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Book part
Publication date: 27 June 2015

Emmanuel M. Kalargiros and Michael R. Manning

This chapter attempts to elucidate the important role that divergent thinking plays in organizational creativity, innovation, and change. We define brainstorming as a…

Abstract

This chapter attempts to elucidate the important role that divergent thinking plays in organizational creativity, innovation, and change. We define brainstorming as a systematized method of divergent thinking, review this literature, and advocate for the strategic use of brainstorming to enhance creativity and innovation. We identify contradictory findings in the research literature that have led practitioners and researchers to disregard brainstorming techniques. We suggest that cultural forces embedded in organizations may prevent divergent thinking and brainstorming from becoming established normative organizational processes, thus hampering organizations’ potential for change and innovation. The chapter closes by putting divergent thinking and brainstorming in perspective and provides guidelines for its use.

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Research in Organizational Change and Development
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-018-0

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Article
Publication date: 9 March 2012

Daniel Boduszek, Gary Adamson, Mark Shevlin and Philip Hyland

Social Identity Theory proposes that identity and thinking style are strongly related. Research also suggests that the process of depersonalization is responsible for…

Abstract

Purpose

Social Identity Theory proposes that identity and thinking style are strongly related. Research also suggests that the process of depersonalization is responsible for shifting from personal identity to social identity and assimilating group attitudes. The purpose of this study is to investigate the nature of personality in the relationship between criminal social identity and criminal thinking style.

Design/methodology/approach

The Measure of Criminal Attitudes, the Measure of Criminal Social Identity, and The Eysenck Personality Questionnaire was administrated to a sample of recidivistic male prisoners with learning difficulties (n=312).

Findings

Sequential moderated multiple regression analyses indicated the unique main effect of extraversion, psychoticism, in‐group affect, and in‐group ties on criminal thinking style. In terms of the moderating role of personality, the in‐group affect was more strongly associated with criminal thinking for low levels of extraversion, whereas high levels of extraversion moderated the positive relationship between in‐group ties and criminal thinking style.

Originality/value

The findings provide the first empirical support for the moderating role of personality in the relationship between criminal identity and criminal thinking style of offenders with learning difficulties.

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2005

Ingrid Bonn

Following a multilevel approach, the purpose of this paper is to develop a framework of strategic thinking, which integrates the micro‐domain's focus on individuals and…

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9578

Abstract

Purpose

Following a multilevel approach, the purpose of this paper is to develop a framework of strategic thinking, which integrates the micro‐domain's focus on individuals and groups with the macro‐domain's focus on organisations.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper first defines strategic thinking, outlines its elements and examines some of the conceptual issues surrounding the construct, especially those concerning levels of analysis. The following questions are addressed. What are the characteristics of an individual strategic thinker? What are the dynamics that take place within groups and how do they influence strategic thinking? What are the contributions of the organisational context to strategic thinking?

Findings

Strategic thinking at the individual level is discussed in terms of diversity in representational systems. Strategic thinking at the group level looks at heterogeneity and conflict. Strategic thinking within the organisational context examines middle management involvement, the role of organisational structure, and reward and compensation systems.

Practical implications

The paper may help senior managers to develop practical interventions for improving strategic thinking in their organisations. This includes the design of appropriate selection, recruitment and development strategies as well as paying attention to group and organisational level factors that create the enabling conditions for the individual characteristics associated with strategic thinking to be utilised.

Originality/value

The paper outlines a theoretical framework of strategic thinking that integrates previous fragmented research from a number of areas and disciplines into a more comprehensive theory of strategic thinking. It represents an important antecedent to strategic decision making and may provide a key to a better understanding of organisational change phenomena and, ultimately, organisational performance and survival.

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Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 26 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

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Book part
Publication date: 11 September 2012

Marie-France Daniel, Mathieu Gagnon and Jean-Charles Pettier

The questions at the origin of this chapter are: Are children aged 5 years able to become involved in a critical thinking process, which implies a certain degree of…

Abstract

The questions at the origin of this chapter are: Are children aged 5 years able to become involved in a critical thinking process, which implies a certain degree of abstraction and decentering? To what extent can an approach centered on philosophical dialogue among peers contribute to this development? The chapter describes a study of the exchanges in two groups of children aged 5 years. One group had experience with the philosophical dialogue tool, the Philosophy for Children approach, while the other group had no such experience. The analysis grid was the operationalized model of the developmental process of dialogical critical thinking, as revisited by Daniel and Gagnon, which includes four thinking modes (logical, creative, responsible, and metacognitive) and six epistemological perspectives (egocentricity, post-egocentricity, pre-relativism, relativism, post-relativism, intersubjectivity). Results of the analysis showed that 65% of the experimental group's interventions were situated in relativistic perspectives and 35% in egocentric perspectives, whereas 60% of the control group's interventions were situated in egocentric perspectives and 40% in relativistic perspectives.

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Early Education in a Global Context
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-074-1

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Book part
Publication date: 9 November 2009

Elaine M. Wong, Laura J. Kray, Adam D. Galinsky and Keith D. Markman

A growing literature has recognized the importance of mental simulation (e.g., imagining alternatives to reality) in sparking creativity. In this chapter, we examine how…

Abstract

A growing literature has recognized the importance of mental simulation (e.g., imagining alternatives to reality) in sparking creativity. In this chapter, we examine how counterfactual thinking, or imagining alternatives to past outcomes, affects group creativity. We explore these effects by articulating a model that considers the influence of counterfactual thinking on both the cognitive and social processes known to impact group creative performance. With this framework, we aim to stimulate research on group creativity from a counterfactual perspective.

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Creativity in Groups
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-583-3

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Article
Publication date: 11 April 2016

Mamta Tripathi and Bharatendu Nath Srivastava

The purpose of the paper is to develop a theoretical framework with testable propositions discussing the role of counterfactual thinking in fostering accurate…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the paper is to develop a theoretical framework with testable propositions discussing the role of counterfactual thinking in fostering accurate decision-making in groups and preventing catastrophes, being mediated by information searching, sharing, task conflict and conflict management mechanisms, moderated by task complexity, cognitive complexity, cognitive closure and tolerance of ambiguity.

Design/methodology/approach

A theoretical framework is formulated and propositions are postulated involving independent, mediating, moderating and dependent variables.

Findings

This paper recommends a helpful framework for understanding of how counterfactual thinking affects information searching, sharing and decision-making accuracy in groups, thereby preventing catastrophes.

Practical/implications

The proposed framework might be of assistance in managing complex group decision-making and information sharing in organizations. Decision-makers may become aware that activating counterfactual mind-set enables them to search for critical information facilitating accurate decision-making in groups leading to catastrophe prevention.

Originality/value

This paper adds value to the field of counterfactual thinking theory applied to group decision-making. Moreover, the paper provides a novel framework for group decision-making which sheds light on pertinent variables, which can either ameliorate or exacerbate the accuracy of decision-making by information searching and sharing in groups under varying context of high/low task complexity. The ramifications of task conflict, conflict management mechanisms, team diversity and size are explored alongside the moderating role of cognitive complexity, cognitive closure and tolerance for ambiguity.

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International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 27 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

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Article
Publication date: 19 June 2007

T. Martin Ringer

The intention of this paper is: first, to raise awareness in organizations of the ubiquitous nature of thinking in teams and informal groups; second, to provide the reader…

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Abstract

Purpose

The intention of this paper is: first, to raise awareness in organizations of the ubiquitous nature of thinking in teams and informal groups; second, to provide the reader with conceptual tools for understanding the subtle dynamics of “team‐level” thinking; and third, to offer some practical suggestions to leaders and consultants on ways of actively working to increase the quality of collective thinking in work places.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is largely theoretical and extends current theory about the utilization of knowledge and intelligence in teams and organizations.

Findings

The four core elements to effective collective thinking are proposed as: shared clarity of purpose; emotionally and psychologically mature functioning on the part of key players; the necessity for psychologically safe “thinking spaces”; and shared responsibility for building, maintaining and utilizing the thinking space. It is further proposed that many essential influences on collective thinking exist outside the usual limits of awareness – that is, they occur as unconscious processes – and so developing powerful collective thinking requires that attention be paid to symbolic, non‐rational and intuitive patterns in teams and organizations.

Practical implications

The paper provides theoretical and practical frameworks that enable members of organizations directly address factors influencing the quality of collective thinking in the systems in which they are involved.

Originality/value

The fresh contribution of this paper is largely that it integrates intuitive, subtle and unconscious dynamics with rational logical principles so as to create powerful new principles to enable leaders and consultants to enhance organizational effectiveness.

Details

Team Performance Management: An International Journal, vol. 13 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7592

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1995

Charles C. Manz and Christopher P. Neck

Self‐managing teams have been credited with many positive payoffs.These include increased quality, productivity, employee quality of worklife, and decreases in absenteeism…

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5587

Abstract

Self‐managing teams have been credited with many positive payoffs. These include increased quality, productivity, employee quality of work life, and decreases in absenteeism and turnover. Significant attention has been devoted to the actual benefits derived from these group applications. What is typically lacking is exploration of the road‐blocks to self‐managed team success. Examines an important challenge to SMT success – the threats that groups face when making decisions. Notable evidence indicates that cohesive groups (such as self‐managing teams) tend to create internal pressures towards conformity that interfere with constructive critical analysis and ultimately lead to dysfunctional decisions. The term groupthink has been coined for this process that threatens effective group decision making. Addresses this challenge in some detail. In particular, proposes a new effective group condition – teamthink – a group decision‐making process that enables groups to make effective decisions while avoiding the pitfalls of groupthink.

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Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

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Article
Publication date: 5 August 2014

John E. Ettlie, Kevin S. Groves, Charles M. Vance and George L. Hess

The purpose of this paper is to validate cognitive style (i.e. linear, nonlinear, and balanced thinking) with innovation intentions and behaviors. It was hypothesized that…

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1522

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to validate cognitive style (i.e. linear, nonlinear, and balanced thinking) with innovation intentions and behaviors. It was hypothesized that a balanced linear/nonlinear thinking style and the inclination toward more innovative intentions are strongly related.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey questionnaire of business students in the USA and France was employed. Formally validated measures of thinking style and innovation were replicated in this project.

Findings

The results of an analysis of 186 respondents found a significant, direct relationship between balanced thinking style and innovative intention and behavior measures.

Research limitations/implications

The results demonstrate that cognitive style and innovation are related, but the direct validation of actual innovative behaviors, in situ, needs to be included in the next step of this research stream. Further, the composition of groups can also be evaluated using these measures.

Practical implications

This is the first successful attempt to validate cognitive style measures with innovation outcome measures. These measures are now available for organizational testing, field research, and assessing team composition.

Originality/value

This is one of the first criterion-validity assessments of a cognitive measure related to linear and nonlinear thinking style. There are two important implications of these results. First, the authors now have a better understanding of one the links between cognition and innovation. Second, the authors have established a solid base for future research on this subject, including the importance of this effect in practice.

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European Journal of Innovation Management, vol. 17 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1460-1060

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1998

Vivienne Baumfield and Iddo Oberski

Presents findings from a case study of the implementation of three different thinking skills programmes ‐ Somerset Thinking Skills, Instrumental Enrichment and Philosophy…

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2215

Abstract

Presents findings from a case study of the implementation of three different thinking skills programmes ‐ Somerset Thinking Skills, Instrumental Enrichment and Philosophy for Children, in year seven of an inner city secondary school. Focuses on the perceptions of the teachers involved and explores the extent to which teacher perceptions affected implementation. An understanding of teachers’ perceptions is important if effective training and support is to be provided and the problem of poor implementation of thinking skills programmes is to be addressed. Analysis of teacher perceptions will also contribute to our understanding of why a particular programme is chosen and the extent to which the needs of the teacher are consistent with its aims. Findings of the study reaffirm the difficulty experienced teachers face when attempting to develop new skills and highlight the problems presented by the lack of immediate, concrete outcomes from a thinking skills lesson. Identifies teachers’ planning and perceptions of what constitutes group work as areas deserving further research and notes the importance of the presentation of thinking skills materials for the teachers using them.

Details

Quality Assurance in Education, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0968-4883

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