Search results

1 – 10 of over 11000
To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 7 September 2015

Jianying Wang, Kevin Z. Chen, Sunipa Das Gupta and Zuhui Huang

The farm size-productivity relationship has long been the subject of debate among development economists. Few studies address this issue for China, and those that do only…

Abstract

Purpose

The farm size-productivity relationship has long been the subject of debate among development economists. Few studies address this issue for China, and those that do only with outdated data sets poorly representing the current situation after the past decade of rapid change, which includes the rapid development of land rental markets, village labor out-migration and use of farm machines. Meanwhile, many studies have researched this relationship for Indian, which is undergoing similar changes except for the development of active land rental markets. The purpose of this paper is to measure the farm size-productivity relationship under the situations of rapid transformation in China and India.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on the data of 325 Jiangxi and 400 Allahabad rice farmers in 2011, the survey covered multiple plots of each household in one/multiple growing season(s). The authors use the production function approach and the yield approach, and control for farmland quality, imperfect factor markets, and farm size measurement error, to identify the farm size-productivity relationship.

Findings

The regressions show that land yields increase with plot size both by season and over the year in China. This may be one of the reasons that farm sizes are growing in some areas. In India, however, the inverse farm size-productivity relationship is observed by the study, despite recent changes. Moreover, land yields increase with farm machine use in both China and India. This result contributes to the debate over whether mechanization improves yields or just expands the land frontier.

Originality/value

The paper empirically estimates the farm size-productivity relationship under rapid agrarian transformation in both China and India based on a unique data set collected by the authors in a detailed primary survey. The paper considers measurement error in the analysis, which adds values to this type of analysis.

Details

China Agricultural Economic Review, vol. 7 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-137X

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 2 February 2015

Manuela Ender and Ruyuan Zhang

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the efficiency of temperature-based weather derivatives (WD) in reducing risk exposure for Chinese agriculture industry. Therefore…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the efficiency of temperature-based weather derivatives (WD) in reducing risk exposure for Chinese agriculture industry. Therefore, a put option with cumulated growing degree days as its underlying index is assumed to be bought by farmers as a risk management instrument to prevent income fluctuations from adverse temperature conditions.

Design/methodology/approach

The objective of this paper is to analyze the efficiency of temperature-based WD in reducing risk exposure for Chinese agriculture industry. Therefore, a put option with cumulated growing degree days as its underlying index is assumed to be bought by farmers as a risk management instrument to prevent income fluctuations from adverse temperature conditions.

Findings

The results of the efficiency tests show that temperature-based put options are efficient in offsetting yield shortfalls for rice and wheat in China. The weather-yield models have a high prediction power in explaining yield variation by temperature.

Research limitations/implications

The de-trending procedure for the weather-yield model should be improved to distinguish better between technology progress, human activities and influence of weather. Further, more advanced models could be used for the pricing.

Practical implications

The findings of the paper support the launch of WD as an efficient risk management tool for agriculture in China. Compared with traditional damage-based insurance, WD are more flexible, have lower transactions costs and avoid moral hazard or adverse selection.

Originality/value

The efficiency problem of WD has not been analyzed sufficiently worldwide and especially not for developing countries like China where a large proportion of the population works as farmers. This paper supports to fill this gap.

Details

China Agricultural Economic Review, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-137X

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 25 July 2011

Carl E. Pray, Latha Nagarajan, Jikun Huang, Ruifa Hu and Bharat Ramaswami

Since the 1980s agricultural biotech investments by the public sector have increased substantially in both China and India. In the last two decades there has also been a…

Abstract

Since the 1980s agricultural biotech investments by the public sector have increased substantially in both China and India. In the last two decades there has also been a dramatic increase in private section investment in agricultural biotechnology particularly in India. The promise of major benefits of Bt cotton identified in early socioeconomic studies of Bt cotton has proven to be true. Bt cotton has spread to at least 66% and 85% of total cotton areas of China and India, respectively – wherever bollworm is a major problem. Bt cotton continues to control bollworm in both countries, and farmers continue as major beneficiaries rather than biotech or seed companies. The major impacts have been yield increases in India and reduced pesticides consumption in China. In China, evidence also suggests that Bt cotton has suppressed the bollworm population so that non-Bt cotton growers and producers of other crops that are susceptible to bollworm are also benefitting.

The chapter also provides evidence that in the near future Bt rice and Bt eggplant could have major positive impacts by reducing pesticide use and farmers’ exposure to chemical pesticides and increasing yields. Both crops were approved for commercial production by government biosafety regulators, but are not yet available for commercial cultivation.

Details

Genetically Modified Food and Global Welfare
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-758-2

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 9 April 2019

Yibekal Abebe Tessema, Jonas Joerin and Anthony Patt

The geographical range of agricultural crops is shifting because of climate change. Reducing the potential negative impact of this shift requires efficient crop switching…

Abstract

Purpose

The geographical range of agricultural crops is shifting because of climate change. Reducing the potential negative impact of this shift requires efficient crop switching at farm level. Yet there are scant studies that examine how crop switching is currently taking place and what factors facilitate the process. Even these few existing studies often based their analysis on inadequately established causal link between climate change and switching decisions. This study aims to identify the specific switching decisions that are primarily motivated by climate change, and their determinants.

Design/methodology/approach

The study used a household survey on 190 households in Semien Shewa Zone in Ethiopia. Subjective rating of farmers was used to identify the relative importance of climate change in motivating the different types of switching decisions. A logit model is used to identify determinants of crop switching decisions primarily motivated by climate change.

Findings

Farmers in the study area are currently abandoning certain crops as a response to climate change. The adoption of new crops is, however, mainly attributed to price changes. Most farmers who abandoned at least one crop adopted mung bean mainly due to its price advantages. As expected, crop switching as an adaptation strategy is more prevalent particularly in drier and hotter agroecologies. The logit model showed that crop switching is strongly correlated with land size and agroecology.

Originality/value

This paper provides an in-depth examination of crop switching as an adaptation strategy to climate change. Crop switching is an adaptation strategy that is expected to substantially reduce the damage from climate change in agriculture. The findings are particularly relevant for adaptation planning in the context of smallholder agriculture.

Details

International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-8692

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 7 November 2016

Lijuan Zhang, Jinxia Wang, Guangsheng Zhang and Qiuqiong Huang

The purpose of this paper is: to track the methods by which farmers access groundwater for irrigation in the North China Plain (NCP); to explore whether climate factors…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is: to track the methods by which farmers access groundwater for irrigation in the North China Plain (NCP); to explore whether climate factors influence farmers’ decisions on the methods of groundwater access for irrigation; and to examine whether the amount of groundwater use for irrigation and crop yield systematically differ across groups of farmers using various methods of groundwater access, and how climate factors affect them.

Design/methodology/approach

Descriptive statistical analysis and econometric models are used on household survey data collected over several years and county-level climate data.

Findings

Over the past few decades, a significant share of farmers have switched the methods of groundwater access from collective tubewells to own tubewells or groundwater markets. Farmers who bought water from groundwater markets applied less water to wheat plots than those who had their own tubewells. However, wheat yield was not negatively affected. Both average climate conditions and long-term variations were found to be related to farmers’ choice of methods of groundwater access for irrigation. More frequent droughts and increasingly volatile temperatures both increased the likelihood of farmers gaining groundwater irrigation from markets.

Originality/value

The analysis results suggest farmers are using groundwater markets to help them adapt to climate change. Applying empirical analysis to identify the impact of the methods by which farmers access groundwater for irrigation on the amount of groundwater use and crop yield will help policy makers design reasonable adaptation policies for the NCP.

Details

China Agricultural Economic Review, vol. 8 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-137X

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 29 August 2017

Asif Reza Anik and Siegfried Bauer

In Bangladesh, the fertilizer market is the main source of corruption in the agriculture sector. Market imperfection allows the input dealers to extract extra benefit from…

Abstract

In Bangladesh, the fertilizer market is the main source of corruption in the agriculture sector. Market imperfection allows the input dealers to extract extra benefit from the market through selling fertilizer at higher than government declared price, and the benefit is positively correlated with market restriction. Bribery or unauthorized payment in the fertilizer market negatively affects farm profit. Empirical evidence shows that restricted fertilizer markets encourage corruption, as bribe-paying farmers can acquire their required fertilizer and thus operate at a higher efficiency level than their counterparts who do not pay bribes. Alternatively, in markets where sufficient supply is available and farmers face liquidity constraints, corruption further restricts farmers to collecting their optimal input bundle and ultimately reduces efficiency. Nepotism and negligence of duty are the two most common form of corruption in the extension service. Along with identifying several key causes of corruption, this article suggests some interventions to combat corruption.

Details

The Handbook of Business and Corruption
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-445-7

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 6 February 2020

Jeremy Galbreath, Daniel Tisch, Mohammed Quaddus and Fazlul Rabbanee

The purpose of this study was to test the effects of climate change, as manifested in both temperature and rainfall changes, on adaptive practices in a sample of wine…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to test the effects of climate change, as manifested in both temperature and rainfall changes, on adaptive practices in a sample of wine firms operating in South Australia. Given that firms’ adaptation to the external environment can be advanced through effective internal learning systems, a further purpose was to explore the moderating effect of absorptive capacity.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors used a survey as well as secondary sources to collect data. Regression analysis was used to test the hypotheses. To test the robustness of the results, alternative measures of temperature and rainfall changes were used.

Findings

By studying 207 wine firms, the analysis suggests that climate change is significantly and positively associated with adaptive practices. Further, as hypothesized, absorptive capacity positively moderates both relationships.

Research limitations/implications

The use of a single industry in a specific location limits the generalizability of the results. Implications suggest that when the effects of climate change are considered the natural environment might be accorded salient stakeholder status. Further, when absorptive capacity is high, firms appear to adapt to climate change at a greater rate, suggesting that internal learning systems are important.

Originality/value

This is one the few studies in the business literature that considers the effects of actual physical changes in the natural environment on firm behaviour. Further, the paper is one of the few to incorporate natural stakeholder-based theory as a means of exploring climate change. The research paves the way for future studies of responses to such changes.

Details

International Journal of Wine Business Research, vol. 32 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1751-1062

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 20 August 2016

Susan Albers Mohrman, Sally Breyley Parker, Lorelei Oriel Palacpac and Cameron Wilk

Applying concepts from the theory of complex adaptive systems, we investigated the emergence over time of a local foods system that embodies values of traditional…

Abstract

Purpose

Applying concepts from the theory of complex adaptive systems, we investigated the emergence over time of a local foods system that embodies values of traditional agriculture and the preservation of the earth and its biodiversity, community, and equitable access to food. The purpose was to learn, from this place-based transformation, the process of self-organization that can underpin a transition from an unsustainable food system primarily based on values of wealth creation to one where resources are used in a sustainable manner.

Methodology/approach

The local foods system of Northeast Ohio was examined through interviews with key agents in the system at three points in time ranging from 2007 to 2016, and through the collection of archival data chronicling various aspects of the system. Qualitative data were coded and analyzed in a multi-dimensional manner that focused on variation and interaction (exchange of resources) of agents through time.

Findings

The system has evolved to be increasingly complex both in numbers and kinds of agents. Collective agency has enabled increased capacity in the system to address the diverse purposes of participants. Yet in this self-organizing system, securing resources for longer term, collective focuses required to advance the local food system has proved to be a challenge.

Originality/value

This longitudinal and qualitative approach shines a light on how common and diverse purposes shape the unfolding of complex social systems with expanded capabilities.

Details

Organizing Supply Chain Processes for Sustainable Innovation in the Agri-Food Industry
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-488-4

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 April 1983

Orville L. Freeman and Ruth Karen

By the year 2,000 the world's population will total six billion persons. They will have to coexist on a planet where resources are limited, however ingenious man's use of…

Abstract

By the year 2,000 the world's population will total six billion persons. They will have to coexist on a planet where resources are limited, however ingenious man's use of them may be. Facing these facts, some planners are considering seriously the concept of triage, under which some sections of the earth, and the people living in them, are written off because it seems impossible to save them and still maintain a sustainable society for the rest of the planet. The triage concept is touted as the hardheaded ability to set priorities. However, we find this attitude morally repugnant, socially indefensible, politically dangerous, and economically irrational.

Details

Planning Review, vol. 11 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0094-064X

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 January 1992

Abimbola Y. Sangodoyin

Examines the potential for excessive crop uptake of nutrients, soilmineralization, and response of livestock to the usage of Ogunpa Stream,Ibadan, Nigeria. A number of…

Abstract

Examines the potential for excessive crop uptake of nutrients, soil mineralization, and response of livestock to the usage of Ogunpa Stream, Ibadan, Nigeria. A number of surface water and soil samples were collected from the Ogunpa and small irrigated farms near the stream for physico‐chemical examination. Results show that the stream is suitable for irrigated agriculture but not for aquaculture and livestock breeding especially in the middle reaches. The added nutrients accumulated in the cultivated layer of the soil. There was some evidence of migration of some elements down from the cultivated layer. The potential hazard for pollution caused by irrigating with the polluted water threatens crop and vegetables grown on adjacent farms as well as groundwater of the nearby area. This may seriously affect the consumers. It is recommended that residents around the stream become aware of how to reduce the pollution level.

Details

Environmental Management and Health, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0956-6163

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 11000