model when organizational growth through acquisition involves absorption, and the political model when organizational growth calls for diversification. A contingency historical study of ITT demonstrates two important periods in ITT’s organizational life cycles ‐ one of growth (1920‐early 1970s) and one of consolidation/stability (from mid‐1970 to the present time). Contingency models indicate that differences in organizational growth strategies arise due to differences in environmental factors characterizing each period as organizations pass through several stages of growth in their life cycles.

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Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 19 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

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Article
Publication date: 7 April 2015

Stephen K. Callaway and Sandeep B. Jagani

An organization’s entrepreneurial orientation will relate directly to its efficiency strategies, market development strategies (growth), and its product development

Abstract

Purpose

An organization’s entrepreneurial orientation will relate directly to its efficiency strategies, market development strategies (growth), and its product development strategies (innovation). A firm will develop appropriate strategic control systems according to these chosen strategies. In order to be competitive and balance efficiency, growth and innovation strategies, the purpose of this paper is to discuss the most appropriate strategic controls to implement these strategies.

Design/methodology/approach

The eight variables under study were measured using 22 psychometric survey items obtained from responses of 101 FDIC-registered banks.

Findings

The results show a more entrepreneurial orientation is associated with an efficiency strategy, a market development strategy, and a product development strategy. The efficiency strategy was not associated with formal controls, contrary to expectations. A market development strategy was associated with formal rules, but was not found to be associated with formal targets. Finally, product development strategies was associated with all four strategic control archetypes.

Research limitations/implications

The limitation of this study is that, it only examined banking institutions, and did not consider long-term financial performance implications. This paper supports and extends current research pertaining to company key success factors. Success requires effectively balancing cost reduction objectives, growth objectives, and innovation objectives, in order to achieve sustainable competitive advantage. A more entrepreneurial orientation necessitates a focus on innovation, traditional growth patterns, as well as cost cutting.

Originality/value

This paper demonstrates that an organization’s entrepreneurial orientation will relate directly to its efficiency, growth, and innovation strategies. Also, it finds the most effective strategic controls to implement these strategies.

Details

American Journal of Business, vol. 30 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1935-5181

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1976

JAMES A. HANSON

The Leading Sector interpretation of development originates from the observation that all multisectoral economies exhibit a certain degree of intersectoral…

Abstract

The Leading Sector interpretation of development originates from the observation that all multisectoral economies exhibit a certain degree of intersectoral interdependence, through either the incomes generated in each sector and the corresponding final demand for other products, or through interindustry relations. The sectors in such an economy grow at different rates, as determined by the product of the appropriate income elasticities of demand and the overall growth rate, the latter factor being the weighted sum of the sectoral rates. However in a stagnant economy, as opposed to a dynamic one, even the fastest growing sectors are undynamic. To increase the overall growth rate, the foremost proponents of the leading strategy— Hirschman and Currie—recommend an increase in the growth rate of a few, key, potentially dynamic sectors; then the rest of the economy will be pulled along through the intersectoral relations.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

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Article
Publication date: 3 April 2009

Martine Spence and Dave Crick

In the past decade, research on rapidly internationalizing firms, commonly referred to as “international new ventures” (INVs), has mainly focused on their inception phase…

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1191

Abstract

Purpose

In the past decade, research on rapidly internationalizing firms, commonly referred to as “international new ventures” (INVs), has mainly focused on their inception phase and relatively little is known of what becomes of these firms after this period in respect of their international marketing strategies. The purpose of this paper is therefore to gain insights into how management teams within small INVs assess international opportunities and develop appropriate international marketing strategies.

Design/methodology/approach

The approach employed involves interviews with key respondents in five small, independently owned firms that have a significant percentage of turnover overseas.

Findings

The paper identifies that specific types of knowledge are related to growth strategies as are perceptions of market potential and the management team's vision.

Practical implications

The results of this study provide further understanding of patterns of internationalization and more specifically that foreign market knowledge can be acquired in various ways and allows firms to become more highly committed to some remote markets much earlier than previously anticipated. This understanding could help policy‐makers to provide more targeted and relevant support to INVs.

Originality/value

Both planned and unplanned activities are evident in the research suggesting international marketing growth is not as strategically planned as a good deal of earlier research suggests.

Details

Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, vol. 12 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-2752

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 1994

Sam McClell

Global competition has forced downsizing and restructuring, producing ashortage in many organizations′ managerial talent base. This deficit hashighlighted an important…

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5241

Abstract

Global competition has forced downsizing and restructuring, producing a shortage in many organizations′ managerial talent base. This deficit has highlighted an important need to integrate management development into the competitive strategy formulation process. However, many organizations lack the commitment to adopt the concepts of strategic management development (SMD), fail to understand fully its long‐term value, and/or lack the knowledge to take the steps necessary to develop it as a component of their competitive strategy. Presents a conceptual framework for adopting and integrating SMD into the competitive strategy formulation process as a means for ensuring the continued availability of trained and experienced managers. Stressing the need for the realignment of resources, a rethinking of organizational culture, and the need to shift focus from individual to organizational growth, it emphasizes that SMD will provide the catalyst for the organization to anticipate change, expand channels of communication, provide for a more effective allocation of human resources, and promote “people‐involvement”.

Details

Journal of Management Development, vol. 13 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0262-1711

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Article
Publication date: 9 January 2009

Dharmendra Dhakal, Gyan Pradhan and Kamal P. Upadhyaya

The purpose of this paper is to examine the economic development strategies of Nepal and Bhutan to understand the economic factors that have contributed to economic growth.

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1325

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the economic development strategies of Nepal and Bhutan to understand the economic factors that have contributed to economic growth.

Design/methodology/approach

After a brief discussion of each country's modern history, their economies are examined together with their development strategies during the past half century. Standard economic growth models for Nepal and Bhutan are developed and estimated. To ensure the stationarity of the data series, tests of unit root are conducted. Further, a cointegration test is conducted and an appropriate error‐correction model is developed.

Findings

The results of the estimations reveal that domestic capital has been a significant source of economic growth in Nepal whereas foreign aid has not had any appreciable effect on growth. In the case of Bhutan, foreign assistance has been a significant source of growth while domestic capital has not.

Research limitations/implications

Bhutan and Nepal also differ in terms of non‐economic factors such as culture, language, politics, and religion. These factors may also help to explain the difference in economic performance of these countries. While important, these issues are beyond the scope this paper and indicate directions for further research.

Originality/value

It is one of the first attempts to compare the economic growth strategies of Nepal and Bhutan. It may provide useful insight to policymakers and others interested in economic growth in Nepal, Bhutan and other developing countries.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 36 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2010

S.N.‐A. Mensah and E. Benedict

The purpose of this paper is to determine the major long‐term role that hands‐on entrepreneurship training could play in poverty alleviation and job creation in one of the…

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8649

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to determine the major long‐term role that hands‐on entrepreneurship training could play in poverty alleviation and job creation in one of the poorest regions of South Africa – the Eastern Free State (EFS). This is done against a background of frequently occurring violent protests against the inadequacy of the government's hand‐out poverty alleviation strategy of social grants, free houses and free social services.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper uses desk research and quantitative analysis of survey data collected from the Phuthaditjhaba area of Qwaqwa in the EFS.

Findings

The poverty indicators confirm the accepted view of the Free State as one of the poorest provinces in South Africa, which makes Qwaqwa, the poorest part of the Free State, a real human plight. While government hand‐out poverty alleviation measures, with their unintended consequences of violent protests and demonstrations, may only help some of the poor in the short term, training in entrepreneurship and provision of other facilities could give poor owners of micro and small enterprises (MSEs) opportunities to grow their businesses and get themselves and other out of poverty. Furthermore, as a result of a huge communication gap, MSE operators in Phuthaditjhaba, the commercial hub of Qwaqwa, do not even know of government agencies charged with the responsible of assisting small business operators in the area. Though they lack the finance and other endowments required to grow their businesses, the experience has given MSE operators some ideas about the kind of assistance that may help in this regard and even make it possible for them to provide employment for others – finance, government support, infrastructure and premises, training, etc.

Practical implications

As shown by the findings of a study sponsored by the Maluti‐A‐Phofung local municipality, there is potential for growth of small businesses in many areas of the EFS economy. Training of survivalist entrepreneurs and other poor persons with potential could open their eyes to opportunities around them which they could take advantage of to improve their economic situation and that of other poor persons in the area through job creation.

Originality/value

In addition to highlighting the shortcomings of the current poverty alleviation strategy of the South African Government, this is the first study that brings entrepreneurship training to the fore in the fight against poverty in the EFS.

Details

African Journal of Economic and Management Studies, vol. 1 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-0705

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Article
Publication date: 4 January 2021

Ahmad Reza Jafarian-Moghaddam

The financial resources limitation, the difficult conditions for entry into the market and the lack of sufficient funds are the most important problems facing Iranian…

Abstract

Purpose

The financial resources limitation, the difficult conditions for entry into the market and the lack of sufficient funds are the most important problems facing Iranian small and medium enterprises (SMEs). For these reasons, this paper aims to propose an appropriate methodology for formulating the most influential Iranian SMEs development strategies to make it possible to grow and make more income. Then, a framework is developed to precisely determine the target market for Iranian SMEs.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper uses strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) analysis; Pareto principle and analysis of the market conditions to propose the development strategies and uses a methodology based on multicriteria decision-making (MCDM) method to determine the target market.

Findings

According to the research results, it is necessary for the Iranian SMEs to follow the brand strengthening, product and market development, enhancing product quality and creating research and development units strategies focusing on the domestic market. The results obtained from the empirical study also indicated that the customer acquisition rate improved from 0.06 to 0.13 per month, and the company's income has a 64% growth in 2016 than the year 2015 through the selection of some public customers as the target market.

Originality/value

Very few studies have been done so far on the formulation methodology of a market entry strategy for SMEs. Studies by researchers imply that no studies have been conducted in Iran in this regard. International studies also mainly focus on the impact of some marketing activities.

Details

International Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Finance and Management, vol. 14 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8394

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Article
Publication date: 15 August 2019

Regis Musavengane, Pius Siakwah and Llewellyn Leonard

The purpose of this paper is to question the extent to which Sub-Saharan African cities are progressing towards promoting pro-poor economies through pro-poor tourism…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to question the extent to which Sub-Saharan African cities are progressing towards promoting pro-poor economies through pro-poor tourism (PPT). It specifically examines how African cities are resilient towards attaining sustainable urban tourism destinations in light of high urbanization.

Design/methodology/approach

The methodological framework is interpretive in nature and qualitative in an operational form. It uses meta-synthesis to evaluate the causal relationships observed within Sub-Saharan African pro-poor economies to enhance PPT approaches, using Accra, Ghana, Johannesburg, South Africa, and Harare, Zimbabwe, as case studies.

Findings

Tourism development in Sub-Saharan Africa has been dominantly underpinned by neoliberal development strategies which threaten the sustainability of tourism in African cities.

Research limitations/implications

The study is limited to three Sub-Saharan African countries. Further studies may need to be done in other developing countries.

Practical implications

It argues for good governance through sustainability institutionalization which strengthens the regulative mechanisms, processes and organizational culture. Inclusive tourism approaches that are resilient-centered have the potential to promote urban tourism in Sub-Saharan African cities. These findings contribute to the building of strong and inclusive Institutions for Sustainable Development in the Sub-Saharan African cities to alleviate poverty.

Social implications

These findings contribute to the building of strong and inclusive institutions for sustainable development in the Sub-Saharan African cities to alleviate poverty.

Originality/value

The “poor” are always within the communities, and it takes a community to minimise the impact of poverty among the populace. The study is conducted at a pertinent time when most African government’s development policies are pro-poor driven. Though African cities provide opportunities of growth, they are regarded as centres of high inequality.

Details

International Journal of Tourism Cities, vol. 5 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-5607

Keywords

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